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Anatomy 2 Final
Questions from all previous test
Terms in this set (195)
Which is the correct order from most abundant to least abundant leukocytes?
Neutrophils, lymphocyte, monocyte, eosinophil, basophil
Which statement about iron is incorrect?
Iron can be stored in the kidney
If a person has neither of the ABO antibodies in their blood, what is that individuals ABO blood type?
Usually the first at the site of an infection
The water-insoluble protein found in a blood clot is
The intrinsic pathway of hemostasis
takes longer to complete than the extrinsic pathway
If someone had a cut in their skin through which a bacterium entered, but that bacterium was then destroyed by a neutrophil , this would be an example of
failed external innate immunity, but successful internal innate immunity
Antigen presentation involves the display of an antigen
on the surface of a cell so that a T-lymphocyte can be exposed to it
MHC class II molecules present peptide fragments that are either "self" or fragments that are "nonself;" in either case, the fragment becomes bound to the molecule while
in an antigen-presenting cell
Activation of lymphocytes typically occurs in
secondary lymphatic structures
If T-lymphocytes that failed the negative selection test were not destroyed, the immune system would likely
cause autoimmune disorders
The first stimulation of helper T-lymphocyte activation involves
CD4 of the helper T-cell binding with MHC class II of the APC
Immunity can be transferred from mother to child. When the child's immunity is acquired through the placenta or breastmilk it is
Which valve prevents the backflow of blood into the left atrium from the left ventricle?
What is the sequence of events in the transmission of an impulse through the heart muscle?
SA node, atria, AV node, AV bundle, bundle branches, purkinje fibers, and ventricles
During the plateau phase of a cardiac muscle cell's action potential:
Which of the following would cause a decrease in cardiac output?
an increase in afterload
The plateau phase of an action potential
allows for cardiac muscle to contract and then relax without locking up
Upon activation, a T-lymphocyte
proliferates to form clones and memory cells.
Which type of cell responds to multiple different antigens?
Natural killer cells
What are considered the effectors of humoral immunity?
The clumping of foreign cells that occurs when antibodies cross-link their antigens is known as
When they leave the red bone marrow, pre T-lymphocytes have
both the CD4 and CD8 proteins
Once a cytotoxic T cell becomes active it interacts with infected cells and can specifically destroy the infected cell through apoptosis by means of secreting
What are characteristics of type A blood?
has anti-B antibodies, has surface antigen A, will agglutinate with blood type B
How many oxygen molecules may bind to a single molecule of hemoglobin?
The temperature of blood is
higher than the average body temperature
Prostacyclin is an eicosanoid that acts as a
What are characteristics of leukocytes?
have a nucleus, no hemoglobin, and may or may not contain granules
The reason is it more appropriate to call a erythrocyte a formed element is because it
lacks a nucleus and organelles
Order of the lymphatic passageway from smallest to largest in diameter
capillaries, vessels, trunks, and ducts
Which area does not contain MALT?
A. Urinary tract
B. respiratory tract
C. Reproductive tract
D. Gastrointestinal tract
No exceptions; all choices contain MALT
The storage site for erythrocytes within the spleen is the
Which part of the thymic lobule contains mature lymphocytes?
The strucutral network of lymphatic tissue is composed of
reticular connective tissue
B-lymphocytes could be located in all of the following except:
A. lymph nodes
Lymphatic nodules filter
whatever is in the area
Just prior to atrial contraction,
all four chambers are at rest and the AV valves are open
When the AV valves are closed, the pressure in the _______ is greater than the pressure in the
During isovolumetric contraction, the AV valves are ______ and the semilunar valves are
Starting with atrial contraction and ventricular filling, put the following steps to the cardiac cycle in order:
1. Ventricular ejection
2. Isovolumentric contraction
3. Isovolumetric relaxation
4. Atrial relaxation and ventricular filling
2, 1, 3, 4
Coincides with atrial depolarization
Because of this event, the ventricles relax
This would occur directly before the ventricular plateau
The SA node triggers this event
The AV node would trigger this event
All of the following are secondary lymphatic organs except
All of the following are functions of lymph except
production of immunoglobulins and fibrinogen
The thymus is most active furing
infancy and childhood
Lymph transport depends on _______________, like skeletal muscles
movement of adjacent tissues
The spleen filters
The red pulp in the spleen contains
During red blood cycle recycling _________ is converted to bilirubin.
Virtually all of the protein or biogenic-based hormones exert their effects through
Reduced hormone concentration in the blood often causes target cells to
up-regulate receptors in order to increase sensitivity
Lipid-soluble hormones, such as progesterone, exert their effects by forming hormone-receptor complexes that
bind to DNA and initiate transcription
Endocrine glands secrete __________ into the bloodstream, where they travel to specific sites called
hormones, target tissues
All of the following are true about growth hormone except:
GH release increases with age
The ability of a specific tissue or organ to respond to the presence of a hormone is dependent on
the presence of the appropriate receptors on the cells of the target tissue
Insulin is produced by
The hypothalamus communicates with the posterior pituitary by using _________ and with the anterior pituitary using
The majority of the pancreas is responsible for
The foramen ovale of the fetal heart is an opening in the
The lubb (S1) heart sound is the
AV valves closing
The volume of blood in the ventricles at the end of ventricular filling is referred to as
Acetylcholine (ACh) would have what effect on the heart?
less depolarizations per minute
The parasympathetic system decreasing the hearts normal SA node pace
when the ventricular wall full contracts, the aortic semilunar valve opens because
the pressure in the ventricle is greater than the pressure in the aorta
A patient is given a drug to block calcium channels in cardiac muscle. This drug causes:
decreased cardiac output
Which is not true regarding the cell to cell contacts of the cardiac muscle cells?
The junction between cardiac muscle cells has a sarcoplasmic reticulum.
During a cardiac cycle, how many of the four chambers contract at any one time?
________ is released by the adrenal cortex during times of stress to increase nutrient levels in the blood
Erythropoietin targets the
Which of the following long-lived formed elements does not arise from a myeloid stem cell?
__________ of coagulation begins with damage inside a blood vessel
Which of the cell functions are paired correct?
A. eosinophil - first to the site of injury
B. basophil - increase with parasitic infections
C. neutrophil - increase with allergic reactions
D. monocytes - phagocytize large numbers of pahtgoens
Of the following, which respiratory structure has the largest diameter?
B. respiratory bronchiole
C. terminal bronchiole
The terms upper respiratory system and lower respiratory system are __________ categorizations of the respiratory system
The parietal pleura
covers the inner surface of the thoracic cavity
The trachea is lines with
pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium
Which cartilaginous structure prevents the entry of food into the trachea during swallowing?
Which of the following is characteristic of the trachea?
C-shaped cartilage rings
As the diameters of the conducting passages decrease, which of the following is observed?
The walls of the passages contain more smooth muscle
Keri was practicing her gymnastics floor exercise while chewing gum. During an attempt at a new flip, she accidentally inhaled the gum. Where did the gum probably lodge?
right primary bronchus
fever inducing molecules
antibody that is primarily found in areas exposed to the external environment
antibody that can participate in all types of antibody actions and makes up to 75-85% of antibodies in the blood
cells that perform immune surveillance patrolling the body to detect unhealthy cells
natural killer cells
a process by which cells migrate along a chemical gradient
often released by a virus-infected cell to prevent the spread of an infection
T-lymphocytes are responsible for
a. promote inflammation
b. activate macrophages
c. kill target cells
d. promote t cell proliferation
all the above
all of the following are examples of the second line of defense except
antibodies that act against a foreign substance are released by
Thrombocytes are pieces of larger cells called _______ and function in ________
Which of the following is true of the left ventricle?
The left ventricle generates a greater force of contraction than the right ventriclce
During isovolumetric contraction
all valves are closed
During ventricular ejection, the ______ is being ejected from the heart through the _____ valves
stroke volume, semilunar valves
After atrial contraction, the next stage of the cardiac cycle is
Intercalated discs are found in
both skeletal and cardiac muscle
Place the following in chronological order for the propagation of the cardiac action potential that causes the cardiac cycle.
1. Purkinje fibers
2. SA node
3. right and left bundle branches
4. AV bundle
5. AV node
2, 5, 4, 3, 1
The plateau phase of cardiac muscle contractions
leads to a long refractory period which prevents tetany in the myocardium
Which of the following correlations between cardiac contractions and EKG waves is correct?
ventricular systole begins after the QRS complex appears
Are composed primarily of a tunica interna (intima) layer
Some of the fluid that leaks out of a capillary of the arteriole end of the capillary is not reabsorbed back into the capillary. This extra fluid is absorbed by the
The lymphatic system's two main functions are to assist in:
immunity and fluid balance
Originate as close-ended tubes associated with blood capillary networks
The force that drives fluid into lymphatic capillaries is
hydrostatic pressure in the interstitial space
The path that fluid takes as it enters a lymphatic capillary is through
spaces between capillary endothelial cells that are arranged as one way flaps
Tonsils have multiple invaginated outer edges called ________ that help trap material
What would be the route taken by lymphatic vessels in the right leg to the bloodstream?
right lumbar trunk, thoracic duct, left subclavian vein
Of the following statements, which are true:
1. thryotropin-releasing hormone is released from the anterior pituitary to triger the release of thyroid hormone from the thyroid gland.
2. The thyroid gland produces more T4 than T3 but T3 is more active.
3. Colloid is important for the production of thyroid hormone.
2 and 3
Compared to the nervous system, the endocrine system has
more widespread and long-lasting effects
Protein hormones typically exert their action by
finding the appropriate cell surface receptor
Insulin hormone release depends on blood levels of glucose. Such an endocrine reflex is said to be initiated by:
Capillaries where the endothelial cells form an incomplete lining are _______
pressure occurs when the ventricles contract
When the blood flows through two capillary beds before being sent back to the heart, that is termed a:
Decrease in heart rate will _______ blood pressure
Increase in vessel length will __________ blood pressure
Decrease in arteriole diameter will _____ blood pressure
Increase in blood volume will __________ blood pressure
Decrease in blood viscosity will _______ blood pressure
The pericardial cavity is between the
visceral and parietal layers of the serous pericardium
The left coronary artery directly gives arise to the
The function of the coronary sinus is to
take blood from the coronary circulation to the right atrium
The muscular ridges on the walls of the atria are the
Blood from the pulmonary veins is ______ and returns to the _______
oxygen rich, left atrium
Which action leads to the closure of the pulmonary semilunar valve?
relaxation of the right ventricle
The pulmonary trunk receives blood from the heart and conducts it towards the lungs. The trunk is an
All of the following statements about nodal cells are true except:
nodal cells contract upon depolarization
Blood passing through the tricuspid valve will immediately enter the
When the atria contract
the pressure from the atria pushes blood through the open AV valves
returns oxygen-depleted blood to the right atrium via the vena cavae
which of the following does not supply the cardiac muscle cells with nutrient and oxygen rich blood?
Heart sounds are the results of the
cardiac valves closing
Dense irregular connective tissue that forms the outer layer of the pericardium
shunts blood from the right to left atrium in fetal life
Prolactin causes milk production and oxytocin causes milk ejection; because prolactin allows the action of oxytocin, there hormones are considered
A link between the endocrine and nervous system
The posterior pituitary is fed by the
hypothalamo-hypophseal portal system
Thyrotropin-releasing hormone and prolactin-releasing hormone are released from the _________ and target the __________
hypothalamus, anterior pituitary
Parafollicular cells are located in the _________ and secrete
thyroid gland, calcitonin
The metabolic rate of all body cells is controlled directly by which hormone
All of the following are true about endocrine glands except:
1. endocrine glands secretions tend to travel through ducts
2. endocrine glands secrete hormones
3. secretions of endocrine glands tend to travel through the blood
endocrine glands secretions tend to travel through ducts
Release of a hormone in response to changes in nutrient or ion level of the blood is called
Lipid soluble hormones
a. disease easily into target cells
b. bind to intracellular receptors
c. use carrier molecules to travel through the blood
all the above
second messenger systems are used by
water soluble hormones
You did not eat meal in the past 12 hours. How did your body maintain the blood glucose level within normal range?
by increasing glucagon secretion
As the pressure gradient _______ air flow increases. As resistance ______ air flow increases.
The most important. chemical stimulus impacting the breaching rate and depth is
Which of the following substances is least likely to dissolve in water due to it's solubility coefficient?
The ______ is the amount of oxygen remaining bound to hemoglobin after passing through systemic circulation
the respiratory membrane is composed of fused basement membranes of capillaries &
as part of the respiratory conducting zone, no gas exchange occurs here
cells that secrete a fluid-containing surfactant
type II alveolar cells
The respiratory zone for gas exchange begins at this site
Phagocytic cells of the alveolus
The steps of hemostasis in the correct order
vascular spasm, platelet plug formation, coagulation phase, clot retraction, and plasminogen becomes plasmid and the clot dissolves
A donor with ABO blood type A can give blood to a patient with ABO blood
types A or AB
Which of the following is an agranulocyte?
The process of a leukocyte squeezing between cells to exit the blood vessel is called
Secrete a substance which promotes inflammation
Myeloid cells give rise to all of the following except
a megakaryocyte will produce
growth hormone-releasing hormone is secreted from the
oxytocin is secreted from the
prolactin is secreted from the
epinephrine is secreted from the
parathyroid hormone is secreted from the
glucagon is secreted from the
calcitonin is secreted from the
aldosterone is secreted from the
triggers the release of cortisol
stimulates the liver to secrete insulin-like growth factor
a hormone that increases calcium levels in the blood
triggers the release of LH
results in a decrease in blood sugar
causes breast milk production
regulates basal metabolic rate; created by follicular cells
Which is not correct about the lung
it has an esophageal depression
Bronchial arteries carry ___________ blood to the issues of the lung
Arrange these structures in the correct order as air passes through them traveling from the trachea.
1. alveolar duct
3. terminal bronchiole
4. respiratory bronchiole
3, 4, 1, 2
What area in the central nervous system helps you to inhale by stimulating skeletal muscles?
the VRG of the medulla oblongata
What location has the lowest PO2?
During inspiration, air moves into the lungs because pressure of gas in the lungs becomes ______ than the atmospheric pressure in the diaphragm
Which of these processes does not require contraction of skeletal muscle?
The lungs remain inflated because
intrapleural pressure is less than intrapulmonary pressure
The respiratory mucosa gets _______ as the air moves from the nasal cavity to the alveolus, because the epithelium needs to be protective when the air first enters the respiratory tract, it needs to thin down in order for respiration to occur in the alveoli
Most carbon dioxide is transported through the blood
During a forced breath:
a. additional skeletal muscles are used in order to inhale but not to exhale
b. accessory skeletal muscles are used to both inhale and exhale
c. additional volume changes to the thoracic cavity occur, but the intrapulmonary pressure stays the same as a quiet breath
d. additional volume and pressure changes occur causing more air to move into and out of the lungs than in a quiet breath
B and D
The primary bronchi carries air to the
Secondary bronchi carries air to the
Tertiary bronchi carry air to the
left and right lung
Bronchioles carry air to the
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