aggressive or provocative behavior of victims that results in their victimization
a victim who struggles to breathe, usually has no supporting kick(just arm movement), vertical body position, and no movement
Battered womens syndrome-
women keep on going back to their agressor, find comfort in them, feel like they can't escape
Broken windows theory-
theory explaining how social context & social cues of disorder impact whether individuals act deviantly
Cultural trappings and victimization-
culture consists of a totality of values, norms, attitudes, beliefs, race and gender relations, child-rearing practices, governance, and other practices of a society.
A crime that occurs online, in the virtual community of the Internet, as opposed to the physical world.
Dark figure of crimes-
defensible space theory-
The belief that an area's physical features may be modified and structured so as to reduce crime rates in that area and to lower the fear of victimization that residents experience.
Determination of crime rates-
To determine the robbery in a city with population of less than 100,000, for example the total number of reported robberies for a given year is divided by the population of the city or the jurisdiction,and theb the remaining figure is multiplied by 10,000.
The concept of who is fearful and who should be fearful of victimization is referred to as the fear-victimization parodox.
Innocent Images National Initiative-
The FBI initiated an under cover operation code-name Innocent Images National Initiative to target offenders who use computers to receive or disseminate child pornography and lure minors into illicit sexual relationships.
National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS)
The NCVS is another source of victimization data, the NCVS seeks detailed information on the victim.
Occurs when a victim unknowingly provokes a confrontation with another.
Unsuspecting lovers who are assulted by their partner's estanged spouse are considered passive victims, especially if the suitor had no knowledge of the spouse.
Personal factors associated with victimization-
Hentig uses personal factors associated with victimization, such as social, psychological, or biological characteristics, to explain vivtimization.
Post-tramatic stress disorder(PTSD)-
Emotional reactions of victimization vary depending on the age, life experiences, and emotinal strength of the victim.reaction to the violence is post tramatic syndrome.
Rape trauma syndrome-
A related condition confronted by rape victims is known as rape trauma syndrome.
Routine activities theory-
A collateral theory on spatial relationships and victimization is the routine activities theory proposese by Cohen and Felson(1989). They argue that the motivation to commit crime and the number of offenders are constant.
Situational victimization factors-
Mendelshon developed a number of typologies describing the degree of culpabilty between victims and offenders .
Spatial relations and victimization-
The spatial relations of the community provide an opportunity for victimization.both criminals and victims often live in physical proximity to one another, coexisting in socially disorganized, high-crime communities.
We constantly read about gang and youth violence, racial and hate crimes, terrorism, and domestic violence, including child and elder abuse.
Uniform crime reports (UCR)-
Includes offenses reported to law enforcement agencies at the city,, county, and state levels.
VICAP (Violent Criminal Apprehension Program)-
Is a nation wide data center designed to collect, collate, and analyze information about crimes of violence- specifically murder.
Is the study of crime victims and their relationship to offenders and the criminal justice system.
Victim precipitation theory-
According to the victim precipitation theory, victimizations result from a number of precipatation factors one of which is the victim's behavior, including lifestyle interactions in situations in which deviance and criminality flourish.
Multiple choice 1.) The dark figure of crime refers to:
1.) c -unreported crimes
2.) According to information provided by the U.S. Department of Justice, which of the following is not true?
2.) c -Most murders are interracial
3.) An example of indirect injustice would be :
4.) Routine activities theory is :
5.) Post tramatic stress disorder
5.) a- is a common psychological reaction to violent encounters.
6.) Operant conditioning promotes violence through all of the following except:
7.) Active precipitation refers to :
8.) According to a research survey of internet victimization of youth, all of the following are true except:
9.) During which phase of the rape trauma syndrome does the survivor experince a complete disruption of her life in response to the violence experienced?
10.) Passive victims are:
11.) List and discuss the 5 categories of victim typology offered by sellin and wolf gang.
12.) What is the special activities theory and what are the three requirements for victimization?
13.) What is cyber crime and what are 3 major crimes that include violence using the new technolgy?
14.) List the 12 categories of victims identified by Hentig.
15.) What is the difference between tangible and intangible losses related to the major impact on victims of violence?
16.) What does the acronym VICAP stand for and what is it designed to do?
16.) The acronym vicap stands for violent criminal apprehension program. it is designed to collect ,collate, and analyze information about crimes of violence- specifically murder.