1. challenged Puritan religious authorities in Massachusetts Bay 2. Puritan authorities banished her because she challenged religious doctrine, gender roles, and clerical authority, and she claimed to have had revelations from God.
1. usually lost control of their property when they married 2. had no separate legal identity apart from their husband 3. could not hold political office, serve as clergy, vote, or serve as jurors 4. singles and widows did have the legal right to own property 5. indentured servants could not marry until service was over
1. led by middle-class women 2. promoted a board-based platform of legal and education rights 3. closely linked to the antislavery and temperance movements 4. held conventions in the Northeast and Midwest but NOT in the South 5. advocated for: voting rights, abolition of slavery, passage of temperance laws, right of married women to own property
1. best known for founding Hull House in Chicago (NOTE: she is not an abolitionist) 2. Hull House and other settlement houses became centers of women's activism and reform efforts to help the urban poor. 3. offered services such as: cooking classes, dressmaking classes, literacy and language classes for immigrants, nurseries for working mothers, trained teachers and cigar makers, publishing reports on deplorable housing conditions 4. women were least likely to become physicians or lawyers
1. symbolized the new freedom by challenging traditional American attitudes about women 2. favored short bobbed hair, smoked cigarettes, wore one-piece bathing suits, short dresses, makeup, etc 3. few women actually lived this way, but the look was fashionable among college-aged women, office workers, and store clerks
Women and the Workforce1. Even with new jobs, the percentage of single women in the labor force actually declined between 1920-1930.
2. did not receive equal pay and faced discrimination
3. more married women did not seek employmentMargaret Sangeran outspoken reformer who openly championed birth control for womenDecline of Feminist MovementThe following factors caused the movement's decline
1. The passage of the 19th Amendment
2. changing manners and morality (flappers)
3. dissension among women's groups concerning goals
4. the decline of the Progressive Era reform movementEleanor Roosevelta strong supporter of women's rights during the period of the New DealWorld War II1. stimulated a widespread movement of women into factory work
2. married women entered the workforce in large numbers (drastic change!)
3. "Rosie the Riveter" was a nickname given to women who worked in American's factories during WWII.The 1950sAfter WWII, women were encouraged to give up their factory jobs and return home, where they would devote themselves to being wives and mothers.Betty Friedan1. wrote The Feminine Mystique and was the first president of the National Organization for Women (founded in 1966 to challenge sex discrimination in the the workplace).
2. from her book: "she was afraid to ask even of herself the silent question-'Is this all?'"
3. feminism tended to be a movement of middle class women
4. best known for her criticism of traditional gender rolesThe Expansion of Women's Rights since 19631. The Equal Credit Opportunity Act of 1974
2. The Supreme Court decision in Roe v. Wade
3. Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964
4. Affirmative action regulationsThe Equal Rights Amendment (ERA)1. did not pass, so technically not an amendment
2. Phyllis Schlafly led a campaign to block ratification of the ERAFemale Vice-Presidential Candidates1. Geraldine Ferraro was the first women nominated for VP in the Democratic party, alongside Walter Mondale in 1984.
2. Sarah Palin was the first woman nominated for VP by the Republican party, alongside John McCain in 2008.