Upgrade to remove ads
Barrons AP Human Geography
Terms in this set (346)
The distance that can be measured with a standard unit length, such as a mile or kilometer.
the exact position of an object or place, measured within the spatial coordinates of a grid system
the relative ease with which a destination may be reached from some other place
The adoption of cultural traits, such as language, by one group under the influence of another.
the geographical area that contains the space an individual interacts with on a daily basis
grouping together of many firms from the same industry in a single area for collective or cooperative use of infrastructure and sharing of labor resources
The set of economic and political relationships that organize food production for commercial purposes. It includes activities ranging from seed production, to retailing, to consumption of agricultural products.
The art and science of producing food from the land and tending livestock for the purpose of human consumption.
economic activities that surround and support large-scale industries such as shipping and food service
An agricultural activity associated with the raising of domesticated animals, such as cattle, horses, sheep, and goats.
Most prevalent in Africa and the Americas, doctrine in which the world is seen as being infused with spiritual and even supernatural powers.
A boundary line established before an area is populated
human-centered, in sustainable development, _____________ refers to ideas that focus solely on the needs of people without considering the creatures with whom we share the planet or the ecosystems upon which we depend
Human induced changes on the natural environment
Any item that represents a material aspect of culture
a map projection in which the plane is the most developable surface
the negative effects on one region that result from economic growth within another region
The contentious political process by which a state may break up into smaller countries
This movement within city planning and urban design that stressed the marriage of older, classical forms with newer, industrial ones. Common characteristics of this period include wide thoroughfares, spacious parks, and civic monuments that stressed progress, freedom, and national unity.
A form of technology that uses living organisms, usually genes, to modify products, to make or modify plants and animals, or to develop other microorganisms for specific purposes.
a location where large shipments of goods are broken up into smaller containers for delivery to local markets
the outer edge of a city's sphere of influence, used in the law of retail gravitation to describe the area of a city's hinterlands that depend on that city for its retail supply
Traditional businesses with actual stores in which trade retail occurs; it does not exist solely on the internet
System of belief that seeks to explain ultimate realities for all people-such as the nature of suffering and the path toward self-realization.
A relatively small country sandwiched between two larger powers. The existence of buffer states may help to prevent dangerous conflicts between powerful countries
Bulk gaining industry
Industries whose products weigh more after assembly than they did previously in their constituent parts. Such industries tend to have production facilities close to their markets.
Bulk reducing industry
Industries whose final products weigh less than their constituent parts, and whose processing facilities tend to be located close to sources of raw material
Form of agriculture that uses mechanical goods such as machinery, tools, vehicles, and facilities to produce large amounts of agricultural goods-a process requiring very little human labor.
Geographer from the University of California at Bed defined the concept of cultural landscape as the fundamental un graphical analysis. This landscape results from interaction betwee and the physical environment. Sauer argued that virtually no land escaped alteration by human activities.
A type of thematic map that transforms space such that the political unit with the greatest value for some type of data is represented by the largest relative area.
Theory and practice of making visual representations of the earths surface in the form of maps
System in India that gives every Indian a particular place in the social hierarchy from birth. Individuals may improve the position they inherit in the caste system in their next life through their actions, or karma. After many lives of good karma, they may be relieved from cycle of life and win their place in heaven.
Central business district (CBD)
The downtown or nucleus of a city where retail stores, offices, and cultural activities are concentrated; building densities are usually quite high; and transportation systems converge.
Central place theory
Theory proposed by Walter Christaller that explains how and where central places in the urban hierarchy should be functionally and spatially distributed with respect to one another.
forces that tend to divide a country.
forces that tend to unite or bind a country together
thematic map that uses tones or colors to represent spatial data as average values per unit area
The world's most widespread religion. Christianity is a monotheistic, universal religion that uses missionaries to expand its members worldwide. The three major categories of Christianity are ROMAN CATHOLIC, PROTESTANT, and EASTERN ORTHODOX.
City Beautiful movement
Movement in environmental design that drew directly from the beaux arts school. Architects from this movement strove to impart order on hectic, industrial centers by creating urban spaces that conveyed a sense of morality and civic pride, which many feared was absent from the frenzied new industrial world.
City established by colonizing empires as administrative centers. Often they were established on already existing native cities, completely overtaking their infrastructures.
the expansion and perpetuation of an empire
Commercial agricultural economy
All agricultural activity generated for the purpose of selling, not necessarily for local consumption.
Commonwealth of Independent States
confederacy of independent states of the former soviet union that have united because of their common economic and administrative needs
A state that posses a roughly circular shape from which the geometric center is relatively equal in all directions.
The actual or potential relationship between two places, usually referring to economic interactions.
Concentric zone model
Model that describes urban environments as a series of rings of distinct land uses radiating out from a central core, or central business district.
a form of an international organization that brings several autonomous states together for a common purpose
a firm that is comprised of many smaller firms that serve several different functions
the degree of economic, social, cultural, or political connection between two places
The spread of a disease, innovation, or cultural traits through direct contact with another person or another place.
a standard grid, composed of lines of latitude and longitude, used to determine the absolute location of any object, place, or feature on the earth's surface.
National or global regions where economic power, in terms of wealth, innovation, and advanced technology, is concentrated.
A model of the spatial structure of development in which underdeveloped countries are defined by their dependence on a developed core region.
an industry in which the production of goods and services is based in homes, as opposed to factories
A pidgin language that evolves to the point at which it becomes the primary language of the people who speak it.
The group of traits that define a particular culture
Study of interactions between societies and the natural environments they live in
Obliteration of an entire culture by war, disease, acculturation, or a combination of the three.
The subfield of human geography that looks at how cultures vary over space.
Locations on earth's surface where specific cultures first arose.
the dominance of one culture over another
Human modified natural landscape specifically containing the imprint of one particular culture/society
The specific customs that are part of the everyday life of a particular culture, such as language, religion, ethnicity, social institutions, and aspects of popular culture.
A total way of life held in common by a group of people, including learned features such as language, ideology, behavior, technology, and government.
Practices followed by the people of a particular cultural group.
An agricultural activity involving the raising of livestock, most commonly cows and goats, for dairy products such as milk, cheese, and butter.
the dispersal of an industry that formerly existed in an established agglomeration
loss of the industrial activity in a region
A particular religious group, usually associated with differing Protestant belief systems.
the process by which formerly fertile lands become increasingly arid, unproductive, and desert-like
The process of economic growth, expansion, or realization of regional resources potential.
Geographically distinct versions of a single language that vary somewhat from the parent form.
People who come from a common ethnic background but who live in different regions outside of the home of their ethnicity
Distance decay effect
The decrease in interaction between two phenomena, places, or people as the distance between them increases.
The conscious manipulation of plant and animal species by humans in order to sustain themselves.
the idea that political destabilization in one country can lead to collapse of political stability in neighboring countries, starting a chain reaction of collapse
Thematic maps that use points to show the precise locations of specific observations or occurrences, such as crimes, car accidents, or births.
web-based economic activities
Earth system science
Systematic approach to physical geog. Looks atheist interaction between the earths physical systems and processes on a global scale
geographic separation between the largely democratic and free-market countries of Western Europe and the Americas from the communist and socialist countries of Eastern Europe and Asia
Regions that fail to gain from national economic development.
A form of tourism, based on the enjoyment of scenic areas or natural wonders, that aims to provide an experience of nature or culture in an environmentally sustainable way.
The portion of Earth's surface occupied by permanent human settlement.
City that is located on the outskirts of larger cities and serves many of the same functions of urban areas, but in a sprawling, decentralized suburban environment.
a certain number of electors from each state proportional to and seemingly representative of that state's population. Each elector chooses a candidate believing they are representing their constituency's choice. The candidate who receives a higher proportion of electoral votes within a state receives all the electoral votes for that state.
The decision of a particular state elector that represents the dominant views on that elector's state.
A state whose territory is long and narrow in shape.
any small and relatively homogenous group or region surrounded by another larger and different group or region
Intersection between human and physical geography.explores the spatial impacts humans have have on the physical environment and vice versa.
A doctrine that claims that cultural traits are formed and controlled by environmental conditions.
Head librarian at Alexandria during 3rd century.
One of the first cartographers .
Performed accurate computation of earths circumference.
Credited with creating term "geography"
a constructed international auxiliary language incorporating aspects of numerous linguistic traditions to create a universal means of communication
The systematic attempt to remove all people of a particular ethnicity from a country or region either by forced migration or genocide.
an area within a city containing members of the same ethnic background
a religion identified with a particular ethnic group and largely exclusive to it
Refers to a group of people who share a common cultural identity.
Cities in Europe that were mostly developed during the Medieval Period and that retain many of the same characteristics such as extreme density of development with narrow buildings and winding streets, an ornate church that prominently marks the city center, and high walls surrrounding the city center that provided defense against attack.
international organization comprised of Western European countries to promote free trade among members
Religion in which an effort is made to spread a particular belief system.
A segment of land that is apart from the mainland of its country (Hawaii and Alaska)
The spread of ideas, innovations, fashion, or other phenomena to surrounding areas through contact and exchange.
Export-processing zone (EPZ)
Areas where governments create favorable investment and trading conditions to attract export oriented industries.
An agricultural system characterized by low inputs of labor per unit land area.
Person who has left the inner city and moved to outlying suburbs or rural areas.
Areas of the world, usually the economic core, that experience greater levels of connection due to high-speed telecommunications and transportation technologies.
A system of government in which power is distributed among certain geographical territories rather than concentrated within a central government.
Places where livestock are concentrated in a very small area and raised on hormones and hearty grains that prepare them for slaughter at a much more rapid rate than grazing; often referred to as factory farms.
Area located in the crescent-shaped zone near the southeastern Mediterranean coast (including Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, and Turkey), which was once a lush environment and one of the first hearths of domesti- . cation and thus agricultural activity.
Crescent shaped area if fertile land where stretching from lower Nile valley along east Mediterranean coast, into Syria and present day Iraq, where agriculture and civilization first began around 8000b.c
Cities that arose during the Middle Ages and that actually represent a time of relative stagnation in urban growth. This system fostered a dependent relationship between wealthy landowners and peasants who worked their land, providing very little alternative economic opportunities.
Refers to a constellation of cultural practices that form the sights, smells, sounds, and rituals of everyday existence in the traditional societies in which they developed.
Manufacturing activities in which cost of transporting both raw materials and finished product is not important for determining the location of the firm.
system of standardized mass production attributed to Henry Ford
overseas business investments made by private companies
A state that is not contiguous whole but rather separated parts.
Friction of distance
A measure of how much absolute distance affects the interaction between two places.
an area where borders are shifting and weak and where peoples of different cultures or nationalities meet and lay claim to the land
A type of map projection that maintains the accurate size and shape of landmasses but completely rearranges direction such that the four cardinal directions--north, south, east, and west--no longer have any meaning.
The strict adherence to a particular doctrine.
Cities that, because of their geographic location, act as ports of entry and distribution centers for large geographic areas.
a measure of the opportunities given to women compared to men within a given country
Genetically modified organisms (GMO)
Organisms whose genetic code has been altered by artificial means such as interspecies gene transfer. They can also be called transgenic organisms.
a premeditated effort to kill everyone from a particular ethnic group
The trend of middle- and upper-income Americans moving into city centers and rehabilitating much of the architecture but also replacing low-income populations, and changing the social character of certain neighborhoods.
Geographical information systems (GIS)
Set of computer tools used to transform,analyze, and display geographic data
The actual shape of the earth, which is rough and oblate, or slightly squashed; the earth's circumference is longer around the equator then it is along the meridians, from north-south circumference.
Political boundaries that are defined and delimited by straight lines.
the study of the interplay between political relations and the territorial context in which they occur
George Perkins Marsh
Inventor, diplomat, politician, scholar.
..Classic work: "Man and Nature, or Physical Geography as Modified by Human Action" provide first description to the extent of which natural systems have been impacted by human actions
The designation of voting districts so as to favor a particular political party or candidate
a segregated ethnic area within a city
A process occurring in many inner cities in which they become dilapidated centers of poverty, as affluent whites move out to the suburbs and immigrants and people of color vie for scarce jobs and resources.
Global positioning system (GPS)
Set of ate life's used to help determine locations anywhere on the earths surface with a portable electronic device
Religion in which members are numerous and widespread and their doctrines might appeal to different people from any region of the globe.
The idea that the world is becoming increasingly interconnected on a global scale such that smaller scales of political and economic life are3 becoming obsolete.
A mathematical formula that describes the level of interaction between two places, based on the size of their populations and their distance from each other.
The development of higher-yield and fast-growing crops through increased technology, pesticides, and fertilizers transferred from the developed to developing world to alleviate the problem of food supply in those regions of the globe.
Gross domestic product (GDP)
The total value of goods and services produced within the borders of a country during a specific time period, usually one year.
Gross national product (GNP)
The total value of goods and services, including income received from abroad, produced by the residents of a country within a specific time period, usually one year.
Anything in the landscape, real or perceived, that is potentially threatening. Hazards are usually avoided in spatial behavior.
Hypothesis proposed by Halford MACKINDER that held that any political power based in the heart of Eurasia could gain enough strength to eventually dominate the world.
A type of diffusion in which something is transmitted between places because of something the two places have in common
A cohesive and unique society, most prevalent in India, that integrates spiritual beliefs with daily practices and official institutions such as a caste system.
The market area surrounding an urban center, which that urban center serves.
Human development Index (HDI)
Measure used by the United Nations that calculates development not in terms of money or productivity but in terms of human welfare. The HDI evaluates human welfare based on three parameters: life expectancy, education, and income.
Hunting and gathering
The killing of wild animals and fish as well as the gathering of fruits, roots, nuts, and other plants for sustenance.
Pertaining to the unique facts or characteristics of a certain place
The perpetuation of a colonial empire even after it is no longer politically sovereign
Language family including the Germanic and Romance languages that is spoken by about 50% of the world's people.
Period characterized by the rapid social and economic changes in manufacturing and agriculture thatoccured in England during the late 18th century and rapidly diffused to. Other parts of the developed world
The rapid economic and social changes in manufacturing that resulted after the introduction of the factory system to the textile industry in England at the end of the 18th century
the rapid economic changes that occurred in agriculture and manufacturing in England in the late 18th century and that rapidly spread to other part of the developed world.
Process of industrial development in which countries evolve economically, from producing basic, primary goods to using modern factories for mass-producing goods. At the highest levels of development, national economies are geared mainly toward the delivery of services and exchange of information.
Those countries including Britain, France, the United States, Russia, Germany, and Japan, that were all at the forefront of industrial production and innovation through the middle of the 20th century. While industry is currently shifting to other countries to take advantage of cheaper labor and more relaxed environmental standards, these countries still account for a large portion of the world's total industrial output.
Inner city decay
Those parts of large urban areas that lose significant portions of their populations as a result of change in industry or migration to suburbs. Because of these changes, the inner city loses its tax base and becomes a center of poverty.
Any kind of agricultural activity that involves effective and efficient use of labor on small plots of land to maximize crop yield.
International date line
the line of longitude that marks where each new day begins, centered on the 180th meridian
an alliance of two or more countries seeking cooperation with each other without giving up either's autonomy or self-determination
The idea that one place has a demand for some good or service and two places have a supply of equal price and quality, then the closer of the two suppliers to the buyer will represent an intervening opportunity, thereby blocking the third from being able to share its supply of goods or services. Intervening opportunities are frequently utilized because transportation costs usually decrease with proximity.
A monotheistic religion based on the belief that there is one God, Allah, and that Muhammad was Allah's prophet. Islam is based in the ancient city of Mecca, Saudi Arabia, the birthplace of Muhammad.
Cities in Muslim countries that owe their structure to their religious beliefs. Islamic cities contain mosques at their center and walls guarding their perimeter. Open-air markets, courtyards surrounded by high walls, and dead-end streets, which limit foot traffic in residential neighborhoods, also characterize Islamic cities.
Geographical boundary lines where different linguistic features meet.
lines on a map connecting areas of equal value
The first major monotheistic religion. It is based on a sense of ethnic identity, and its adherents tend to form tight-knit communities wherever they live.
Type of agriculture that requires large levels of manual labor to be successful.
a state that is completely surrounded by the land of other states, which gives it a disadvantage in terms of accessibility to and from international trade routes
This occurs when a language is no longer in use by any living people. Thousands of languages have become extinct over the eons since language first developed, but the process of language extinction has accelerated greatly during the past 300 years.
A collection of many languages, all of which came from the same original tongue long ago, that have since evolved different characteristics.
a set of languages with a relatively recent common origin and many similar characteristics
A relatively small ratio between map units and ground units. Large-scale maps usually have higher resolution and cover much smaller regions than small-scale maps.
Latin American cities
cities in _____________ ____________ that owe much of their structure to colonialism, the rapid rise of industrialization, and continual rapid increases in population. similar to other colonial cities, they also demonstrate distinctive sectors of industrial or residential development radiating out from the central business district, where most industrial and financial activity occurs
distance north or south of the Equator, measured in degrees
Law of retail gravitation
law that states that people will be drawn to larger cities to conduct their business because larger cities have a wider influence on the hinterlands that surround them
Law of the sea
Law establishing states rights and responsibilities concerning the ownership and use of the earth's seas and oceans and their resources.
a concept developed by Alfred WEBER to describe the optimal location of a manufacturing establishment in relation to the costs of transport and labor, and the relative advantages of agglomeration or deglomeration
Hitler's expansionist theory based on a drive to acquire "living space" for the German people
Less developed countries (LDCs)
Those countries including countries in Africa, except for South Africa, and parts of South America and Asia, that usually have low levels of economic productivity, low per capita incomes, and generally low standard of living.
An extremely simple language that combines aspects of two or more other, more-complex languages usually used for quick and efficient communication. Used for business between two different countries.
the ability to read and write
An extensive commercial agricultural activity that involves the raising of livestock over vast geographic spaces typically located in semi-arid climates like the American West.
religions that are spiritually bound to particular regions
On a map, a chart or graph that gives specific statistical information of a particular political unit or jurisdiction.
the distance in degrees east or west of the prime meridian
a region in which manufacturing activities have clustered together. the major US industrial region has historically been in the Great Lakes, which includes the staes of Michigan, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, New York, and Pennsylvania. industrial regions also exist in southeastern Brazil, central England, around Tokyo, Japan, and elsewhere
A mathematical method that involves transferring the earth's sphere onto a flat surface.
Those U.S. firms that have factories just outside the United States/Mexican border in areas that have been specially designated by the Mexican government. In such areas, factories cheaply assemble goods for export back into the United States.
In agriculture, the replacement of human labor with technology or machines.
Cities that developed in Europe during the Medieval Period and that contain such unique features as extreme density of development with narrow buildings and winding streets, an ornate church that prominently marks the city center, and high walls surrounding the city center that provided defense against attack.
An agricultural system practiced in the Mediterranean-style climates of Western Europe, California, and portions of Chile and Australia.
Cities, mostly characteristic of the developing world, where high population growth and migration have caused them to explode in population since World War II. All megacities are plagued by chaotic and unplanned growth, terrible pollution, and widespread poverty.
Several, metropolitan areas that were originally separate but that have joined together to form a large, sprawling urban complex.
maps that represent the mental image that a person has of an area-even of places we've never been.
A true conformal cylindrical map projection, the Mercator projection is particularly useful for navigation because it maintains accurate direction. Mercator projections are famous for their distortion in area that makes landmasses at the poles appear oversized.
A line of longitude that runs north-south. All lines of longitude are equal in length and intersect at the poles.
within the united states, an urban area consisting of one or more whole county units, usually containing several urbanized areas, or suburbs, that act together as a coherent economic whole
a state or territory that is small in both population and area
A racial or ethnic group smaller than and differing from the majority race or ethnicity in a particular area or region.
A person of a particular faith that travels in order to recruit new members into the faith represented
point of view, wherein cities and buildings are thought to act like well-oiled machines, with little energy spent on frivolous details or ornate designs
belief in a single God
Having yo do with many cultures
Multiple nuclei model
HARRIS AND ULLMAN Type of urban form wherein cities have numerous centers of business and cultural activity instead of one central place.
tightly knit group of individuals sharing a common language, ethnicity, religion, and other cultural attributes
a country whose population possesses a substantial degree of cultural homogeneity and unity
A sense of national pride to such an extent to exalting one nation above all others.
Physical landscape or environment that remains untouched by humans
Net National Product (NNP)
a measure of all goods and services produced by a country in a year, including production from its investments abroad, minus the loss or degradation of natural resource capital as a result of productivity
Geographical centers of activity. A large city, such as Los Angeles has numerous nodes
Concepts/rules that can be applied universally
Natural resources, such as fossil fuels, that do not replenish themselves in a timeframe that is relevant for human consumption.
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
Agreement signed by the United States, Canada, and Mexico in 1992 to form the largest free trade zone in the world.
North American Treaty Organization (NATO)
a defense alliance between nations of Western Europe and North America formed in 1949, an international organization that has joined together for military purposes.
The economic division between the wealthy countries of Europe and North America, Australia and Japan and generally poorer countries of Asia Africa and Latin America.
language in which all government business occurs in a country
Offshore financial center
areas that have been specially designed to promote business transactions, and thus have become centers for banking and finance
The view that states resemble biological organisms with life cycles that include all stages of youth, maturity, and old age.
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)
an economic organization consisting primarily of Arab nations and other oil producing regions that controls the price of oil and the amount of oil its members produce and sell to other nations.
sending industrial processes out for external production. The term outsourcing increasingly applies not only to traditional industrial functions, but also to the contracting of service industry functions to companies to overseas locations, where operating costs remain relatively low.
An east-west line of latitude that runs parallel to the equator and that marks distance north or south of the equator.
A type of agricultural activity based on nomadic animal husbandry or the raising of livestock to provide food, clothing, and shelter.
A state whose territory completely surrounds that of another state.
Countries that usually have low levels of economic productivity, low per capita incomes, and generally low standards of living. The world economic periphery includes Africa (except for South Africa), parts of South America, and Asia.
Chemicals used on plants that do not harm the plants, but kill pests and have negative repercussions on other species who ingest the chemicals.
Peters map projection
a cylindrical map projection that attempts to retain the accurate sizes of all the world's landmasses
political boundary that separates territiories according to natural features in the landscpae, such as mountains, rivers or deserts.
Realm of geography that studies structures, processes, distributions and change through time of natural phenomena of the earths surface
Language that may develop when two groups of people with different languages meet. This language has some characteristics of each language.
A journey to a place of religious importance.
Planned agricultural economy
An agricultural economy found in communist nations in which the government controls both agricultural production and distribution.
A large, frequently foreign-owned piece of agricultural land devoted to the production of a single export crop
The spatial analysis of political phenomena and processes.
a multilingual state
the worship of more than one god.
Pop culture (or popular culture)
Dynamic culture based in large, heterogeneous societies permitting considerable individualism, innovation, and change; having a money-based economy, division of labor into professions, secular institutions of control, and weak interpersonal ties; and producing and consuming machine-made goods.
the tally of each individual's vote within a given geographic area
A reaction in architectural design to the feeling of sterile alienation that many people get from modern architecture. Postmodernism uses older, historical styles and a sense of lightheartedness and eclecticism. Buildings combine pleasant-looking forms and playful colors to convey new ideas and to create spaces that are more people-friendly than their modernist predecessors.
A map that displays individual preferences for certain places.
Primary economic activities
Economic activities in which natural resources are made available for use or further processing, including mining, agriculture, forestry, and fishing
A country's leading city, with a population that is disproportionately greater than other urban areas within the same country.
An imaginary line passing through the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, England, which marks the 0° line of longitude.
a measure of the goods and services produced within a particular country
Proportional symbols Map
A thematic map in which the size of a chosen symbol-such as a circle or triangle-indicates the relative magnitude of some statistical value for a given geographic region.
A state that exhibits a narrow, elongated land extension, leading away from the main territory.
Roman geographer and astronomer.
Author of "guide of Geography" including maps that contained a grid system of altitude and longitude
Purchasing Power Parity
a monetary measurement of development that takes into account what money buys in different countries
Data associated with a humanistic approach to geography.
Collected through interviews, empirical observations, or interpretation of texts,artwork, old maps or other archives
Data associated with mathematical models and statistical techniques used to analyze spatial location and association
Period in human geography associated with the widespread adoption of mathematical models and statistical techniques
Quaternary economic activities
economic activities concerned with research, information gathering, and administration
Quinary economic activities
The most advanced form of quaternary activities consisting of high-level decision making for large corporations or high level scientific research.
A group of human beings distinguished by physical traits, blood types, genetic code patterns or genetically inherited characteristics.
rule that states that the pop. of any given town should be inveresly proportional to its rank the countryes hierachy when the distribution of citys according to their sizes follows a certain pattern
the process of a reallocation of electoral seats to defined territories
a state whose territory is rectangular in shape
The drawing of a new electoral district boundary lines in response to population changes.
a map type that shows reference information for a particular place, making it useful for finding landmarks and for navigating
Territory which encompasses many places that share physical attributes (physical/cultural/both) in comparison with attributes elsewhere.
Study of geographic regions
process by which specific regions acquire characteristics that differentiate them from others within the same country; certain economic activities may dominate in particular regions.
A measure of distance that includes the costs of overcoming the friction of absolute distance separating two places. Often relative distance describes the amount of social, cultural, or economic, connectivity between two places.
the position of a place in relation to another place
old political boundaries that no longer exist as international borders, but that have left an enduring mark on the local cultural or enviromental geography
the diffusion of ideas, innovations, behaviors, and the like from one place to another through migration.
The acquisition of data about Earth's surface from a satellite orbiting the planet or other long-distance methods. Sensors include photographic images , multispectral images and radar images
any natural resource that can replenish itself in a relatively short period of time, usually no longer than the length of human life
A maps smallest discernible unit.
Nicholas SPYKMAN'S theory that the domination of the coastal fringes of Eurasia would provided the base for world conquest.
Projection that attempts to balance several possible projection errors. It does not maintain completely accurate area, shape, distance, or direction, but it minimizes errors in each.
Any of the languages derived from Latin including Italian, Spanish, French, and Romanian.
Rostow's stages of development
A model of economic development that describes a country's progression which occurs in five stages transforming them from least-developed to most-developed countries.
The manufacturing region in the United States that is currently debilitated because many manufacturing firms have relocated to countries offering cheaper labor and relaxed environmental regulations.
Process that occurs when soils in arid areas are brought under cultivation through irrigation. In arid climates, water evaporates quickly off the ground surface, leaving salty residues that render the soil infertile.
The ratio between the size of an area on a map and the actual size of that same area on the earth's surface.
Secondary economic activities
economic activities concerned with the processing of raw materials such as manufacturing, construction, and power generation
A model or urban land use that places the central business district in the middle with wedge-shaped sectors radiating outwards from the center along transportation corridors.
The process that results from suburbanization when affluent individuals leave the city center for homologenous suburban neighborhoods
the right of a nation to govern itself autonomously
Those newly industrialized countries with median standards of living, such as Chile, Brazil, India, China, and Indonesia. These countries offer their citizens relatively diverse economic opportunities but also have extreme gaps between rich and poor.
Sense of place
state of mind derived through the infusion of a place with meaning and emotion by remembering important events that occurred in that place or by labeling a place with a certain character.
highly developed economies that focus on research and development, marketing, tourism, sales, and telecommunications
The single person who takes on the roles of priest, counselor, and physician and acts as a conduit to the supernatural world in a shamanist culture.
The use of tropical forest clearings for crop production until their fertility is lost. Plots are then abandoned, and farmers move on to new sites.
Language area that spreads through most of Southeast Asia and China and is comprised of Chinese, Burmese, Tibetan, Japanese, and Korean.
The absolute location of a place, described by local relief, landforms, and other cultural or physical characteristics.
The relative location of a place in relation to the physical and cultural characteristics of the surrounding area and the connections and interdependencies within that system; a place's spatial context.
System of cultivation that usually exists in tropical areas where vegetation is cut close to the ground and then ignited. The fire introduces nutrients into the soil, thereby making it productive for a relatively short period of time.
the developing world that does not experience the benefits of high-speed telecommunications and transportation technology
Map scale ratio in which the ratio of units on the map to units on the earth is quite small. Small-scale maps usually depict large areas.
supreme or independent political authority
Spatial diffusion refers to the ways in which phenomena, such as technological innovations, cultural trends, or even outbreaks of disease, travel over space.
An intellectual framework that looks at the locations of specific phenomena, how and why that phenomena is , and, finally, how it is spatially related to phenomena in other place
Spatially fixed costs
An input cost in manufacturing that remains constant wherever production is located.
Spatially variable costs
an input cost in manufacturing that changes significantly from place to place in its total amount and in its relative share of total costs
Crops including items like peanuts and pineapples, which are produced, usually in developing countries, for export.
goods that are not mass-produced but rather assembled individually or in small quantities
residential developments characterized by extreme poverty that usually exist on land just outside of cities that is neither owned nor rented by its occupants
a politically organized territory that is administered by a sovereign government and is recognized by the international community.
rights and powers believed to be in the authority of the state rather than the federal government.
when a trait of one culture prompts invention or innovation in another
Boundary line established after an area has been settled that considers the social and cultural characteristics of the area
Any farm economy in which most crops are grown for nearly exclusive family or local consumption.
Residential communities, located outside of city centers, that are usually relatively homogenous in terms of population.
boundary line drawn in an area ignoring the existing cultural pattern
Organization of three or more states to promote shared objectives
Concept of using the earths resources in such a way that they provide for people's needs now without diminishing earths ability to supply for future generations.
The idea that people living today should be able to meet their needs without prohibiting the ability of future generations to do the same.
Land that is prepared for agriculture by using the slash-and-burn method.
traditions that borrow from both the past and present.
The study of the earth's integrated systems instead of focusing on particular phenomena in a single place.
Any dispute over land ownership
political organization that distributes political power in more easily governed units of land
Tertiary economic activities
Activities that provide the market exchange of goods and that bring together consumers and providers of services such as retail, transportation, government, personal, and professional services.
Individual maps of specific features that are overlaid on one another in a Geographical Information System to understand and analyze a spatial relationship.
A type of map that displays one or more variables-such as population, or income level-within a specific area.
a states whose government is either believed to be divinely guided or a state under the control of a group of religious leaders.
the idea that distance between some places is actually shrinking as technolgy enables more rapid communication and increased interaction between those places.
Maps that use isolines to represent constant elevations.
The amount of connectivity between places, regardless of the absolute distance separating them.
Place names given to certain features on the land such as settlements, terrain features, and streams.
Loss of the top fertile layer of soil is lost through erosion. It is a tremendous problem in areas with fragile soils, steep slopes, or torrential seasonal rains.
A cohesive collection of customs within a cultural group.
the expansion of cultural traits through diffusion, adoption, and other related processes
The costs involved in moving goods from one place to another
The movements of livestock according to seasonal patterns, generally lowland areas in the winter, and highland areas in the summer.
a firm that conducts business in at least two separate countries; also known as multinational corporation
a state governed constitutionally as a unit, without internal divisions or a federalist delegation of powers
a global supranational organization established at the end of WWII to foster international security and cooperation.
Religion that seeks to unite people from all over the globe.
Urban growth boundaries
Geographical boundaries placed around a city to limit suburban growth within that city.
the physical form of a city or urban region
The process occurring in some urban areas experiencing inner city decay that usually involves the construction of new shopping districts, entertainment venues, and cultural attractions to entice young urban professionals back into the cities where nightlife and culture are more accessible.
The process of expansive suburban development over large areas spreading out from a city, in which the automobile provides the primary source of transportation.
The process of urban areas expanding outwards, usually in the form of suburbs, and developing over fertile agricultural land.
perceptual regions; defined in terms of people's perceptions of places; opinion in a certain place (bias). Regions in the minds of people
Use of sophisticated software to create dynamic computer maps, some of which are three-dimensional or interactive.
Von Thünen model
An agricultural model that spatially describes agricultural activity in terms of rent. Activities that require intensive cultivation and cannot be transported over great distances pay higher rent to be close to the market. Conversely, activities that are more extensive, with goods that are easy to transport, are located farther from the market where rent is less.
Geography grew from 4 distinct traditions : Earth science tradition, Culture Environment tradition , Locational Tradition, Area analysis tradition
a group of cities that form an interconnected, internationally dominant system of global control of finance and commerce
Centers of economic, culture, and political activity that are strongly interconnected and together control the global systems of finance and commerce.
theory originated by Immanuel WALLERSTEIN and illuminated by his three-tier structure, proposing that social change in the developing world is inextricably linked to the economic activities of the developed world
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
APHG Models & Theories
AP Human Geography ALL TERMS
Evolution and Classification Study Set
APHG Models & Theories