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Nutrition Chapter 13: Pregnancy
Terms in this set (34)
what are six things that you can do to prepare before pregnancy?
1. achieve and maintain a healthy body weight
2. choose an adequate and balanced diet
3. be physically active
4. receive regular medical care
5. manage chronic conditions
6. avoid harmful influences
where does the placenta develop?
in the uterus
what in the uterus surrounding the fetus is used as a conduit?
the amniotic fluid
what are six characteristics of the placenta?
1. it develops in the uterus
2. expelled during childbirth
3. metabolically active organ
4. supplies depot and waste removal system for the fetus
5. blood containing waste and blood containing nutrients never mix
6. influences lactation
how is the placenta a metabolically active organ?
it requires energy and nutrients and produces hormones
how long is the term "embryo" used?
for eight weeks
what is the fetal period?
months 2-9 of pregnancy
what is the gestation duration?
what are critical periods?
periods of time specific to the development of specific organs
what is a high risk pregnancy?
risk factors that increase the chances of premature delivery, difficult birth, birth defects, and early infant death. requires prenatal medical care
what are seven factors that contribute to a "high risk" pregnancy?
1. maternal weight
2. maternal nutrition
3. socioeconomic status
4. lifestyle habits
6. previous pregnancies
7. maternal health
what are three ways to acquire energy while pregnant?
1. increase in basal metabolic rate (BMR)
2. food energy
3. essential fatty acids
why is folate an important nutrient during pregnancy?
it helps prevent neural tube defects (NTDs)
why is vitamin B12 an important nutrient during pregnancy?
it assists folate in the maintenance of new cells
what are examples of neural tube defects?
1. anacephaly (brain either missing or fails to develop)
2. spina bifida (incomplete closure of the spinal cord and its bony encasement)
why is choline important during pregnancy?
1. it maintains the structural integrity of cell membranes
2. it synthesizes an important neurotransmitter
3. metabolizes lipids
why are vitamin D and calcium important in pregnancy?
they are necessary for fetal bone growth and tooth development, and vitamin D plays a role in calcium absorption
why is iron important during pregnancy?
1. it helps increase blood volume
2. fetal absorption increases in second and third trimesters
regarding iron, all women are advised to consume what pertaining to iron?
1. foods containing heme iron
2. additional sources of iron
3. foods that enhance iron absorption
why is zinc important in pregnancy?
it is vital for protein synthesis and cell development
what is the expected weight gain for someone who is underweight?
28 to 40lbs
what is the expected weight gain for someone who is of normal/healthy weight?
25 to 30 lbs
what is the expected weight gain for someone who is overweight?
15 to 25lbs
what is the expected weight gain for someone who is obese?
11 to 20lbs
how much weight can mom expect to gain in the first trimester?
3.5 lbs, and 1 lb per week afterwards
what are 6 components of weight gain in pregnancy?
5. fluid volume
true or false? most weight is lost at delivery. Why or why not?
false. more weight loss occurs in weeks that follow. this is because the blood volume returns to normal and the body expels accumulated fluids
true or false? there are increased chances of weight retention and weight gain in the following years
how can cumulative weight gain be avoided?
by being a healthy weight before pregnancy
what are four benefits of physical activity on labor?
1. improves fitness
2. facilitates labor
3. helps prevent or manage gestational diabetes
4. reduces psychological stress
what are four common nutrition-related concerns during pregnancy?
2. constipation and hemorrhoids
4. food cravings and aversions
what are three characteristics of food cravings and aversions during pregnancy?
1. they do not reflect physiological needs
2. they are caused by hormone-induced changes in taste and sensitivities to smell
3. some pregnant women respond by eating nonfood items (pica)
what are two factors that influence breastfeeding and its success
2. adequate nutrition and rest
how does nutritional needs change during lactation?
recommendations increase for carbohydrates and fibers
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