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EAS 1600 Final Exam
Terms in this set (109)
What is the main support for why recent increases in atmospheric CO2 and global temperatures are due to anthropogenic effects?
H2O is one of the most abundant greenhouse gasses in our atmosphere that helps heat the Earth by trapping shortwave radiation that leaves the Earth's surface.
What type of feedback loop exists for daisy coverage, albedo, and global temperature below the optimum temperature for Daisyworld?
What is the albedo of planet A if 30% of the planet is covered in grass, 30% by sand, 20% fresh snow, and 20% ice? Your answer must be in a decimal place, not written as a percentage.
Adding insulin to the body is used to lower blood glucose when levels are high. This is an example of what kind of coupling?
In 1-2 sentences, please explain how the Gaia Hypothesis relates to Daisyworld.
The gaia hypothesis basically states that a planet will regulate it self and that the plants play a role in it. In Daisyworld, the white daisies play a part in regulating temperature by influencing the albedo/ reflectivity of sunlight rays. They can't fully regulate the temp and if the temp gets too high or too low the daisy coverage can decrease. While the daisies have some influence, they aren't fully in control.
Assuming that Planet Phantom behaves as a blackbody, what type of radiation does it emit at it's maximum wavelength with an internal temperature of 6355 degrees celsius.
volcanic eruption, tsunami, landslide
Slowing of Earth's rotation, annual mean CO2
seasonal atmospheric CO2, seasonal ice growth & melting on greenland
. As nuclear reactions have recently increased in the center of the Planet Xandar, increasing the overall temperature of the planet, the dominant radiation that the planet emits has changed from visible light to UV radiation. This means that with the increase in temperature of planet Xandar, the wavelength of the emitted radiations has ______ and the frequency has_____.
Calculate the effective temperature (Teff) for Atlanta (33.7° N) during the December solstice in degrees Celsius.
Between -50 and -56
methane is one of the main substances that breaks down the ozone layer and the anthropogenic source of this substance is freons (CFC's)
chlorine, freons (CFC's)
The North Pole receives a peak in insolation during which of the following?
Where would you expect the most annual temperature variability?
High latitudes, over continents
During the vernal equinox in Canada, the solar declination is 23.5* N , which is also called the Tropic of Cancer .
If the original travel path, without correction, of a train is due east from California to New York, it will be deflected towards the south according to the Coriolis Effect?
If the original flight path, without correction, of a plane is due west from New York to California, it would be deflected towards the north according to the Coriolis Effect?
Hurricanes get their energy from ______ and the highest wind speeds are found in the _________ .
warm water, eyewall
Which of the following scenarios would result in the highest solar flux at the given latitude?
Scenario 1: New York City, USA (41°N) during Tokyo's autumnal equinox
Scenario 2: Tokyo, Japan (35°N) during Rio de Janeiro's December solstice
Scenario 3: Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (23°S) during New York City's summer solstice
Which of the following are correct about temperature and pressure changes in the stratosphere?
vertically stable with no convection, heated from above due to absorption of UV radiation by the ozone layer
longest wavelength, majority of this wavelength makes it to the surface
breaks down ozone
shortest wavelength and used to make ozone
Which of the following is/are true?
Uplift of warm less dense at the equator creates a low pressure zone at the surface, Air high in the atmosphere around ~30° N or S undergoes a sinking motion that causes high pressure at Earth's surface, Air will flow from 30° N towards the equator due to pressure differences
The lack of the _________ force prevents hurricanes from crossing the equator.
Negative buoyancy means that an air mass is less dense than the surrounding air and will rise.
Sea ice formation in the North Atlantic Ocean causes seawater salinity to _______ and seawater density to ________ , which causes the seawater to sink.
What is the net direction of the column of water in the red box based on the global wind patterns shown on the map?
Thermohaline circulation takes roughly______years to complete a full cycle and can be measured using______.
Groundwater makes up roughly 30% of all water on Earth and one of the leading causes of groundwater contamination is non-point agriculture pollution.
When a water molecule undergoes condensation, the water molecule will __________ energy to/from the atmosphere and the temperature of the surrounding atmosphere will ________.
Which of the following is true as you transition from the Mesopelagic "Twilight" Zone to the Abyss?
There is very little temperature change and a large pressure change
Which of the following is correct?
Nitrogen and phosphorous runoff from fertilization practices creates an algal bloom in the Gulf of Mexico that eventually leads to an oxygen depleted zone
The _______ocean has the longest coastline and the _______ocean is the newest recognized (even if not formally approved) ocean basin.
Which of the following it not true?
The great pacific garbage patch, which is the size of Texas, has only collected in the center of the south pacific gyre
______ primarily controls surface ocean circulation and ______ primarily controls deep ocean circulation.
Wind; density differences
Two grams of atmospheric water vapor condense. ______ joules of heat are ________ the atmosphere?
4600, released to
During which of the following situations would you find downwelling?
The center of a gyre due to Ekman transport
Which of the following is true?
a keystone species is a critical component of an ecosystem that helps maintain balance within a food chain for example, In an ecosystem biota always interact, biodiversity helps to maintain air, water, and soil quality
Dissolution is a common type of _______weathering in _______environments.
chemical; hot & wet
The Pacific Walker Circulation cell transports heat across the Equator in a East-West direction, while the Hadley Cell transports heat in an North-South direction across the Equator
During an El Nino event near the Pacific coast of South America the fishing industry is impacted when
Downwelling causes less plankton resulting in lower chlorophyll levels.
During a La Nina event, the depth to the thermocline increases in the western equatorial Pacifc .
increases in the western equatorial Pacifc
What is the main difference between how photoautotrophs and chemoautotrophs gain their energy?
Chemoautotrophs gain their energy from inorganic oxidation while Photoautotrophs do not.
Kaolinite is a big export of Georgia and found in this layer.
zone that water percolates through and leaches materials.
contains decaying organic matter
Which of the following correctly describes La Nina conditions in the equatorial Pacific?
The SST increases in the western equatorial pacific, upwelling is common along the western coast of South America
Which of the following statements is correct?
A residual soil is formed from the bedrock in that location
Glucose is an example of _______ carbon that is involved in the ______ term _______ carbon cycle.
organic, short, organic
~ 0.1 % of carbon on Earth is stored in ________.
The atmosphere, hydrosphere, & biosphere
Rank the reservoirs from largest to smallest.
1. CaCO3 in rocks, 2. CH2O in rocks, 3. CO3 in the ocean, 4. CO2 in the atmosphere.
Which of the following is true?
The increase in production of hydrogen ions in the ocean has lowered the pH and increased oceanic acidity.
Which of the following is not true about the biological pump?
The biological pump moves nutrients to the surface of the ocean, creating higher levels of chlorophyll at the centers of oceanic gyres.
Which of the following is true about the biological pump?
Carbon is moved to the deep ocean by settling of organic matter; inorganic carbon becomes organic carbon through the process of photosynthesis in the top layer of the ocean.
short-term organic cycle
long term organic cycle
long term inorganic cycle
The introduction of organic carbon into the biosphere for the ______ term carbon cycle is achieved by ________ and carbon is returned to the other spheres by ________.
short; photosynthesis; respiration and/or decomposition
A negative coupling exists between surface temperature and silicate weathering rate and a decrease in weathering would result in a/n decrease of CO2 in the atmosphere.
The residence time of C in limestone is _________ than in marine carbonate sediments.
The __________ acts as a natural thermostat for the Earth and without the slow release of carbon from this sphere, the Earth would _________.
lithosphere; get a runaway greenhouse effect
What processes were responsible for Earth exiting the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM)?
A positive feedback loop between air temperatures, ice sheet coverage, and albedo
Atmospheric CO2 levels are currently the highest they have ever been on Earth.
What climate forcing enhanced the climatic effects of the Maunder Minimum?
Increased volcanic eruptions
The eruption of ___________ during the Little Ice Age led to global cooling by __________.
Krakatoa; releasing aerosols into the stratosphere that increased planetary albedo
Which of the following sectors currently accounts for the highest global CO2 emissions?
energy in industry
Higher/enriched d18O value describes a _____ ocean and _______ times while lower/depleted d18O values describes a _________ ocean and ________ times.
colder, glacial, warmer, interglacial
Currently we are in the Holocene epoch, which started our current interglacial period. What epoch came before the Holocene? Were average temperatures warmer or cooler?
The 8,200 year event represents a period of cooling caused by a decrease in volcanic activity.
During glacial times, glacial ice records an enrichment of ________ in comparison to an enrichment of _____ in deep-sea foraminifera records. This is because oxygen-16's are _________ to evaporate.
Oxygen-16; Oxygen-18; easier
Compared to gasoline, heating oil has a ________ carbon chain and _______ viscosity.
Sunspots are a type of climate forcing and there is a positive correlation between increasing sunspots and increasing temperature on Earth.
Warming during the 20th century saw a global average increase of ______ celsius and warming is projected to be anywhere from _____ Celsius over the 21st century.
.8 degrees; 1.5 - 4 degrees
Select the adaptation strategies discussed in class regarding sea level rise.
improve flood defenses; upgrade properties architecture along the shore; restrictions on new shoreline construction.
Recent sea level rise is primarily attributed to _____.
the melting of small glaciers
Which of the following is correct in regards to thermal expansion
thermal expansion of our oceans is an increase in sea level due to increasing carbon dioxide in the atmosphere that is increasing the impacts of the greenhouse gas effects.
Why is the Twaites so important to study?
Bc if it melts, neighboring glaciers are exposed to warmer-than-average ocean waters, accelerating ice melt underneath the ice sheet contributing further to sea level rise; be no one's been there and it could cause <5% sea level rise
Which of the following changes are not closely linked to climate change by current data?
increase in tornado frequency; decrease in hurricane frequency
Putting aerosols in the stratosphere in an attempt to limit the amount of solar radiation that hits the surface of the Earth is an example of _____ that reflects a _____ technique
Which is true about climate justice?
the richest 10% of the world have the means to adapt to climate change; the richest percentage of the world account for about 50% of global emissions
Mitigation strategies aim to reduce the impacts of greenhouse gas emissions.
Prevention strategies, like switching to better fuel sources, are designed to reduce the the amount of CO2 released into the atmosphere.
Adaptation strategies call for readjusting our lifestyle with respect to a climate change threat, rather than tackling the threat at the source.
The main goal of the Paris Agreement is to limit warming on Earth by setting a global carbon tax on all companies.
The Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill did not have long-term effects on local marine life.
Why can incoming solar radiation reach Earth's surface so easily?
Carbon dioxide and water vapor molecules don't interact with incoming shortwave radiation. They are only excited on a molecular level by the outgoing longwave radiation, which gets absorbed by the molecules and re-emits the energy back to Earth's surface, trapping heat.
The majority of global methane emissions come from the land use/biomass burning sector
The United States is one of the leaders in terms of annual CO2 emissions and these emissions are primarily from the energy sector
South American countries are the top global CO2 producers due to deforestation
Which of the sectors, listed on the bottom graphic, contributes to the majority of Nitrous oxide to the atmosphere?
Least amount of warming radiative forcing
Short-lived gases that create ozone or create or destroy other greenhouse gases
Most amount of cooling radiative forcing
Environmental impacts of increased greenhouse gases are inevitable as temperatures increase at Earth's Surface. From Figure 4 "Impacts and risks for selected natural, managed and human systems", which two systems will undergo the most extreme changes by an increase of 2°C?
Arctic region; warm water coals
What RFC from the top image of the figure do the systems you selected in the previous question fall under?
Unique and threatened systems
According to the reading of the long-term carbon cycle, if less carbon dioxide is released into the atmosphere from volcanoes, relative to steady state, what chain of events will occur to regulate Earth's thermostat?
less chemical weathering, less rainfall, less ions are dissolved into the ocean
10x more carbon dioxide is released per year from humans burning fossil fuels in comparison to volcanic degassing.
Which processes below contribute to the long-term carbon cycle that was discussed in the reading?
Melting of rock,
Chemical weathering of rock, uplift of mountains
Over Earth's full history, approximately ___% of volcanically-produced carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has been sequestered in limestone.
The geologic carbon cycle operates on timescales of thousands of years to stabilize temperatures on Earth.
What were some key features that the Tennant Family noticed indicating that DuPont's landfill was poisoning Dry Run Creek?
Their farm cows started to go blind, Their family members became sick, requiring hospitalization, The creek's water turned foamy and black in color, an increase in dead deer were found on their property
What other product, used for food packaging and produced around the same as Teflon, was also leaching C8 into the food?
Many diseases such as thyroid, testicular, and kidney cancer are linked to C8 exposure. At this point in time C8 is most likely in the bloodstream of a majority of humans on Earth.
California's public health goal for a safe amount of hexavalent chromium that can be in drinking water is [ Select ] ["10.0", "0.05", "0.02", "1.0"] ppb. However, California set its legally safe level of hexavalent chromium at [ Select ] ["10.0", "1.0", "0.05", "0.02"] ppb. The legal level is ______ times higher than the safe limit.
.02, 10 , 500
What type of illnesses can humans get from drinking water tainted with hexavalent chromium?
cancer, liver damage, developmental toxicity
After a nationwide study, the EPA found that California , Arizona , and Oklahoma had the highest level of hexavalent chromium tainted water.
What contaminant was detected in Marsh Creek?
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