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220 Final Practice Questions

Terms in this set (245)

ANS: D
Primary prevention is instituted before disease becomes established by removing the causes or
increasing resistance. Examples include the use of seatbelts and airbags in automobiles,
helmet use when riding bicycles or motorcycles, and the occupational use of mechanical
devices when lifting heavy objects. Secondary prevention is undertaken in cases of latent
(hidden) disease. Although the patient may be asymptomatic, the disease process can be
detected by medical tests. Nurses may use screening tests to assess for latent disease in
vulnerable populations. Examples of screening tests used as secondary prevention strategies
include the purified protein derivative (PPD) skin test for tuberculosis, fecal occult blood test
for colorectal cancer, and mammograms for breast cancer. Tertiary prevention, also known as
the treatment or rehabilitation stage of preventive care, is implemented when a condition or
illness is permanent and irreversible. The aim of care is to reduce the number and impact of
complications and disabilities resulting from a disease or medical condition. Interventions are
intended to reduce suffering caused by poor health and assist the patients in adjusting to
incurable conditions. Nursing care is focused on rehabilitation efforts in the tertiary stage of
prevention. Holistic care is an approach to applying healing therapies. Nurses participate in
holistic care through the use of natural healing remedies and complementary interventions.
These include the use of art and guided imagery, therapeutic touch, music therapy, relaxation
techniques, and reminiscence.
ANS: C
Secondary prevention is undertaken in cases of latent (hidden) disease. Although the patient
may be asymptomatic, the disease process can be detected by medical tests. Nurses may use
screening tests to assess for latent disease in vulnerable populations. Examples of screening
tests used as secondary prevention strategies include the purified protein derivative (PPD)
skin test for tuberculosis, fecal occult blood test for colorectal cancer, and mammograms for
breast cancer. Primary prevention is instituted before disease becomes established by
removing the causes or increasing resistance. Examples include the use of seatbelts and
airbags in automobiles, helmet use when riding bicycles or motorcycles, and the occupational
use of mechanical devices when lifting heavy objects. Tertiary prevention, also known as the
treatment or rehabilitation stage of preventive care, is implemented when a condition or
illness is permanent and irreversible. The aim of care is to reduce the number and impact of
complications and disabilities resulting from a disease or medical condition. Interventions are
intended to reduce suffering caused by poor health and assist the patients in adjusting to
incurable conditions. Nursing care is focused on rehabilitation efforts in the tertiary stage of
prevention. Holistic care is an approach to applying healing therapies. Nurses participate in
holistic care through the use of natural healing remedies and complementary interventions.
These include the use of art and guided imagery, therapeutic touch, music therapy, relaxation
techniques, and reminiscence.
ANS: A
Preventing patients from leaving a health care facility at their request may be considered false
imprisonment. To prevent health care providers and institutions from being held liable if a
patient chooses to leave a facility when physicians and nurses think that it is in the patient's
best interest to remain hospitalized, the patient is asked to sign an against medical advice
(AMA) form. A signed AMA form documents that the patient has chosen to leave the facility
when leaving could jeopardize the patient's condition. The National Student Nurses
Association adopted the Code of Academic and Clinical Conduct, in which students agree to
"promote the highest level of moral and ethical principles" and "promote an environment that
respects human rights, values, and choice of cultural and spiritual beliefs." This document
does not apply to the issue at hand. The Code of Ethics for Nurses is "a succinct statement of
the ethical obligations and duties of every individual who enters the nursing profession."
While this is resource for nurses the described situation requires nurses to follow facility
policy. Informed consent is permission granted by a patient after discussing each of the
following topics with the physician, surgeon, or advanced practice nurse who will perform the
surgery or procedure: (1) exact details of the treatment, (2) necessity of the treatment, (3) all
known benefits and risks involved, (4) available alternatives, and (5) risks of treatment
refusal. This does not apply to the stated situation.