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Juvenile Justice Final Exam
Terms in this set (169)
_______ generated the belief that certain segments of the population (i.e. youths in urban areas) were susceptible to the influence of their decaying environment
A typical resident of the House of Refuge devotee most of his/her time to ________
Child skills training, parent management training, and parent education programs such as home visiting are examples of ______ aimed at tackling risk factors and preventing delinquency
Early childhood programs
The criminal trial is called a ______ in the juvenile justice system
Early juvenile risk factors include which of the following?
All of the above
(low attainment, poor parental supervision and impulsiveness)
Trains in which urban youths were sent West for adoption with local farm couples were called ______.
Which of the following is not a part of the comprehensive juvenile strategy outlined in the text??
Apprehension of offenders
When the juvenile court was first created,_____ was the standard of proof required to adjudicate a child delinquent.
Preponderance of the Evidence
_______ determined that a child has due process rights, such as having an attorney present at waiver hearings
Kent v. United States
Status offenders are _______
Children who commit an act that would not be classified as a crime if they were adults
Secure pre-trial holding facilities for juveniles are called _______
The ______ amendment to the US Constitution placed limitations on police interrogation procedures
The most commonly used formal sentence for juvenile offenders is _______
______ refers to the trial stage of the juvenile court process
______ refers to a care facility developed by the child savers to protect potential criminal youths by taking them off the street and providing a family-like environment
House of Refuge
The first juvenile court was established in _____
_______ was instrumental in the development of the Children's Aid Society
Charles Loring Bruce
The creation of the House of Refuge was largely due to the efforts of the _______
The _______ created the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention
Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act of 1974
_______ is the third leading cause of death among young people ages 15-24 in the United States
Young people who are extremely vulnerable to the negative consequences of school failure, substance abuse, and early sexuality are referred to as _______
The tendency for youths to reduce the frequency of their offending behavior as they become older is called the ____________.
A family style wherein the father is the final authority on all family matters and exercises complete control over his wife and children is:
Teenage birthrates have ______ substantially during the past decade
Researchers have found that curfew laws along with aggressive curfew and truancy enforcement, appeared to reduce ________
Violent gang crimes
Toward the close of the eighteenth century, the work of such philosophers as Volitare, Rousseau, and Locke launched a new age, the _______, for childhood and the family
The Latin phrase "parens patriae" was first used to refer to the _______
Role of the King as the father of his country
Nineteenth-century reformers who developed programs for troubled youth and influenced legislation creating the juvenile justice system were referred to as the ______
A philosophical viewpoint that encourages the state to take control of wayward children and provide care, custody, and treatment to children is called the __________
Best interest of the child
Early English jurisprudence held that children under the age of _____ were legally incapable of committing crimes.
Most states define "minor child" as an individual who falls under a statutory age limit, most commonly _________ or ________ years of age
17 or 18
Which of the following sentencing goals, best describes the juvenile justice system philosophical approach to dealing with adolescent offenders
A waiver is defined as ________
the transferring of legal jurisdiction of juveniles from the juvenile to the adult court
Status offenses refer to __________
illegal actions committed by juveniles that would not be considered illegal if perpetrated by an adult
As a class, adolescent are considered less responsible for their behavior than adults because ________
All of the above
(have a tendency to be impulsive, primarily concerned with short term consequences over long term consequence, are more susceptible to peer pressure)
Youths involved in multiple serious criminal acts, referred to as ___________, are now recognized as serious social problems
Chronic Delinquent Offenders
In early America laws were passed that required children to obey their parents, these laws were known as _________
Stubborn Child Laws
The textbook given several reasons why few child abuse cases were ever prosecuted in the early America colonies. Which of the following is not one of those reasons?
The law required at least two witnesses of the abuse for conviction
The Uniform Crime Report (UCR) is compiled by the ________
Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI)
The _______ study is considered the national standard to measure substance abuse trends among American teens
Monitoring the Future
When the UCR indicated that the murder rate was 5.8 in 2009, this means that almost six people in every _______ were murdered between January 1 and December 31, 2009
Which of the following is a potential problem with self-report surveys?
All of the above
(inaccuracies in the reporting, misunderstanding the question being asked, duplicate answers)
Which of the following is a Part 1 crime in UCR
According to the text, a sudden increase in _______ may be an indicator of future increase in the rate of delinquency
To conduct _____ research, researchers manipulate or intervene in the lives of their subjects to see the outcome or the effect of the intervention.
Juvenile violent crime arrests typically peak at age ________
According to the text, experts rely on what three primary sources of data to find out about the nature and extent of delinquency
Self-report surveys, victim surveys, and official records
Delinquency rates are correlated with the number of ______ mothers in the population
Chronic juvenile offenders have an ______ percent of becoming adult offenders
An advantage that NIBRS has over UCR is _______
It can track all the crimes that occur within a single incident
________ refers to the idea that chronic juvenile offenders are likely to continue violating the law as adult
Continuity of Crime
Which of the following is generally true about teenage victimization
All of the above
(occurs more frequently during daytime hours compared to adult victims, committed by individuals known to the victim, it is intra-racial)
Efforts to chart _____ will have a major influence on both theory and policy.
Life cycle of crimes and delinquency
Studies show that ________ adolescents have the highest rate for sexual assault victimization
Young girls are much more likely to be the victim of _____.
Regardless of race, sex, social class, intelligence, or any other social variable, people commit less crime as they age, this is referred to as _______
_____ theory holds that youth will engage in criminal and delinquent behavior after weighing the consequences and benefits of their behavior
_______ is a personality trait marked by anxiety, tension, and emotional instability
______ holds that decisions to violate the law are weighed against possible punishments; to deter crime the pain of punishment must outweigh the benefit of legal gain
The view that crime is a "normal" function of modern living; offenses can be expected if there is a motivated offender and a suitable target that is not protected by capable guardians is ____________.
Routine Activities Theory
Violent crimes against people, and crimes in which an offender attempts to steal an object directly from its holder are called _________
The argument that the more severe, certain, and swift the punishment the greater effect it will have is one referred to as _________
The _______ theory holds that low intelligence is generally determined and inherited
_______ links delinquency to biological and psychological characteristics that control human development
Putting unbreakable glass on storefronts is an example of ______________.
Lombroso's idea that delinquents manifest physical anomalies that make them biologically similar to our primitive ancestors is called________________.
The view that both thought and behavior have biological and social bases is called _______________.
_______ can be defined as the reasonably stable patterns of behavior, including though and emotions, that distinguish one person from another
_______ theory holds that the more severely young offenders are punished the less likely they are to repeat their illegal acts
The view that behavior is modeled through observation, either directly through intimate contact with other, or indirectly through media is referred to as _________
Social learning theory
______ assumes that the frustration experienced by a child with a learning disability leads to a negative self-image and acting out problems
School failure rationale
Delinquency experts who believe that aggression is a function of the level of an individual's need(s) for stimulation are called ___________.
When looking at deterrence and delinquency, focusing police activity on ______ seems to work best
A crime control policy that depends on the fear of criminal penalties by punishing an individual so that others do not commit crime is called ________
_______ theories hold that delinquency is a function of a person's economic status and cultural values
______theories view delinquency as the result of a person's interaction with critical elements of socialization
Which of the following is not one of the three branches of social structure theory
Social process theories
According to social disorganization theory, delinquency rates are highest in the _______
The ability of communities to regulate the behavior of their residents through the influence of community institutions, such as the family and school, is called _______
Which theory holds that crime is a function of the conflict between the goals people have and the means they can use to legally obtain them
A concept through which youth are able to utilize their wits to avoid violent confrontation and feel safe is known as _____.
Clifford Shaw and Henry McKay formulated the ______ theory in the early 20th century while mapping the delinquency rates in Chicago
The centerpiece of the Cloward and Ohlin's theory is the concept of ______. In this theory, the opportunity for both the successful conventional means, and delinquent means, are limited
________ suggests that adolescents learn the techniques and attitudes of crime from close and intimate relationship with delinquent peers
Viewing stealing as borrowing or considering vandalism to be mischief that has gotten out of hand are examples of ______
Some community residents becomes so suspicious of authority that they develop a ______ in which the outside world is the enemy out to destroy the neighborhood
Which of the following is not one of the four elements of socialization
According to Walter Miller, the value orientation of the lower-class culture that is characterized by a need for excitement, trouble, smartness, fate, and personal autonomy, that dominates life among the lower class is called ________
According to Travis Hirschi, _____ tied a person to the institutions and processes of society; elements of this cohesiveness include attachment, commitment, involvement, and belief
Who coined the term anomie
Sociologist Oscar Lewis coined the phrase ____ to describe the challenges faced by the urban poor
Culture of Poverty
Another term for anomie is ______
According to the text, at the heart of the "code of the streets" is the issue of __________
Social reaction theory is also commonly called ______ theory
The roots of social reaction theory can be found in a branch of sociology known as
According to _______ theory, society creates deviance through a system of social agencies that designate certain individuals as delinquent, thereby stigmatizing youths and encouraging them to accept negative personal identity
______, the public identity if an offender is transformed in a solemn process during which the targeted person is thrust outside the social mainstream
________ deviance involves norm violations or crimes that have very little influence on the actor and can be quickly forgotten
_________ deviance occurs when a deviant event come to the attention of significant others or social control agents who apply a negative label
Which of the following is a criticism of Labeling Theory
It cannot specify what conditions must exist before an act or an individual is labeled deviant
The reassessment of a person's past to fit a current generalized label is referred to as a ______
Going to court and being scolded by a judge would be an example of ______
A degradation ceremony
________ theory emphasizes that those with money and power use and shape the law to meet their needs and maintain their interests
Using humanistic, nonpunitive strategies to right wrongs and restore social harmony is referred to as ________________.
Which of the following is / are potential negative consequences of labeling
All of the above
(stigmatization, propensity to join deviant cliques, 'self-fulfilling prophecy'
________ views delinquency as a normal response and function of capitalism and the inequalities is creates
Techniques used to allow offenders to understand and recognize their wrongdoing and shame themselves are referred to as _________
Peacemaking techniques in which offenders, victims, and other community members are brought together in an effort to formulate a sanction that addresses the needs of all are referred to as _______________.
According to Becker those kids who continually break rules but are able to avoid labeling are called _________
In some, _________ communities, people accused of breaking the law meet with community members, victims (if any), village elders, and agents of the justice system in a sentencing circle
The terms Social Conflict Theory, Conflict Theory and ________ Theory or interchangeable
________ is the process of creating a global economy through transnational markets, political, and legal systems
Removing juveniles from adults jails and placing them in community-based programs to avoid the stigmatization attached to jails and prisons is called ________
The view that criminality is a dynamic process, influenced by social experiences as well as individual characteristics is called
The Glueck's research focused on ________ as a forerunner of a delinquent career
Early onset of delinquency
This developmental theory posits that there is more than one path to a delinquent career
a cluster of antisocial behaviors that may include family dysfunction, substance abuse, smoking, precocious sexuality and early pregnancy, educational underachievement, suicide attempts, sensation seeking, and unemployment, as well as delinquency is called _____
Problem behavior syndrome
The _______ to delinquent deviance begins at an early age with stubborn behavior, which leads to defiance and then to authority avoidance
Authority conflict pathway
The ________ to a delinquent career begins with minor underhanded behavior, leads to property damage, and eventually escalates to more serious forms of theft and fraud
An offender who follows the most common delinquent trajectory in which antisocial behavior peaks in adolescence and then diminishes is called an _____
Gaining employment, getting married, or joining the military create informal social control mechanisms that limit delinquent behavior opportunities; these events are considered to be ______ according to Sampson and Laub.
______ refers to the propensity to commit crime that profoundly and permanently disrupts normal socialization over the life course
When a person has positive relations with individuals and institution, as in a successful marriage or career, that support is sometimes referred to as ________
_____ theories incorporate social, personal, and developmental factors into complex explanations of human behavior.
Defective intelligence, impulsive personality, genetic abnormalities, and the physical chemical functioning of the brain are all examples of a _______________________________________.
Michael Gottfredson and Travis Hirschi developed the _______ theory
General Theory of Crime
Gottfredson and Hirschi attribute the tendency to commit delinquency acts to a person's __________
Low Level of Self-Control
______ theory looks at the onset, continuity, and termination of a delinquent career
Gottfredson and Hirshi traced the root cause of low level of self-control to _________
Inadequate childrearing practices
The conduit to a delinquent career that begins with minor aggression, leads to physical fighting, and eventually escalates to violent delinquency is called _______
The Overt Pathway
If an offender's delinquent career continues well into adulthood, the offender is referred to as a/an
Because a transition from one stage of life to another can be a bumpy ride, the propensity to commit crimes is neither stable nor constant; it is a/an ________ process
The premise of the community policing model of crime prevention is that the police can carry out their duties more effectively by _______
Gaining the trust and assistance of concerned citizens
A law enforcement philosophy that focuses on addressing the problems underlying incidents of juvenile delinquency rather than the incidents themselves is called _______
The taking of a person into custody until he or she can be held accountable for the offense in court proceedings is called _______
The circumstances that would lead a reasonable person to believe that an offense was committed and the accused committed that offense is called ________
In _____ cases the police officer must personally observe the crime in order to place a suspect in custody
In a ________ case, the police officer may make the arrest without having observed the crime if the officer has probable cause to believe the crime occurred and the person being arrested committed it
_______ are defined as those who are adjudicated delinquent for crimes of homicide, rape, robbery, aggravated assault, and kidnapping
Violent juvenile offender
The ______ Amendment protects people from unreasonable search and seizure
The use of personal decision making and choice in carrying out operations in the criminal justice system is called _______
Which of the following is not a legal factor for use in officer discretion
Race and gender
Generally the first contact a juvenile has with the juvenile justice system is with the ________
The term in "loco parentis" is Latin for ________
In place of the parent
a _______ is a serious offense, a ________ is a minor or petty crime
S.A.R.A. is most closely associated with ______
An evaluation study of Boston's Operation Ceasefire program found that the program ______
Resulted a significant reduction in youth homicides in Boston
The ________ holds that police are likely to act paternally toward young girls and not arrest them
Police department in Chicago and Los Angeles have at one time used ________, targeting gang areas and arresting members for any law violations
A stop-and-frisk is an example of _______
One large-scale study found that African American teens ______ to rate the police as "honest"
Less likely than white teens
The formal complaint that initiates judicial actions against a juvenile charged with delinquency or a status offense is called the _____.
A ______ refers to a court appointed individual who protects the interests of the child in cases involving the child's welfare
Guardian ad litem
The typical status offense detainee is a female charged with ______
Liquor Law Violation
The juvenile court did not include a prosecutor in its first 60 years of existence because _______
The court followed a social service helping model
The typical delinquent is a ______
Male, over the age 16, charged with a violent crime
In a more legalistic juvenile court, almost all jurisdictions require by law that a ______ be present in the juvenile court
What is the purpose of the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act of 1974
It prohibits the placement of status offenders in secure detention facilities
Waivers are attractive to _______ because they are consistent with the get-tough policy that is currently popular
The _____ gives the juvenile the opportunity to have the case brought before a reviewing court after it has been heard in juvenile or Family Court
Writ of "habeas corpus"
The hearing held in juvenile court to determine the merits of the petition claiming that a child is either a delinquent youth or in need of court supervision is referred to as _______
_____ refers to the hearing held in juvenile court to determine the "sentence" of the juvenile.
Due process is addressed in the fifth and _____ amendment
The type of sentence that specifies a fixed term of detention that must be served to as a/an _______ sentence
Judges follow the probation department recommendations _____ percent of the time.
In _________, the US Supreme Court held that the death penalty for juveniles was unconstitutional
Roper v. Simmons
_____ afforded juveniles the right to counsel.
In re gault
On average, ______ percent of juvenile cases are waived to adult court by the juvenile court each year
Less than 0.5
What is the basic philosophy at the disposition hearing?
Dispositions should be made in the best interest of the child
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