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Anatomy final- Immune system
Terms in this set (43)
What function does the immune system have?
Protection from disease, infection, or biological invasion
What is the difference between innate and adaptive defenses?
- Innate: non-specific always present defenses
- Adaptive: Specialized, specific stem cells
What is the difference between and antigen and an antibody?
-Antigen: Polysaccharide or protein that can stimulate an immune response (usually foreign)
-Antibody: Produced by B-lymphocytes to identify and neutralize antigens
What are some examples of the bodies surface innate defenses?
- Skin : sebum
-Mucosa: stomach mucous with low pH
-Hairs: nose hairs
-Cilia: in the throat
What are the two kinds of internal innate defenses in the body?
What are the two kinds of cells associated with innate internal defenses? What cells specifically fall under this category?
- Natural killer cells
- Within this are macrophages and neutrophils
How do cells of the internal innate defenses physiologically function to aid in immune processes? What 5 steps follow this?
- Immune cells bind to toll-like receptors to recognize pathogens (via neutrophil/macrophage)
- 1) Microbe adheres to phagocyte
- 2) Phagocyte forms pseudopods
- 3) Phagocytic vesicle containing antigen binds
- 4) Microbe fused vesicle killed and digested by lysozyme
- 5) Indigestible and residual substances out by exocytosis
How do natural killer cells function compared to phagocytes?
- Natural killer cells look for cancer and infected cells (cells multiplying to quickly) and inject enzymes in the cell to kill it
What are the four steps associated with inflammation?
What happens during inflammation initiation during leukocytosis and margination?
-Leukocytosis: Activation of WBC and neutrophils enter blood from bone marrow
-Margination: Production of cellular adhesion molecules (CAMs) that interact with neutrophil proteins to slow it down at site
What happens during diapedesis and chemotaxis during inflammation initiation?
-Diapedesis: Histamine expanded capillaries allow neutrophils to squeeze through clefts of endothelial layer
-Chemotaxis: Neutrophils move towards secreted chemicals from infected area
What chemical mediators are released at a wounded epithelial layer? What chemical begins the initiation of inflammation and is released as a result of the mediators?
- histamine, serotonin, polypeptide, eicosanoid
-Leukocytosis inducing factor released as a result of these
What are the two different types of chemical innate defenses?
Of the antimicrobial chemical innate defenses, What are the two kinds of defenses and what does each do?
-Interferon: thing produced by host and secreted to alert neighboring cells of invasion
-Complement system: System to coat pathogen, enhance inflammation, then attack a microbe
How does an interferon work? what system of defense is it apart of?
- Paracrine that is produced by a viral infected cell and is secreted to alert neighboring cells.
- Part of innate, chemical, antimicrobial system
What two proteins combine to form the make both aspects of the complement system? What does each do individually as well as the whole?
- C3b and C3a make C3 which is an activating system
-C3b -> opsonization - coating pathogen with molecule as a target for macrophages
-C3a -> enhances inflammation via histamines
-C3 -> membrane attack complex (MAC) - creates pores in membrane of target cell
What are the three ways the complement system can be activated?
- Classical pathway- antibodies from adapted defenses (opsonization)
- Lectin Pathway- Lectins bind to specific sugars on microorganisms surface
- Alternate pathway - Activated spontaneously (lack of surface inhibitors)
What system is a fever classified under? how does a fever work?
- innate defenses, chemical
- pyrogens (signaling molecules) cause hypothalamus to temporarily change body temp
What are the three ways the adaptive defensives can be characterized as?
-Systemic (travel all throughout body)
What are the two types of adaptive defenses?
-Humoral and cellular (cell-mediated)
Of the humoral adaptive defenses, what are the different kinds of antigens and what does each do?
- antigens - non-self
-Complete: Immunogenicity + reactivity
What is immunogenicity? How about reactivity? what is the difference between complete and incomplete antigens?
-immunogenicity: The ability for an antigen to cause a naive lymphocyte to copy fast (cloning)
-Reactivity: The response of a clone lymphocyte
- Difference: Complete has both where incomplete (haptens) only have reactivity
Besides antigens what are the other forms of humoral adaptive defenses?
- self antigens
- Antigenic determinants
What is the one type of self-antigen, what are its two subparts and what does each do?
-Major Histocompatibility complex (MHC)
-Class I: produces self-antigen on healthy cell and presents non-self antigen on sick cells
-Class II: on APC's (antigen-presenting cells) that presents non-self antigen to activate other parts of immune system
What is the classification of cellular adaptive defenses? what are the two kinds of cells? what are two properties associated with these cells?
- B cells and T Cells
-Immunocompetence - recognizing non-self
-Self tolerance: not attacking ones self
What are the three kinds of APC's? where are they housed when not needed?
- B cells, Macrophages, Dendritic cells
- Stored in red bone marrow until needed
What is the necessary steps for lymphocyte production?
1) origin - red bone marrow
2) Maturation: immunocompetence and self-tolerance
3) seeding secondary lymphoid organs and circulation
4) Antigen encounter and activation
5) Proliferation and differentiation
Where does T-cell education (selection) take place? what are the two types?
- Positive and negative selection
What is the difference between positive and negative selection?
-Positive: Selects for T-cell that can recognize MHC
If it can't recognize it goes through apoptosis
-Negative: selection against cells that react to self-antigen -> if it reacts = apoptosis
How does B-cell selection compare to T-cell selection?
It is similar to T-cell selection (Recognize MHC -> don't reach to self-antigen) but more complicated
What are the two types of B cells? What commonality is found between both?
-plasma and memory cells
-each B cell antigen receptor has two individual antigenic sites
When a B-cell recognizes its singular antigen what is the response to it in order to support the immune function?
- Primary response (initial encounter w/ antigen)
- Proliferation to form a clone
- Copies differentiate into B plasma cells + B-memory cells
What are the two kinds of acquired immunity? within them what are the two kinds? give examples
-Natural vs artificial
-Active vs passive
-Natural active: infection
-Natural passive: mothers milk
-Artificial active: vaccine
-Artificial passive: injection of immune serum (antibodies and not B-cells)
What are the basic elements forming the antibody structure?
-antigen binding site
-heavy chain (inside)
-Light chain (outside)
-Macrophage binding site (base)
How are antibodies activated and what three things inactivate them/
-activation: complement system (enhances inflammation and phagocytosis
What are the two kinds of T-cells? what MHC complex does each interact with?
- CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells
-CD8+ - interact with class I MHC antigens
-CD4+ - interact with Class II MHC's (APC's)
When a CD4 and CD8 T-cell are activated, what does each proliferate into? What do both of them become in addition to the other thing?
- CD4- Helper T-cells
- CD8- Cytotoxic T-cells
-Both become memory cells
Of CD4 and CD8 cells which one is absolutely crucial for adaptive immune function? why is that?
- CD4 cells are crucial
- needed for active lymphocytes
*CD4 protein interacts with APC when antigen is present (recognition) and this releases a stimulating molecule -> Proliferation
How is the B-lymphocyte useful for Helper T-cell to cause B-cell proliferation?
- It presents the antigen to class II MHC becoming available for the helper T-cell to bind to it
- Helper T-Cell has a double handshake of binding to stimulate B-cell proliferation
How does a Helper T-cell regulate the production of cytotoxic T-cells (CD8 cells)?
- APC has a double handshake with a CD4 protein and presents antigen to cytotoxic T-cell
-Forms double handshake with cytotoxic T-cell causing proliferation
Why is the Helper T-cell so crucial for the adaptive immune defenses? what bind does it form with the two respective cells?
-It regulates B-Cell and CD8+ T-cell activation
- Forms a double handshake with both cytotoxic T-cell or B-lymphocyte
What two proteins do CD8 cells and Natural killer cells have and what does each one do?
-Perforin's -> create pore in membrane of bad cells
-Granzymes -> digest cell from inside out
What is are the similarities and differences between CD8 and Natural killer cells?
-similarity: kill cells the same way (Perforin's and Granzymes)
-difference: formation and regulation
Recommended textbook explanations
Fundamentals of Biochemistry
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Biocalculus: Calculus for the Life Sciences
Modern Biology: Student Edition
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