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Biology Exam 3
Terms in this set (96)
1. What is the definition of ecology? What do we study in ecology?
Ecology: The study of species interrelationships The study of how living things interact with Other living things & the environment
2. What is a niche?
The list of requirements needed by an organism to survive & complete its life cycle
3. Describe the niche of the Saguaro cactus in detail.
Habitat: Sonoran desert
Rainfall: Winter rain, summer rain Microhabitat: much smaller aspect of habitat -Palo Verde acts as a "nurse tree" for the Saguaro cactus. Palo Verde provides filtered sun/shade. Saguaro Seed Vector:White winged dove
4. Define range of tolerance.
Every species has a range of conditions they can tolerate, limiting their distribution
5. Explain why Sheep Sorrel was only found growing on acidic soil.
Because it is the environment with the least competition for resources.
6. What is a limiting factor? What does it do?
Limiting factors: the component of the environment that keeps an organism from thriving; restricts population growth
7. List examples of limiting factors.
Limiting factors can be resources such as food & space & Changes in weather
8. What were the limiting factors that limited the population size of Red Grouse in England?
a. Female grouse were old b. Heather was old & large
9. Define population
A population is a group of individuals of the same species in the same area. Potentially interbreeding
10. Define biotic potential
Biotic potential: maximum number of offspring
11. Define fitness
Fitness: actual number of offspring produced
12. Describe the exponential growth curve. What is the shape of this curve?
Growth whose rate becomes ever more rapid in proportion to the growing total number or size.
13. What is the carrying capacity (K) of a population and what determines the carrying capacity within a habitat?
Populations of species with logistic growth are called: K - selected species
The size at which a theoretical population would stabilize and food availability, water, and space.
14. What is a population crash? Do we see population crashes more commonly associated with exponential growth curves or with logistic growth curves?
A population crash is a sudden decline in the numbers of individual members in a population, species or group of organisms. Exponential growth curves.
15. Describe the logistic growth curve. What is the shape of this curve?
Logistic growth is population increase that happens in a manner that starts slowly, as there are few individuals, then increases in speed as numbers increase, but then decreases to a halt as numbers get high enough that resources are depleted and cannot support further growth. S-shaped curve
17. What type of growth curve does the human population exhibit?
Exponential growth curve
18. Identify all the structures of a flower. What is the function of all the structures?
Petal - attract pollinators
Sepal - Protective structure that protects a flower bud
Anther - produces pollen grains (pollen grains contain sperm cells)
Filament - holds up anther
Stigma - sticky surface that traps pollen coming from anthers
Style - passageway for pollen tube from stigma to ovary
Ovary - protective chamber containing and produce ovule
Ovule - contain egg, when fertilized develop into seed
19. What is the female reproductive part of a flower called?
20. What is the male reproductive part of a flower called?
22. Define pollination.
The act of transferring pollen from the move anther of a flower to a female stigma
23. What is a pollen vector/pollinator?
An abiotic or biotic force that spreads pollen, pollinator
24. Given characteristics of a flower, be able to identify its most likely pollen vector/pollinator.
Wind, bees, birds, butterflies, moths, bats, beetles
25. Describe what happens after pollen has been placed onto the stigma of a flower. Your description should include what's found in a pollen, the formation of a pollen tube, delivery of sperm to the egg, fertilization, and what happens after fertilization.
A mature pollen grain lands on stigma. The pollen grain has two types of cells, a tube cell (cell that grows the pollen tube) and generative cell (cell that divides into 2 sperm cells). After pollination, the tube cell grows a pollen tube that travels down the style toward the ovules. The generative cells then divide into 2 sperm cells which travel to the egg found in the ovule. The sperm fertilizes the egg, forming a seed. Every fertilized ovule can develop into a seed. The ovary develops into a fruit.
26. List the different ways in which a seed can be dispersed. Think seed vectors, which can either be physical/abiotic or biological/biotic. Go over examples that were covered in class.
A seed can be dispersed biologically or physically.
Wind - seeds that are dispersed by wind have wings/plumes
Water - Outer layers of coconut act as a raft and water moves the coconut through the water to other places with seeds inside
Animals - seeds that go through the digestive system of animals
Seeds with hooks
Seeds that depend on the behavior of an animal
27. Define the following terms: species, population, community, ecosystem, biome, biosphere.
A species is composed of similar organisms which are capable of interbreeding to produce fertile offspring.
A population is composed of all members of the same species within a defined area.
A community is composed of all populations within a defined area.
An ecosystem is composed of all living and nonliving within a defined area.
A biome is composed of similar ecosystems.
The biosphere is the entire living space on earth.
28. What are abiotic factors? List a few examples.
Non-Living factors in the environment. Temperature, Wind, Rain.
29. Define the trophic/feeding strategies of organisms: Autotroph, Heterotroph, Consumers (Herbivores, Carnivores, Omnivores) and Decomposers.
Autotroph- An organism capable of obtaining energy from sunlight or inorganic molecules
Heterotroph- Organisms which must obtain their energy from organic molecules produced by other organisms.
Herbivores- Eats plants
Carnivores- Eats Animals
Omnivore- Eats both plants and animals.
Decomposers Consumers that feed non living organic materials.
30. Be able to calculate how much energy is transferred from one trophic level to the next in a food chain
Grass 100,000 Kcal, Grasshopper 10,000 Kcal, Mouse 1,000 Kcal, Snake 100 Kcal , Hawk 10 Kcal
32. Be able to identify all the structures of a stem (see Section 4 of Lab 6)
Epidermis, Cortex, Pith, Xylem, Phloem
33. List the functions of ALL the structures of a stem.
Epidermis- Protective layer of cells
Cortex- Contains cells for storage
Pith- Contains cells for storage
Xylem- Transports water
Phloem- Transports photosynthesis produce
34. Be able to identify all the structures of a flower (see Section 5 of Lab 6)
Petals, Stigma, Anther, Style, Ovule, Ovary, Sepal
35. List the functions of ALL the structures.
Petals- Attract Pollinators
Stigma- Receives Pollen
Anther- Produces pollen grains which contain sperm cells
Style- Passageway for pollen tube to ovary
Ovule- When fertilized develops into seed
Ovary- Produces ovules
Sepal- Protects flower bud
37. What is a seed vector?
Physical or Biological transfer of seeds from one place to another
38. Seed vectors can be physical or biological. Know examples of both biological and physical seed vectors.
Dandelion, Coconut are both physical. While Acorns, Tycon, foxtails are all physical
39. What is symbiosis?
Symbiosis is a relationship between different species where they live together with some direct physical contact.
40. Define mutualism. List the plant and animal example of mutualism.
Both members benefit (++)
Plant Example: Root Nodules containing bacteria
Animal Example: Oxpecker eating parasite from a giraffe
41. Define commensalism. List the plant and animal example of commensalism.
One member benefits other receives none (+o)
Plant Example: Epiphytes live on trees
Animal Example: Remoras catch a ride on sharks
42. Define parasitism. List the plant and animal example of parasitism.
One member benefits other member is harmed (+-)
Plant Example: Mistletoe plants take nutrients from a hust tree
Animal Example: Tick sucks blood from a mammal
44. Given a J-shaped curve, identify the type of population growth (Exponential or Logistic?)
45. Given a S-shaped curve, identify the type of population growth (Exponential or Logistic?)
47. What does DNA stand for?
48. What is the function of DNA?
The creation of a living being, passing of genetic information, duplication, reproduction and other things.
49. What are the building blocks of DNA called?
50. What are nucleotides made up of?
Deoxyribose sugars, phosphate, and nitrogenous bases
51. How many strands is DNA made up of?
52. What 2 molecules (of the nucleotide) make up the backbone of DNA? What is the backbone of DNA referred to as?
Phosphate and deoxyribose sugars
53. Name the 4 bases that are found in DNA.
Adenine,Guanine, Thymine, and Cytosine
54. What is a purine? Which 2 bases are purines?
A purine is a base that is double ringed, Adenine and Guanine are purines.
55. What are pyrimidines? Which 2 bases are pyrimidines?
A pyrimidine is a single ringed base. Thymine, and Cytosine are both pyrimidines.
56. What base does A pair with? What base does G pair with? What base does T pair with? What base does C pair with?
A pairs with T. G pairs with C. T pairs with A. C pairs with G.
57. What is the general shape of DNA?
Twisting rope ladder (double helix)
58. What is a gene?
A gene is a specific set of instructions on how to make proteins.
59. What is the function of a gene?
The function of genes is to provide the "recipe" for proteins.
60. Why does DNA need to be "wound"/coiled up?
Because it needs to contain about 6 feet of genetic material for a single cell.
61. What terms are used to describe DNA that is wrapped around proteins?
Chromatin, relaxed chromosomes
62. What term is used to describe chromatin that is "supercoiled"?
63. When do we see chromatin/relaxed chromosomes?
Only during cell division.
64. When do we see chromosomes?
During cell division when chromatin is condensed/coiled
65. How many chromosomes are found in most cells of the human body?
There are 46 chromosome in the human body
66. What are these cells (referring to Q 65) called?
67. How many chromosomes do humans inherit from each parent
23 chromosomes respectively from each parent
68. Who discovered the 3 dimensional structure of DNA?
69. Define mitosis
Cell division that results in exact duplicate cells as the parent cell
70. Why does mitosis occur?
This occurs to help something grow, heal or asexually reproduce
71. During what stage of the cell cycle is DNA replicated?
DNA is replicated during the S phase of mitosis.
72. Describe, in detail, how DNA replication occurs.
DNA is unwound by an enzyme called DNA helicase. H-bonds between bases of the parent strand are broken as a result. Free nucleotides from the cell's environment are brought in. H-bonds form between complementary base pairs. An enzyme called polymerase connects the nucleotides together to make the new DNA strand. It then proofreads and checks errors and fixes any incorrectly paired base pairs.
73. Why is DNA replication called semi-conservative?
As the DNA double helix is unwound by helicase, replication occurs separately on each template strand in antiparallel directions. This process is known as semi-conservative replication because two copies of the original DNA molecule are produced. Each copy contains one original strand and one newly-synthesized strand.
74. Describe the 4 phases that make up the cell cycle.
There is the G1 phase: responsible for organelles being duplicated. S-phase: DNA is replicated G2: The cell double checks the DNA for replication errors. M-phase: mitotic phase is where the cell divides.
75. What 3 phases make up Interphase?
G1, S and G2
76. Does a cell spend most of its lifetime in Interphase or in the M phase?
It spends 90% of its time in Interphase
77. Mitosis can be broken down into 4 major phases. Name those phases, and describe what happens at each phase IN DETAIL. Drawing a diagram like we did in class is a useful studying strategy.
Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase and Telophase
78. Be able to count the number of chromosomes and chromatids in each phase.
4 in interphase as chromatin, prophase 8 sister chromatids that are coiling, metaphase 4 chromosomes and 8 chromatids, anaphase 8 chromosomes, telophase, two cell separation with 4 chromosomes and ends with 4 chromatin.
79. What is the name of the structure that is an attachment point for replicated chromosomes?
80. What do centrioles do?
Release spindle fibers and pull sister chromatids apart
81. When 2 sister chromatids are separated from one another, what are they called?
82. What is karyokinesis, and when does it occur?
Karyokinesis is when the nucleus is being divided. It occurs during the M phase.
83. What is cytokinesis, and when does it occur?
Cytokinesis is the division of a cell's cytoplasm. It occurs during anaphase in animal cells and prophase in plant cells.
84. Does mitosis result in the production of identical daughter cells?
85. How was DNA identified as the molecule of heredity?
a. Know about Frederick Griffith's study (Section 2)
He studied the mouse reaction to different bacterias and how they are affected by heat
85. How was DNA identified as the molecule of heredity? b. Know about the experiment carried out by Hershey and Chase (Section 2) 86. Chargaff's rule (Section 4).
They used bacteriophages and bacterium
87. Given that a sample of DNA contains a certain % of a base (let's say A), be able to figure out the % of another base (Let's say C).
The % of A is 15, so C would be 30. This is because A&T and C&G have the same amounts of percent, so A&T is 30, so C&G are 60, so C is 30.
89. Where does meiosis occur, and what types of cells are produced by meiosis?
Only occurs in gametes and the cells are all genetically different
91. Be able to state whether chromatin or chromosomes are present at each stage of Meiosis.
Interphase 1 is chromatin, Prophase is coiling chromatin and chromosomes, Metaphase and Anaphase are chromosomes, Telophase are chromosomes, Prophase 2 are chromosomes, and Metaphase 2 and Anaphase 2 are chromosomes, Early telophase 2 are chromosomes and late telophase 2 are chromatin.
92. What important events occur during Prophase I and Metaphase I?
Synapsis and crossing over
93. State the major differences between Meiosis I and Meiosis II
Crossing over and Independent Assortment
94. Compare and contrast Meiosis & Mitosis. Where does each process occur in the body? How many and what types of cells are produced by each process? How many divisions occur in each process? What are the major differences between the 2 processes?
Mitosis creates identical cells whereas Meiosis produces genetically different cells. Mitosis happens everywhere where meiosis only happens in the gametes. Mitosis only has 1 division when Meiosis has 2 (3 if you could the second division as two).
95. Define spermatogenesis. Where does it occur and what is produced?
The formation of sperm, which occurs in the testes
96. Define oogenesis. Where does it occur and what is produced?
The development of eggs, which occurs in the ovaries
97. Identify organs of the male and female reproductive systems that were discussed during lecture. Be able to state the function of each organ.
Male RS- Testis, Epididymis, Vas Deferens, Seminal Vesicles, Prostate Gland, Bulbourethal gland, urethra, penis.
Female RS- Ovary, Fallopian Tube (fertilization occurs here), Uterus, Cervix, and Vagina.
98. Define fertilization.
When a sperm cell enters the egg and creates a diploid structure.
99. Identify all the stages of animal development after fertilization. (lecture notes & lab manual are helpful here)
Fertilization 2. Cleavage 3. Gastrulation 4. Organogenesis
100. After fertilization, do the cells divide by meiosis or mitosis? Are the cells haploid or diploid?
Mitosis, and they are diploid
101. List the different types of contraception available. Discuss the effectiveness of each type of contraception in terms of preventing pregnancy and protecting a person from sexually transmitted infections.
Condoms (effective against pregnancy and most STDs)
Rhythm method (not really effective against pregnancy and not effective against STDs)
The pill (effective against pregnancy, but not STD's)
102. What types of sexually transmitted infections generally cannot be cured?
Genital Herpes, AIDS & HIV
103. Condoms do not completely protect you from which sexually transmitted infections?
Genital Herpes and Genital Warts
104. Can viral sexually transmitted infections be treated with antibiotics? Why or why not?
They can be slowed and partially prevented, but they cannot be cured because they mutate and hide from our cells.
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