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Chapters 13-14 Psychology
Terms in this set (127)
Which disorder is often accompanied by "free-floating" anxiety?
generalized anxiety disorder
Which pair consists of negative symptoms of schizophrenia?
apathy and avolition
Last month Pam was giddy, impulsive, and talkative; this month she is sad, silent, and almost motionless. What is the most likely diagnosis?
The cognitive element of depression is most accurately described by which statement uttered by a client during an interview?
"It is my fault, I am the one to blame."
Jerry believes that space aliens have come to Earth. What's more, he is afraid that they want to kidnap him, so he is in a constant state of fear. Nevertheless, he manages to do his work effectively. Which pair of criteria of abnormality would be most useful in analyzing Jerry's situation?
Personal distress and statistical rarity
Anxiety disorders have three categories of indicators that include symptoms such as: (1) shakiness and stuttering, (2) rapid heart rate and dry mouth, and (3) difficulty concentrating and thoughts that fuel the anxiety. These three groups represent which three categories, respectively?
behavioral, physiological, and cognitive
Your aunt prefers to stay in her home and avoid public places and social situations. She would be diagnosed with
Which of these is the best description of dysthymic disorder?
milder, chronic form of depression
Maria is a retired factory worker who feels "trapped" in her home; she stays in her house all the time so she does not experience anxiety attacks. Which criteria would be most useful in deciding whether Maria's case represents an example of abnormality?
personal distress and dysfunctional
Which of these are among the most frequently occurring disorders found in surveys of the one-year prevalence of mental disorders?
alcohol/drug abuse or dependence, major depressive disorder, and phobias
In which disorder does a person feel uncomfortable with his or her anatomical sex and views it as inappropriate?
A newly admitted patient believes he can "leap tall buildings in a single bound" and "stop a speeding bullet" with the force of his mind. When the patient was discussed at a case conference, the psychologist responsible for his treatment noted that the major symptom was a
delusion of grandeur
Which model of abnormality emphasizes factors such as poverty and discrimination?
Although Ted has a dog phobia, he has never been attacked or bitten by a dog. He probably developed this phobia through
What term describes disorders in which severely disturbed individuals lose contact with reality and may require hospitalization?
Which of these is a positive symptom of schizophrenia?
A recent newspaper article described a patient as comorbid. What would you conclude about this patient?
The patient suffers from more than one disorder
Which individual exhibits the condition known as transsexualism?
Paul, who has male genitals but believes he is trapped in the wrong body
In large-scale surveys of psychological disorders, which category of disorders is most frequently reported by survey participants?
Which anxiety disorder is characterized by intense physiological reactions in the absence of any specific stimulus?
A hospital patient was diagnosed as suffering from schizophrenia based on the following symptoms: delusions, hallucinations, and use of neologisms. What type of symptoms are these?
The other day Ann was complaining about the insanity plea; she was concerned that mental health professionals were making decisions that could lead individuals to serve no time for their crimes. What could you tell Ann that would correct some of her misinformation?
Whether a person is found "not guilty by reason of insanity" is a decision made by a judge or a jury, not mental health professionals.
The treatment recommended for a patient at the mental health clinic is phototherapy. What is the likely diagnosis?
seasonal affective disorder
According to the DSM-IV, how are personality disorders organized?
10 disorders are grouped into three clusters
Dale reported numbness in his entire hand from the wrist down. This symptom, however, is not consistent with the organization of the nervous system. A physician found no medical explanation for the numbness and refers Dale to a psychiatrist, who is likely to consider the diagnosis of
Which group has the highest rate of suicide?
Bert's parents were diagnosed as suffering from schizophrenia; he lived with them for the first six years of his life. Then he moved to a foster home where he was physically and emotionally abused for ten years before he was hospitalized for treatment of schizophrenia. Which model of abnormality provides the best explanation of his behavior?
What happens when people with obsessive-compulsive disorder engage in compulsive behaviors?
Depressed people may jump to conclusions based on insufficient evidence. This flaw in their thinking is called
Which model suggests that there are multiple causes of abnormal behavior?
You just received your ACT or SAT scores and they were low. Which explanation of the low scores is most likely to lead to depression?
"I'm stupid and will never make it in college."
What biological factor is related to antisocial personality disorder?
low levels of physiological arousal
What evidence suggests that neurotransmitter imbalances may not provide the whole picture of the cause of depression?
Antidepressant drugs alter neurotransmitter levels almost immediately, yet the effects on mood take as long as two weeks.
What is the key element of schizophrenia?
split from reality
For which age group does suicide constitute the third most frequent cause of death?
The police found a man wandering through the downtown area. The man was disheveled and seemed to be in a daze. When the police asked the man for his name, he seemed bewildered. A search of missing persons reports revealed he had been reported missing three months ago in a town more than 700 miles away. The man is most likely suffering from
Necrophilia is defined as sexual contact with
A psychologist is lecturing about the biopsychosocial model of the development of abnormal behavior. What are the implications of this model?
Inheriting a predisposition does not necessarily cause a disorder in the absence of environmental factors.
Stan's speech is often described as odd and his perceptions typically don't match those of people around him. In addition, he is socially isolated, suspicious, and dresses in unusual clothing. If he had a personality disorder, which one would be most likely?
A preoccupation with physical symptoms believed to indicate a serious illness is indicative of
illness anxiety disorder
What are longstanding patterns of maladaptive behavior that are usually evident during adolescence and are highly resistant to treatment?
A patient in a mental hospital exhibits disordered thinking, perceptual abnormalities, unusual emotions, and suspiciousness. This person is probably suffering from
What are negative symptoms of schizophrenia?
reductions or losses of functioning
What term is used for the percentage of twin pairs in which both twins have the same disorder?
A patient is being treated with lithium. Based on this information, it is likely that the diagnosis is
What is the sex ratio of the diagnosis of obsessive-compulsive disorder?
There is no sex difference in overall rate across all ages.
Which symptoms are characteristic of a person during a manic episode?
ignoring harmful consequences of actions
What term do epidemiologists use to designate the rate or number of new cases of a disorder reported during a specified period?
What family variable is linked to relapse risk in people with schizophrenia who live with their families?
Kevin is an Iraqi war veteran who has frequent dreams and flashbacks about bombings, angry outbursts, emotional numbness, trouble sleeping, and hypervigilance. Kevin is probably suffering from
post traumatic stress disorder
Disorders that range from severe depression to excessive euphoria are termed
What are positive symptoms of schizophrenia?
distortions or excesses in functioning
A person who suffers from bipolar disorder alternates between
depression and mania
Frank just started attending college. His first quiz is returned with a big F on it. He concludes that he will never pass any college courses. What type of logical error has Frank committed?
Someone with "stage fright" might have a(n)
social anxiety disorder
Which patient is experiencing the most common type of hallucination reported by people diagnosed as suffering from schizophrenia?
Alice, who hears voices telling her to harm her neighbors.
Alexa has frequent episodes where she feels detached from herself and her environment. These episodes are persistent and recurring and are starting to interfere with her life. Alexa is probably suffering from
Amy has been collecting baseball cards for years. At the drop of a hat, she will launch into a lengthy discussion of her collection, the price of cards, and her plans for purchasing more cards. Her friends say she must be suffering from obsessive-compulsive disorder. You disagree. What do you say to her friends when they ask why you disagree?
Unlike an obsessive-compulsive, Amy derives pleasure from this activity.
Ann constantly complains of a large number of physical symptoms that don't center around a particular ailment. After finding no medical explanation for her symptoms, a physician suspects Ann suffers from
somatic symptom disorder
While Sid is sitting at his desk at work, an image of harming his young son pops into his mind. Each time this occurs, he touches all four corners of his desk in a particular order. Sid probably suffers from
Which mental health client seems to have the symptoms of cyclothymic disorder?
Harry, who has the symptoms of depression and mania in a milder, yet chronic form than found in bipolar disorder
What disorder is likely to be diagnosed when there is a loss of a particular function of the mind, such as memory or self-awareness, usually in response to extreme stress?
Ed and Joe both experience rapidly accelerating heart rate and feelings of extreme anxiety. Ed thinks he is "going crazy" and has a panic attack, but Joe concludes that he has been under a lot of stress at work lately. Which theory can be used to explain the different reactions of Ed and Joe?
Most cases of dissociative identity disorder are associated with
abuse during childhood
The belief that you are a special agent for the Intergalactic Supernova is an example of a
John believes he is more intelligent and handsome than most people. He expects others to do favors for him but he does not return these favors. He is also pompous and likes to talk about himself. John shows evidence of which personality disorder?
A person who is described as a "chronic worrier" and experiences extreme difficulty making decisions is likely suffering from
generalized anxiety disorder
Researchers have recently used brain scans to study people with antisocial personality disorder. What have they uncovered about the brains of these individuals, as compared to control participants?
They have less volume in the prefrontal cortex
Which person has the highest risk of committing suicide?
James, a divorced 58-year-old white man
People who act impulsively, don't tolerate frustration, want their desires satisfied immediately, fail to develop emotional attachments, and show no remorse would be diagnosed with what personality disorder?
Linda is afraid of cats because when she was a little girl, a cat scared her by jumping out of her closet and onto her face. Which model of abnormality offers the best explanation of Linda's fear?
Sam is looking for a job to earn money and to put him near stimuli he uses to achieve sexual excitement. He gets the ideal job at a shoe store; however, he is fired when his interactions with customers provide evidence that he has which sexual disorder?
Pedophiles are sexually aroused by
The year is 1952 and you have just read Hans Eysenck's study of the effectiveness of psychotherapy. A friend who has been thinking of beginning therapy asks your advice one last time. What do you tell her?
"Don't waste your time with therapy; you would do just as well without it."
What is the most important reason that minority groups find therapy to be inadequate?
therapists do not provide culturally responsive forms of therapy
A parent wants to stop her child from throwing temper tantrums. You suggest that she use extinction and advise her to
ignore the tantrums and pay attention to the child when he is calm.
Thoughts and beliefs hold the key to understanding psychological disorders, according to
After taking a medical history and examining Ted, his physician prescribes Valium. Which symptom is the physician likely to be treating with this drug?
On the door of the refrigerator is a sheet of paper with check marks on it. Every time Alice cleans her room properly and makes the bed she receives a check mark. When she accumulates 100 check marks, she can get the new video game she wants. What type of behavioral program are Alice's parents using?
What aspect of a client are the targets of a cognitive therapist?
thoughts and beliefs
What ancient idea concerning the origins of abnormal behavior is reflected in modern questions such as, "What has gotten into you?"
belief in demon possession
According to Albert Ellis, we become unhappy and depressed about events because of
our irrational beliefs
What disorder results from syphilis?
Your friend has been taking antipsychotic drugs for several years. He is growing increasingly upset about uncontrollable facial twitches, grimaces, and lip smacking. He describes these symptoms to a psychiatrist, who says he has developed
Clients who improve without receiving treatment are demonstrating
A group of adolescents who had been victims of sexual abuse establish a crisis line for similar young people. What type of prevention program does this crisis line represent?
Which therapeutic approach was developed by Sigmund Freud?
What did Carl Rogers view as the root cause of most personal problems?
differences between an individual's ideal self and real self
You walk into your next class and see the following on the blackboard: "cognitive triad." Based on your knowledge of psychology, what will you conclude was the topic of the previous class?
negative views of self, world, and future that can lead to depression
What technique would you use if you wanted to reward patients in a mental hospital instantly for showing appropriate behaviors?
Early asylums or mental hospitals were characterized by disorganization and poor treatment of patients. What term based on experiences at St. Mary of Bethlehem Hospital is used to describe such conditions?
Which client would be MOST likely to benefit from self-monitoring?
Jonathan who has been diagnosed with obsessive-compulsive disorder
According to Jack Engler and Daniel Goleman, what reason should be considered when deciding whether to seek therapy?
whether distress is affecting your personal life
What did Hippocrates view as the cause of physical and psychological disorders?
imbalances among humors
Don is a psychiatrist in private practice. When you look on his office wall you will find evidence that he earned which degree?
In addition to their use in treating anxiety disorders, antianxiety drugs are also used to treat
insomnia and muscle spasms
Some alcoholics are treated with a form of aversion therapy that involves a drug. What might the patient be given in this form of treatment?
an alcoholic beverage and Antabuse
What is a recent trend in psychotherapy?
fewer sessions and a focus on the most troubling symptoms
In a famous case, an infant vomited every time he was fed. He lost a lot of weight and was near death because no treatment (even surgery) worked. Finally, he was shocked each time he began to vomit. He stopped vomiting, began eating normally, and recovered fully. What technique was used?
What was the basic premise of the treatment called moral therapy?
Providing a humane and relaxed environment would bring about positive changes.
If Dr. Kandu says the goal of therapy is to probe unconscious feelings and conflicts, which treatment approach is he using?
_________________ describes a CBT (cognitive behavior therapy) technique in which clients learn how to identify and record the occurrence of incorrect or irrational thoughts and to test the validity of these thoughts.
Judy's therapist listens to her without interrupting, never evaluating or judging her. This therapist is demonstrating
unconditional positive regard
What is the primary goal of client-centered therapy?
to provide a caring and accepting environment
Ann was telling her relatives some of the advantages of her group therapy sessions. For example, she often learns about herself through observation of other group members. What phenomenon is she describing?
Sally's therapist wants her to bring her parents and siblings to counseling sessions with her. Sally is going through
What term do psychologists use for negative cognitions that become a habitual part of the way a depressed person thinks?
What does research comparing cognitive therapy to drug therapy for depression demonstrate about the effectiveness of these two forms of treatment?
Cognitive therapy performed as well as drug therapy
Tess is about to undergo a treatment called systematic desensitization. Which of these is a component of that treatment?
She will learn to associate relaxation with scenes related to her phobia.
What are the two broad categories of treatments for psychological disorders?
biomedical and psychological
You flunk a test in your psychology class and become depressed over it. What does Albert Ellis view as the root of your depression?
your belief that flunking a test shows that you are stupid
your belief that flunking a test shows that you are stupid
Dr. Echolm is a humanistic therapist. Which assumption is he likely to hold?
People possess an innate goodness
John and his wife are having trouble communicating and getting along with one another. What type of therapy are they most likely to consider?
Which method of treating phobias involves progressive relaxation and exposure to the feared object (either actual or imagined)?
Your friend wishes to stop his child from throwing temper tantrums and decides to use extinction. What would you tell him to expect?
The child will increase the tantrums immediately and then gradually stop them.
You let your fingers do the walking through the Yellow Pages looking for a psychotherapist. Your attention is drawn to an advertisement for a group practice described as eclectic. When you call the receptionist to ask for a description of the practice, what will you be told?
"Our staff uses a variety of therapeutic approaches in their work."
Why is it difficult to evaluate the effectiveness of psychoanalytic therapy?
Whether a patient has gained insight into unconscious processes is hard to determine.
Lydia is a divorced mother who attends meetings with peers who share the same problems and stressful situations. There is no professional present at these meetings. What type of sessions is Lydia attending?
A character in a movie was given a prescription for an anticonvulsant by a psychiatrist. Although the movie has yet to reveal the character's specific psychological disorder, based on the prescription you believe he suffers from
According to humanistic therapists, what types of clients are more able to resolve their own problems?
clients who are more accepting
For which problem would systematic desensitization most likely be used?
A fear of heights restricts Joe's enrollment to classes that meet on the first floor.
What is one reason a state can commit an individual involuntarily to a mental hospital?
What do behavior therapists see as the cause of maladaptive behaviors?
What factor led to a decline in the number of mentally ill patients in institutions in the United States?
What treatment evolved from Franz Anton Mesmer's technique of animal magnetism?
What is the oldest and largest self-help group?
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