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historia test may 3
Terms in this set (51)
what were the ideas that characterized the Renaissance?
why did it begin in Italy
- they were Rich they were able to focus on art and literature.
- in urban places people were closer together and spread ideas.
- first to recover from the Black Plague
was the ghetto? was it first established?
-place where all Jews were secluded tall gates no windows.
why did the Jews anticipate the betterment of their lives during the Renaissance?
because the church got weaker
how did the Renaissance affect the Jewish population both positively and negatively
- positive. there was an interest in the original text Hebrew so Jews got jobs
- negative. shoes aren't needed anymore because non-jews are more educated
who created the printing press? Where? What was the first book printed?
- invented by Guttenberg
- the Bible
why did the Jews not take up printing right away? (2)
1. they werent allowed into the printing guilds until later
2 scribes would have have been out of jobs
what changes to the printing of tanach came about during this time?
they printed it with ברקות (influenced by non jews)
who were the famous Jewish printers? What were they famous for printing?
- jashua sanano- מסכת ברכה
- gershon - 1000s of jewish books
who printed the first Gamera? Where? I did take so long for it to be printed and its entirety?
- venice italy
- there was a ban on printing tomorrow so it didn't really get printed
when and why were huskimos introduced in the beginning of the seforim
-rosh hashana- September 9,1915
- start are being burnt. Just tell church that rav will check for blasphemy & sign a paper saying it can be printed
how did the invention (haskomos) have long-term effect on general population in Jewish population?
today we still have it at the beginning of every sefer. shas
is called this so people don't think they're learning the gemara. eventually church comes down stronger because censorship isn't enough
what triggered the Protestant Reformation
people were more educated because of Renaissance so they realize that the church was taking advantage of them
who is Martin Luther?
Church prayer went to Rome and saw how ridiculous the churches. start break off religion called protestantism
what was the Thirty Years War? How did it affect the Jews?
war for 30 years after Europe map was redrawn and the government took control of church
good at first because there's less Church control but then Jews are blamed for it
what was Martin Luther's original opinion of the jews? Why did he change this View?
that they didn't kill Jesus if we blame them they won't convert. Because Jews werent buying his "Act"
which book did Martin Luther write in 1543 about the Jews?
"Jesus was born a Jew." Jews ignored it so he wrote "Jews and their lives"
what were some of the suggestions that he made the book in regards to the Jews?
burn shuls and sfarim jews, should eat non-kosher, expel Jews
who years later would put Martin Luther suggestions into action?
what were the immediate and long-term effects of the Reformation of the Jews both negative and positive?
originally Luther was nice to them but then not, later Hitler use these ideas, Jews leave Germany, skepticism effects of Jews too
how are the Nassi and Mendes Family instrumental in helping conversos rejoin with the community?
nassi - had an underground train to get conversos out
mendes- Hodgkin versus get to Ottoman Empire and openly be Jewish
describe the struggles of the community in Tzfas in the late 1400 early 1500
fight between tzfas and yirushalayim for which city is dominant or small community, Ottoman Empire takes over
who was Rabbi yaakov bei rav? What did he believe about the generation of the Spanish expulsion?
-he was from Spain but ended up in tzfas. he was rav for 30 yrs and had a yeshiva
- he believe that they could bring Meshiach
who was Rabbi Yosef Karo?
lived in Greek and turkey then moved to tzfas. made bais yosef
what was the beis yosef? Who were the three pillars that Reb Yosef caro relied upon when writing the beis yosef?
-book that was an encyclopedia of the ארבה עואים. very independent and put out in Greece
-ר"יץ, רמבם, רא"ש
what were the four parts to the beis yosef? What were each about?
אוריח חיים- tefilla
מנהגים יו"ט- shabbos
גיורא דעה - ע"ז
חושן משפט - kashrus
what did Rebbi bei rav want to re-establish after Reb Yosef Karo arrive in tzfas? Whose psak was he relying on?
- sanhedrin but needed smicha
why was it so important to try to renew smicha at this time?(2)
-there was a feeling that mashiach would come
- the only way people who said openly that they are Christian to come back is through sanhedrin (a.k.a. smicha)
who was conferred with Smicha by the rabbanim that gathered in tzfas in 1538?
rav yaakov borav
who did he give smicha to?
rav yosef karo and rav moshe trani
who were the chief opponents in the smicha controversy? Why were they against it?
- rav levi Ben chaviv and rav dovid ben gemara
- wasnt sure if anyone allowed to have a sanhedrin
what happened to Rabbi bei rav shortly after the renewal of smicha?
he left tzfas and passed away
what eventually happened to the movement?
rav Yosef institute sanhedrin cuz he now has smicha and controversy ended
who was Rabbi Yosef Caro's main opponent in halacha?
the מביט but they were still really good friends
what title was given to Rabbi Yosef Karo? what did it mean?
- he followed by 200 faithful rabbanim
what was the shulchan oraich? who was opposed to it and why?
-simpler version of beis yosef. was published in venice
- rabbi shalom lora. he was opposed to it cuz he didn't understand why the three pillars are three pillars and not something else
who helped the beis yosef and shulchan oraich become popular in the Ashkenazi community?
What did the רמ''א write? describe both sefarim
glossary on shulchan oraich
דרכי משה- to enhance shulchan oraich to ashkenaz
what are six main commentaries of the shulchan oraich? Who wrote each one?
1. ט"ז - rabbi dovid levi segol
2. ש"ך- r'shevi kohen
3. מגן אברהם - r' abraham gumbinor
4.סמ"ע- rav yehuda dalik
5.מחלוקת מרקק - rav moshe ben lema
6.בית שמואל- rav samuel ben ori
What is Kabbalah?
deepest level of Torah
how did study of kabala differ in Spain in Germany in Middle Ages?
Spain- into mysticalness of kabala
germany- practical kabala
which sefer published during the Middle Ages is the basis for all current study of Kabbalah? who published it?
רשב"י made by
what did the Ramak write? what is it central theme?
-the "beis yosef" of kabala
- so it's easier to understand called pardais remonim
who was the אר"י? where was he born and raised? where did he die? How old was he?
- yitzchak leora ashkenaz
- both egypt
- israel, tzfas
what is the kabbalistic concept that is part of mainstream thought nowadays?
golus is a physical cover for spirituality that is a mission for us to uncover
who was r'chaim vital? What did he write?
- talmud of אר"י
- sefer hachazyono and aitz chaim
who wrote lecha dodi? what was the minhag on kabala shabbos?
-rab shlomo alkabetz
- the chachumai tzvas would go on top of a mountain to greet shabbos
what is tikkun chazot? what became the minhag?
when ppl stay up past chatzos and cry for geula
how was Kabbalah incorporated into other works? By whom?
- maharal m'prag wrote a kabbalah sefer in a rational way
why was there an eventual decline in the communities of tzfas in your yirushalayim?
when Arabs took over Israel it was hard for jews to keep Kabbalah and so Jews moved. There were taxes and other hardships so the Jews died or left. Community and tzfas disintegrates
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