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Terms in this set (107)
Which of the following is a part of the adaptive immune system?
B-cells - lymphocytes that mature in bone marrow and make antibodies in response to antigens
A generalized defense of the innate immune system
An external barrier to pathogens and is part of the innate immune system
Microscopic organisms that live in or on the human body without causing it harm. They are part of the innate immune system.
a white blood cell that destroys pathogens by engulfing and digesting them
release histamine and other mediators of inflammation; contain heparin, an anticoagulant
Lymphocytes that secrete interleukins, a protein that triggers the action of other cells, including the attack of foreign cells by the cytotoxic T-cell
Immunoglobulin is a synonym for antibody
A protein secreted by leukocytes when they are infected with viruses
A solution of dead or weakened pathogens that cane be introduced to the body for the purpose of stimulating antibodies
Cell signaling molecules released primarily by helper T cells and macrophages. Certain cytokines activate cytotoxic T-cells.
A type of adaptive immunity in which T-cells attack parasitic worms, cancer cells, transplanted tissues, or cells that contain pathogens.
A collection of nonspecific barriers and cellular responses that serve as an inborn 1st and 2nd line of defense against pathogens.
Temporary passive immunity can be gained naturally, through the placenta, or breast milk, or artificially, by receiving a serum containing antibodies.
Nonspecific response immunity
Adaptive immunity, regardless of how particular antibodies become present in the body, is a response to a specific antigen rather than being a nonspecific response.
Which of following processes occurs during tubular resorption?
Useful material moves form filtrate back into the bloodstream.
Liquid waste matter excreted by the kidneys - NOT resorbed into the bloodstream
An enzyme released by the kidneys when reduced blood pressure is detected by baroreceptors in the aorta and carotid arteries.
Composed of materials, including water, that leave the blood through the walls of the glomerular capillaries to enter the Bowman's capsule.
Which of the following correctly describe the function of a structure in the circulatory system?
The pulmonary artery contains oxygen-poor blood away from the heart to lungs.
The large arterial trunk that carries blood from the heart to be distributed by branch arteries through the body - contains oxygen-rich blood.
The pulmonary vein
Takes oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium
The pulmonary artery
Carries deoxygentated blood from the heart to the lungs
Superior vena cava
delivers oxygen-poor blood from the head, neck, upper limbs, and chest to the right atrium
Contains oxygen-poor blood from the right atrium
Receives deoxygenated blood from the body from the superior vena cava
Which of the following components of the blood carries oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body?
Hemoglobin - protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body.
A clear, pale yellow component of blood that carries blood cells and platelets throughout the body.
The two types of white blood cells that are (found in lymph) part of the body's immune system: B lymphocytes form in the bone marrow and release antibodies that fight bacterial infections; T lymphocytes form in the thymus and other lymphatic tissue and attack cancer cells, viruses, and foreign substances.
White blood cells that protect the body against disease
Which of the following liquids emulsifies lipids during digestion?
Bile - product of the liver that is stored in the gallbladder.
Partially digested, semiliquid food mixed with digestive enzymes and acids in the stomach.
The fluid released when the mouth waters that plays an important role in both mechanical and chemical digestion. It is not able to emulsify lipids.
Both salivary amylase and pancreatic amylase are enzymes that break down starch.
Which of the following terms refers to the involuntary waves of contractions in the digestive system to move food through the gastrointestinal tract
peristalsis- The involuntary contraction of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. It squeezes food along within the digestive tract
Reverse peristalsis, which causes vomiting and does not move food through the gastrointestinal tract
Does not move food through the gastrointestinal tract. One cause of gastric reflux is the failure of the sphincter between the esophagus and the stomach to maintain sufficient constriction.
Contractions constrict The intestine into segments to allow the chyme to fully mix. They do not move food through the gastrointestinal tract.
Which of the following terms refers to the part of the nervous system that causes skeletal muscle contractions?
Somatic division controls the skeletal muscles of the body
Involuntary division - The autonomic division controls involuntary actions in the body.
Visceral division - synonymous with the autonomic division ^
Renal arteries are defined as which of the following
Branches of the abdominal aorta that supply the kidneys. — A renal vein is a blood vessel that carries blood from the kidney to the inferior vena cava.
Which of the following results from a deficit in the production of thyrotropin releasing hormone?
The thyroid gland does not produce a sufficient amount of its primary hormone. Thyrotropin releasing hormone triggers the production of the thyroid hormone from the thyroid gland.
Which of the following hormones is released in stimulates uterine contractions during childbirth?
Oxytocin - made by the hypothalamus and released by the posterior pituitary.
A hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary that stimulates development of eggs in the ovaries and sperm in the testes.
A hormone secreted by the pancreas that stimulates its target cells in the liver to convert hepatic glycogen stores into glucose and release that glucose into the blood
The thyroid gland secretes hormones that regulate growth, development, and metabolic rate.
Which of the following is a mechanism that stimulates glandular secretions to continue to increase, temporarily pushing levels further out of homeostasis, until a particular biological effect is reached?
A mechanism that monitors for specific homeostatic levels and signals glands to stimulate or inhibit secretions in order to maintain homeostasis or initiate compensations
The process the animals maintain consistent internal temperature
A physiological period In which changes in hormone levels cause a general growth spurt and development of secondary sex characteristics
Inhibited function of the sweat glands could result in which of the following?
Loss of the ability to regulate body temperature. Sweating is a major Mechanism of Thermo regulation. It is one way that the skin helps to lower body temperature into homeostatic ranges.
Absorption of metabolic waste through the skin
The skin, renal system, and diffusion at the alveoli are three ways that metabolic waste can leave blood that has been carried in veins near the skin
Increase production of protective oils
Sebum is not produced by the sweat glands. Rather this oil is produced by sebaceous glands
Decreased integumental vasodilation
Vasodilation causes increased blood flow that allows for greater heat loss from the body. It's typically works in tandem with sweating. However it is not dependent upon sweating.
Which of the following provides a practical means of warming the body via integumental thermoregulation?
Cutaneous vasoconstriction - A decrease in the diameter of blood vessels in the dermis that reduces blood flow through the skin. It minimizes heat loss from blood through the skin.
Tensing of the arrector pili muscles
The contraction of the arrector pili muscles generates heat and causes hair to stand on end, trapping heat in the air space near the skin. However, practical effect of arrector pili on heat generation in retention is minimal for humans compared to other mammals
Which of the following is a result of inhibited osteoblast function at the epiphyseal plate?
Mineralization will not occur in this location - Osteoblasts are bone cells that produce secretions blocking the inhibition of mineralization that takes place elsewhere in the body. They also produce a highly organized collagen matrix to which extracellular hydroxyapatite binds. Hydroxyapatite is the calcium phosphate salt that mineralized bone.
a dense layer of vascular connective tissue enveloping the bones except at the surfaces of the joints. It is the surface for attachment of tendons and ligaments.
If mineral resorption is prevented, and calcium is not removed from bone, which of the following occurs?
The resulting pathology is called hypocalcemia. - Hypocalcemia is a deficit in plasma calcium, it can be caused when calcium is not liberated from bone to be allowed to enter the blood.
condition affecting nerves causing muscle spasms as a result of low amounts of calcium in the blood (plasma) caused by a deficiency of the parathyroid hormone
resulting short stature of individuals when the epiphyseal plate stops growing at a premature age
Which of the following term refers to a self-contained part of an organism that performs a specific function?
Group of small cells with similar structure that function together as a unit, but at a lower level than organs.
specialized structure that performs important/specific cellular functions
Functional groups of organs that work together within the body
Which of the following terms refers to the small passages of the respiratory system that terminate in air sacs?
Bronchioles - the small passages in the lungs that connect bronchi to alveoli, air sacs in the lungs. *Pleura - membranes around the lungs that also line the inside of the chest cavity. Alveoli - the tiny air sacs in the lungs where the exchange of oxygen and CO2 takes place. Bronchi - the 2 main passageways directly attached to the lungs. They connect the trachea and bronchioles.
Organization of life
cell, tissue, organ, organ system, organism
The following scenarios would result in a human zygote containing 47 chromosoems instead of a typical 46 chromosomes?
Meiosis occurs during gamete production to divide the number of chromosomes compared to body cells. The chromosomes do not separate properly during meiosis, atypical numbers of chromosomes can result in gametes.
tube that carries sperm from the epididymis to the urethra
Carries gametes from the ovaries to the uterus
The passage that forms the lower part of the uterus
Which of the following processes occurs within the cell nucleus?
Transcription producing mRNA. Transcription directly uses DNA as a template, which is located in the nucleus.
Translation of mRNA into a protein
Charging of tRNA with amino acid
Production of rRNA for cell division
Which is the fine describes the function of acetylcholine in a neuromuscular junction?
Binds to receptor proteins on the sarcolemma, which results in the opening of sodium channels. it initiates the action potential. The release of acetylcholine is triggered by calcium ions entering the axon terminal. Acetylcholine triggers depolarization.
protective sheath around some axons
swcreted by neurons, chemical that transmit information across the synapse to a receiving neuron's dendrites
produced in the cell body of the neuron
Nutrition is provided to cell bodies by astrocytes
contractile unit of a muscle fiber. contains actin & myosin, while slide past one another resulting in contractions.
muscle cell membrane, doesn't produce contractions
A connection which joins one cardiac muscle cell to another, but does not produce contractions
An area of the sacromere that becomes narrower during contractions, but it does not produce contractions
A hormone produced by the pancreas or taken as a medication by many diabetics. it decreases blood glucose levels.
causes an increase in blood calcium levels by promoting release of calcium from the bone into the bloodstream
effects the levels of estrogen, progesterone, & testosterone in the bloodstream
According to the sliding filament theory, which ion binds with troponin on the actin myofilaments, causing the myosin binding sites to be exposed?
Calcium. *Sodium and potassium change the polarity of the sarcolemma, but they do not directly bind w troponin. Magnesium stimulates calcium reuptake, which prevents a constant state of muscle contraction.
Which of the following cell types can differentiate to become several other types of cells?
Stem cells - unspecialized cells that can differentiate and become several other types of cells. * Mast cells & leukocytes are specialized cells in the immune system
Viral DNA that has been inserted into the host DNA would be found in which of the following?
Nucleus - contains the host DNA.
* mitochondria contains the mitochondrial DNA, but the mitochondrial DNA is not the target of viral DNA. Vacuoles do not contain the host DNA. Ribosomes create proteins, but these proteins are not the target of viral DNA.
Which of the following is a unique feature of mitosis?
Production of identical daughter cells.
* genetic variation is the result of meiosis rather than mitosis. The synaptonemal complex is only present during meiosis rather than mitosis. Mitosis is the production of identical daughter cells. Therefore the number of chromosomes in each daughter cell remains the same as the parent cell.
Monomers of proteins and are not general macromolecule category
Energy-rich organic compounds, such as fats, oils, and waxes, that are made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
Macromolecule group containing enzymes
How does genetic information result in linking a particular sequence of amino acids to make a protein?
DNA serves as a template for the production of messenger RNA, and transfer RNA molecules serve as bridges between the mRNA and amino acids.
In Mendelian inheritance, which of the following is a condition of an F1 monohybrid cross?
A cross is made between parents that are heterozygous at one specific gene.
Atomic mass has a decimal because it is the average _____ of all the isotopes for a particular element. The atomic number of an element is the number of ____ in its nucleus?
On the periodic table, the number of which of the following particles in each element increases as you move down in periods and toward the right of the periodic table?
Proton *Isotopes - versions of the same elements with different numbers of neutrons are isotopes of each other. Cation - a positively charged atom. Anion - a negatively charged atom.
In a redox reaction, the species in the reaction that loses the electron is _____, and the species that gains the electron is ____.
oxidized; reduced. - In an exidation-reduction reaction, one species in the reaction loses an electron, becoming "oxidized," and the other species gains that electron , becoming "reduced". *when the components of a salt are placed in a solvent that causes their constituent ions to seperate, the salt has dissociated.
If a penny has the mass of 2.5 _____, it can also be said to have a mass of 250 ____.
grams, centigrams. 2.5 grams is equal to 250 centigrams. A gram is 100 centigrams.
*2.5 kilograms = 2500 grams and 2,500,000 milligrams. 2.5 micrograms is equal to 0.0000025 grams
Which of the following measurments are based on SI units?
An experiment must ____ bias and ____ precision and accuracy of the data.
Group & Valence shell
group - a column on the periodic table that contains elements with similar properties and valence shell configurations
valence shell - the outermost shell of an atom
involves the movement of water down a concentration gradient. The involvement of a semipermeable membrane is one of the defining features. Most of the water that that diffuses through the cell membrane does so by way of aquaporin channels made of protein.
universal solvent, the cohesive properties allow it to "stick" to itself, it has a high specific heat. Solid water is less dense than liquid water because ti has more hydrogen bonds.
forms between a partial + charged region on one molecule and the partial - charged region on another molecule. Hydrogen bonds form between water molecules and are made possible when a molecule contains polar covalent bonds. Hydrogen form in higher numbers when water is lower in temp.
Movement of molecules from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration. It does not require the expendature o energy by a cell - it's a kind of passive transport.
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