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Final exam / State testing
Terms in this set (239)
Five guidelines for successful FF training
Be safe, follow orders, work as a team, think !, follow the golden rule
mission of the fire service
To save lives and protect property and the environment from fires and other hazardous situations through prevention, education, suppression, and rescue activities
Culture of the fire service
Courage, honor, duty, respect, integrity, character, moral courage
Leads the company both on the scene and at the station
Watches the overall operation for unsafe practices
Responsible for updating the training of current fire fighters and for training new firefighters. Must be aware of the most current techniques of firefighting and EMS.
The individual who has overall command of the scene in the field
Delivers, manages, and/or administers fire protection and life safety-related codes and standards, investigations, education, and/or prevention services
Inspect businesses and enforces public safety laws and fire codes
Investigates cause of fires
Fire and life safety educator (FLSE)
Educates the public about fire safety and injury prevention
Information management professionals
FFs or civilians who take care of an FDs computer network system
Public information officer PIO
Liaison between the IC and news media
Fire protection engineer
A member of the fire department who is responsible for reviewing plans and working with building systems for fire detection and suppression will meet code and function as needed.
Emergency medical responder
Police, fire, lifeguard, etc. have basic training and often perform in an assistant role with the ambulance
Emergency Medical Technician (EMT)
Provide basic emergency care skills; o2 therapy, bleeding control, CPR, automated external defibrillation, basic airway devices, assist patients with certain medical conditions
Advanced Emergency Medical Technician (AEMT)
A person trained in emergency care, with the additional training to allow insertion of IVs, administration of medications, performance of advanced airway procedures, and setting up and assessing of electrocardiograms (ECGs or EKGs); formerly referred to as EMT-Intermediate.
An individual who has extensive training in advanced life support, including endotracheal intubation, emergency pharmacology, cardiac monitoring, and other advanced assessment and treatment skills.
Five Es of risk reduction
Education, engineering, enforcement, economic incentives, and emergency response
Characteristics of community risk reduction program (CRR)
Identify risks, prioritize tasks, develop strategies and tactics to mitigate risks, prepare CRR plan, supplement CRR plan, monitor / evaluate / and modify the plan
Concept of Governance
The process by which an organization exercises authority and performs the functions assigned to it.
Community risk reduction
A comprehensive unifying approach to prevent or mitigate the loss of life, property, and resources associated with life safety, fire, and other disasters
What does FD governance depend on
Regulations, standards, policies, and SOPs
Fire companies that are responsible for securing a water source, deploying hose lines, conducting search and rescue operations, and putting water on the fire.
A fire company that specializes in forcible entry, ventilation, roof operations, search and rescue operations above the fire, and deployment of ground ladders. Ladder company
a group of fire fighters who work as a unit and are equipped with one or more rescue vehicles
Different FD companies
Engine, truck, rescue, wildland, hazmat, EMS
Basic Chain of Command
FF, lieutenant, caption, battalion chief, assistant division chief, chief of the department
Four basic management principles used to maintain organization in the FD
Discipline, division of labor, unity of command, span of control
Set of guidelines that a FD establishes for FFs. Regulations, policies, and procedures
division of labor
Division of work into a number of separate tasks to be performed by different workers
unity of command
The concept that each FF answers to only one supervisor
span of control
the optimal number of subordinates a manager supervises or should supervise. 3-7
Major causes of death and injury in FFs
Stress/overexertion/medical issues, cardiac events, motor vehicle accidents.
Majority (42%) of FF deaths are caused by
Stress, overexertion, and medical issues
Cardiac deaths are responsible for ___% of FF deaths
What is the second leading cause of FF fatalities
Motor vehicle accidents
What causes the majority of fire ground injuries
Overexertion & strain
Who develops standards that help to standardize training courses, apparatus, equipment, and operations? Their mission is focused on safety
The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA)
Along with a variety of state and provincial health and safety agencies, ______ develops and enforces government regulations on workplace safety, and in some cases responder safety
The federal occupational safety and health administration (OSHA)
You should drink _____of water every _____
8 to 10oz , 5 to 10min
Signs and stages of behavioral and emotional distress
Anxiety, denial/disbelief, frustration/anger, inability to function logically, remorse, grief, reconciliation/acceptance
Standard on FD occupational safety, health, and wellness programs
Standard for FD professional qualifications, require all FFs to be in seats with seatbelts
Provides thermal protection, repels water, protection against cuts/abrasions, impact protection, furnishes padding against injury, respiratory protection
Structural FF PPE
Hard exterior shell. Provides protection from falling objects, repels water, protects against steam, creates thermal barrier against heat and cold
What is the hood constructed of
Nomex, PBI, or carbon fiber
How many layers do structural firefighting coats have
The _____ or shell of the structural FF coat is made of ______
Nomex, Kevlar, or PBI
What is the second layer of the structural FF coat
Helps prevent the transfer of water, steam, and other fluids to the skin
PPE moisture barrier
The third layer of structural FF PPE
Made of quilted material that insulates the body from external temps & keeps body warm in the cold
Thermal barrier / layer
Must resist heat, liquid absorption, vapors, cuts, and penetration. Liner adds thermal protection and serves as a moisture barrier.
Carcinogens, carbon monoxide, cyanide compounds, formaldehyde, oxides of nitrogen, smoke particles are all _______
Airborne products of combustion / respiratory hazards posed by smoke and fire
Uses the air that is supplied from a source independent of the ambient (room) air
Atmosphere supplying respirators (ASRs)
Supplied Air Respirator
Uses external source of breathing air
Air-Purifying Respirator (APR)
system of filtering a normal environment for a specific chemical substance using filter cartridges.
Recycles exhaled air
Closed circuit breathing apparatus
The part of SCBA that allows fire fighters to wear it as a "backpack."
Components of SCBA harness
Frame/backpack, straps, fasteners, Kevlar
Holds the breathing air
Mounted of waist belt / should strap
Controls flow of air
Heads up display
Face piece components
Low pressure supply hose / harness mounted regulator
Heads up display
A visual display of information and system conditions status that is visible to the wearer of the SCBA.
Low air alarms
End of service time indicators (OFSTIs)
Rapid intervention crew uses this connection to refill SCBA cylinder of trapped FF
Universal air connection ( RIC UAC )
Breathing techniques used to conserve air supply
Reilly (humming) technique
Controlled breathing technique (in nose, out mouth)
Role of communications center
Dispatch multiple or a single agency
Standard for public safety telecommunications personal and professional qualification
a combination of hardware, software, and communications technology
Computer aided dispatch (CAD)
First step in processing and emergency incident
Second step in processing and emergency incident
Third step in processing and emergency incident
Classification & prioritization
Fourth step in processing and emergency incident
Fifth step in processing an emergency incident
Fire alarm boxes, emergency telephones
Types of Municipal fire alarms
Hard-wired phone line, computer based data link, microwave transmission system, or radio system
a handheld two-way radio
a two-way radio that is used or affixed in a vehicle
Permanently mounted radio in buildings
A path for the transmission of signals
A radio system that uses one frequency to transmit and receive all messages. Messages go directly from radio to every other radio on that station
A radio system that uses two frequencies per channel; one frequency transmits and the other receives messages. Such a system uses a repeater site to transmit messages over a greater distance than is possible with a simplex system.
Analog & digital signals that can simultaneously transmit two or more different types of info, such as voice and telemetry in either or both directions over the same frequency
A special base station radio that receives messages and signals on one frequency and then automatically retransmits them on a second frequency.
Allows transmission of computer signals or voice signals that have been digitized and compressed by computer
A radio system that uses computer control to automatically assign channels to one group out of an available pool to users and groups of users. 800 or 900 MHz systems
How often should IC update the communications center
Every 10-20min or when the situation changes significantly
An urgent message that takes priority over all other communications
Three blasts on the apparatus air horn
Sirens sounds "high-low" for 15 seconds
How many times should an evacuation signal be announced
At least three
A rapid chemical process that produces heat and usually light && is characterized by the production of a flame
Requires fuel that is in the form of combustible gas or vapor in order for the chemical process of combustion to occur
Three states of matter
solid, liquid, gas
Definite shape and volume
A state of matter that has no definite shape but has a definite volume.
A state of matter with no definite shape or volume
Chemical, mechanical, electrical, light, and nuclear
Five forms of energy
Energy created by a chemical reaction
Converted to heat when two materials rub together and create friction
The energy of electric charges
Produced by electromagnetic waves packaged in discrete bundles called photons
Created by splitting the nucleus of an atom into two smaller nuclei
Created by combining two small nuclei into one large nucleus
What does the fire triangle consist of
oxygen, heat, fuel
A chemical chain reaction that unites fuel, oxygen, and heat in the _______
A rapid chemical process in which the combination of a substance with o2 produces heat and light (fire)
By products of combustion are collectively called ______
Unburned, partially burned, or completely burned substances
CO ; deadly in small quantities, odorless
Formed when plastic and foam products such as furniture and polyvinyl chloride pipe used in residential construction burn
Hydrogen Cyanide (HCN)
Quickly absorbed and interferes with cellular respiration
Small amount can incapacitate you
Formed from incomplete combustion
Causes itchy eyes, sore throat, burning cough, pulmonary edema, and death
Produced when sufficient o2 is available to allow for complete combustion
Non-toxic, however can displace o2 and cause hypoxia and asphyxiation
The process of transferring heat to & through one solid to another
Occurs when two solids are in contact with each other and one has a higher temp than the other
The circulatory movement that occurs in a gas or fluid such as air or water, with areas of differing temps being present in the same medium
The transfer of heat through the emission of energy in the form of invisible electromagnetic waves
The areas within a structure where heat, smoke, and air flow from areas of higher pressure to lower pressure
Cooling burning material
Excluding o2 from the air
Removing fuel from a fire
Interrupt the chemical chain reaction
The four methods of extinguishing fires
Class A fire
1-A through 40-A
Class A fire
Flammable or combustible liquids
1-B through 640-B
Class B fire
Class C Fire
energized electrical equipment
Class C Fire Symbol
(energized electrical equipment)
Class B Fire Symbol
(flammable liquids, gases & greases)
Class D Fire
Class D Fire Symbol
(certain combustible metals...*uncommon)
Class K Fire
Kitchen fires involving cooking oils and fats
Configuration of fuel
Three factors, surface-to-mass ratio, orientation of the fuel, continuity of the fuel
four stages of fire development
Fully developed stage
First stage of fire
Occurs when there is an adequate supply of fuel, oxygen, and heat or ignition
Produces more interaction and is more dependent on the environment in the compartment around it
Fully Developed Stage
Stage of burning process where energy release is at maximum rate and is limited only by availability of fuel and oxygen.
Occurs because of a decrease in fuel supply or oxygen becoming limited
The stratification (heat layers) that occurs in a room as a result of a fire.
Interface at a vent , such as a doorway or a window between the hot gas flowing out of a fire compartment and the cool air flowing into the compartment where the pressure difference between the interior and the exterior is 0
Condition in which unburned fuel (pyrolysate) from the originating fire has accumulated in the ceiling layer to a sufficient enough concentration that it ignites and burns.
Can occur without ignition of, or prior to the ignition of, other fuels separate from the origin.
Also known as flameover
Transition phase in which surfaces exposed to thermal radiation reach ignition temp more or less at the same time, and fire spreads rapidly, resulting in full involvement of the room
The explosive burning of heated gases that occurs when oxygen is introduced into a compartment that has a high concentration of flammable gases and a depleted supply of oxygen due to an existing fire.
Fuel limited fire
Fires in which the heat release rate and fire growth are controlled by
the characteristics of the fuel because adequate oxygen is available for combustion.
Ventilation limited fire
A fire in which the heat release rate and fire growth are regulated by the available oxygen within the space.
Violent release of confined energy that occurs when a mix of flammable gases and o2 is present and comes into contact with ignition source
The fuel and air must be present at a concentration within a flammable range.
There must be an ignition source with enough energy to start ignition.
The ignition source and the fuel mixture must make contact for long enough to transfer the energy to the air-fuel mixture
Characteristics of liquids fuel fires
The temperature at which a liquid changes to a gas
the minimum temperature at which a liquid fuel produces enough vapor to burn (a flammable vapor)
The lowest temp at which a liquid produces enough vapor to sustain a continuous fire
The weight of a gas fuel / the weight of the gas compares to air
The minimum amount of gaseous fuel that must be present in a gas-air mixture for the mixture to be flammable
Lower explosive limit (LEL) / lower flammable limit (LFL)
Upper Explosive Limit (UEL)
Is the maximum vapor to air concentration above, which a flame will not propagate. Also known as "too rich to burn."
Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapor Explosion. A rapid pressure increase in a confined vessel that results in a sudden release of pressure as the vessel ruptures
Four key attributes of smoke
Characteristics of masonry building materials
can act as heat sink or reservoir
Fire can spread through unprotected openings
Can collapse if exposed to fire for a long time
Naturally fire resistive
Does not burn or conduct heat well
Concrete building materials
Does not have a high degree of thermal expansion
Strong under compression
Weak under tension
Can be damaged by fire
Concrete building materials
Sever spalling can expose steel used to reinforce concrete causing ______
The steel to weaken and structural collapse
Strongest material in terms of tension and compression
Not fire resistive
Melts in high temps
Conducts heat well
Expands and loses strength under raising temps
Steel building materials
Shatters into small pieces that don't have sharp edges
glass that is strengthened by introducing stress through rapid heating and cooling of the glass surfaces
two sheets of ordinary glass bonded together with a plastic film
Thick pieces of glass that are similar to bricks or tile
Can usually withstand fire
Some of this type of glass is approved to use with fire rated masonry walls
A rolled glass in which wire mesh is inserted during the process of manufacture.
A prefabricated form of plaster used in place of conventional three-coat interior plaster.
Mineral used in the formation of plaster of Paris and stone
Will not burn in atmospheres even with pure o2
A plastic material capable of being repeatedly softened by heating and hardened by cooling and, that in the softened state, can be repeatedly shaped by molding or forming.
A plastic material that, after having been cured by heat or other means, is substantially infusible and cannot be softened and formed. Will not melt as plastic burns
Type I construction (fire resistive)
Buildings with structural members made of noncombustible materials that have a specified fire resistance.
Type II construction (noncombustible)
Buildings with structural members made of noncombustible materials without fire resistance.
Type III construction (ordinary)
Buildings with the exterior walls made of noncombustible or limited-combustible materials, but with interior floors and walls made of combustible materials.
Type IV construction (heavy timber)
Buildings constructed with noncombustible or limited-combustible exterior walls, and interior walls and floors made of large-dimension combustible materials.
Type V construction (wood frame)
Buildings with exterior walls, interior walls, floors, and roof structures made of wood.
Balloon Frame Construction
A construction method using long continuous studs that run from the sill plate (located on the foundation) to the roof eave line. All intermediate floor structures are attached to the studs. Requires the use of long lumber and generally lacks any type of fire stopping within the wall cavity.
Platform Frame Construction
Construction technique for building the frame of the structure one floor at a time. Each floor has a top and bottom plate that acts as a firestop.
Purpose of foundation in a structure
To transfer the weight of the building and it's contents to the ground
Three major components of roof assemblies
A roof with sloping or inclined surfaces.
A roof with a curved shape
Used in supermarkets , warehouses
Flat roofs normally have _________ venting systems
Two parallel horizontal members connected by a system of diagonal , sometimes vertical, members
The top and bottom members of a truss.
Connection pieces of a truss
factory made assembly consisting of small wood members and held together with plate connectors
Pitched cord truss
Roof deck supported by top chords, ceilings or rooms attached to bottom chords
Supports sloped roof
Pitched chord truss
Lightweight truss design noted by the bow shape, or curve, of the top chord.
How many types of trusses are there
Parallel chord truss
Pitched chord truss
Three types of trusses
Load Bearing Wall
A structural wall that carries loads other than its own weight.
A wall supporting no load other than its own weight.
A wall that is located on or at a boundary line between two adjoining parcels of land and is used or is intended to be used by the owners of both properties.
Interior walls that extend from floor to the underside of the floor above
Fire barrier wall
Fire rated assemblies that enclose interior vertical openings , such as stairwells, elevator shafts, and chases for building utilities. Prevent smoke from spreading floor to floor
Non bearing exterior walls attached to the outside of a building
Must close automatically when fire occurs
Areas where the quantity, combustibility, heat release of the materials are low, and the majority of the materials are arranged so that a fire is not likely to spread
Light (low) hazard area
Ordinary (moderate) hazard area
Contain more class A and class B materials than light hazard
Extra (high) hazard area
Most class A/B conductors
Highest rates for combustibility and heat
PKP, CO2, AFFF
Solid stream 35-40ft
55sec discharge time
Stored-pressure water type extinguisher
Loaded-stream fire extinguisher
A water-based fire extinguisher that uses an alkali metal salt as a freezing-point depressant.
Pump tank fire extinguisher
A nonpressurized, manually operated water extinguisher, which usually has a nozzle at the end of a short hose.
Dry chemical extinguisher
Used for A, B, and C class fires
Sodium bicarbonate (class B, C)
Potassium bicarbonate (class B, C)
Urea-based potassium bicarbonate (class B, C)
Ammonium phosphate (class A, B, C)
Five compounds used in dry chem extinguishers
Usually in small household extinguishers
Advantages of water extinguishers
Effective on class B fires
Can be used on class C
Can be stored and used in areas where temps fall below freezing
multipurpose dry chemical extinguisher
a dry chemical extinguishing agent used on class A, class B, and class C fires.
Carbon dioxide extinguishing agent
Class B & C fires
Class B foam
Aqueous film-forming foam (AFFF) / film-forming fluoroprotein foam (FFFP)
Foam solution that floats on the the surface of the burning thing and creates a blanket cutting off fire from fuel
Class B foam
Aqueous Film Forming Foam (AFFF)
Synthetic foam concentrate that, when combined with water, can form a complete vapor barrier over fuel spills and fires and is a highly effective extinguishing and blanketing agent on hydrocarbon fuels.
Film Forming Fluoroprotein Foam (FFFP)
Foam concentrate that combines the qualities of fluoroprotein foam with those of aqueous film forming foam.
Class A foam
A firefighting foam for use on Class A fires—that is, fires involving ordinary combustible materials such as wood, paper, and textiles.
Wet chemical extinguishing agent
An extinguishing agent for Class K fires. It commonly consists of solutions of water and potassium acetate, potassium carbonate, potassium citrate, or any combination thereof.
Chemical compounds (halogenated hydrocarbons) that contain carbon plus one or more elements from the halogen series. Halon 1301 and Halon 1211 are most commonly used as extinguishing agents for Class B and Class C fires. Also called Halogenated Hydrocarbons.
Dry Powder Extinguishers
Are used on Class D fires. They form a solid crust over the burning metal. Most common powder used is sodium chloride.
How often should fire extinguishers by hydrostatic tested
Every 5-12 years
box end wrench
A wrench, usually double-ended, that has a closed socket that fits over the head of a bolt.
open end wrench
A nonadjustable wrench with an opening at each end that determines the size of the wrench.
Sharp prong and hook of steel, on a wood, metal, fiberglass, or plastic handle of varying length, used for pulling, dragging, and probing.
Used in tight spaces
2-4 feet long
can provide access to outward swinging latch-type doors.
A multipurpose tool that can be used for several forcible entry and ventilation applications because of its unique design. It may also be used as a hydrant wrench.
A steel bar with two main features: a large pick and a large chisel or fork.
Specialized striking tool with an ax on one end and a sledge hammer on the other
type of handsaw that's used to cut curved lines or shapes
A saw that is powered by an electric motor or a gasoline engine, and that uses a large rotating blade to cut through material. The blades can be changed depending on the material being cut.
A saw that is powered by an electric motor or a battery motor, and whose blade moves back and forth.
Life safety rope
Only used for life saving purposes
How many types of life safety rope are there
Technical Use Life Safety Rope
3/8" diameter or greater but less than 1/2" Minimum breaking strength of 4496lbf.
General use life safety rope
No larger than 5/8" and no smaller than 7/16" Minimum breaking strength of 8992lbf. Woven of Block Creel Construction.
single purpose, emergency, self escape, self rescue rope, only sued in extreme situations
Rope designed for any use except rescue; can be used to hoist equipment, secure unstable objects, or cordon off an area.
Water Rescue Throw Line
Strong enough to use as life safety rope
A woven material or flat or tubular weave in the form of a long strip
Nylon, polyester, polypropylene, polyethylene
Synthetic fibers used in fire service ropes
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