RVE: Development of Oral Language and Oral Communication

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Phonological Skills
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Terms in this set (21)
Always teach vocabulary in context. Use sentences, pictures, and examples
Teaching vocabulary through flashcards and memorization is ineffective
Use a variety of texts with different sentence structures, uses of language, and vocabulary
Model using formal and informal language at the appropriate times
When teaching, use formal language. When greeting students or chatting, use informal language
Provide a variety of opportunities for listening and speaking
Peer discussions, formal presentations, conversations
Allow students to use note cards with key words written down during presentations
Stages of First Language Acquisition4-6 months: cooing stage Babies make vowel sounds similar to those heard in their first language 6 months- 1 year: babbling stage Babies make consonant-vowel sounds (mu-mu, da-da) and repeat sounds 12-24 months: One-word stage Children refer to objects by their names, begin to use language to convey meaning to others 2-3 years: Telegraphic stage Children string words together to convey meaning with simple sentences 3+: Oral language fluency stage Children use complex sentences appropriatelyStages of Second Language AcquisitionSome children speak more than one language (e.g. English Language Learners, or ELLs). When acquiring a second language, children go through the following stages, which can happen at different ages depending on when they begin to learn the language: Pre-Production stage: ELLs listen to the second language and do not yet comprehend or communicate effectively in the second language Early production stage: Comprehension is limited, and ELLs use 1-2 word responses Speech emergence stage: ELLs experience increased increased comprehension and speak in longer sentences with some grammatical errors. Vocabulary increases. Intermediate fluency stage: ELLS comprehend the majority of spoken English, and speak effectively with few errors Advanced fluency stage: ELLs can understand academic vocabulary and speak with near-fluencyStrategies for Promoting Second Language AcquisitionProvide students with partial scripts or sentence stems ("I agree with you because...") Do not punish ELLs for not participating. Offer support when needed, such as visual cues and scaffolded instructionCultural and Linguistic DifferencesIncorporate culturally and linguistically diverse books and materials Posters, graphics, and picture books should represent diversity Include pictures of people from different races and cultures Do not punish or correct children for using nonstandard English. Instead, provide experiences to help students conclude that different styles of communicating are appropriate at different times.Receptive DisordersMake it challenging to receive spoken communication. It is difficult to understand spoken language Strategies for students with receptive language disorders: Provide written directions Break directions down into smaller tasks Provide visual cues Present information in multiple ways Gain student attention before speakingExpressive Disordermake it challenging for people to communicate their thoughts, needs, and ideas to others. Strategies: Do not finish their sentences for them or interrupt them when when they are speaking.Mixed Expressive and Receptive DisordersChildren with mixed expressive/receptive disorders can experience delays in both domainsWhich of the following strategies would be effective in helping first-grade students build their pragmatic language skills? A. Editing sentences so they are grammatically correct B. Having students practice appropriate ways to ask questions during a presentation C. Providing opportunities to use high-frequency words in a sentence D. Giving students a purpose for listening during a presentationB. Having students practice appropriate ways to ask questions during a presentationSamuel is an English Language Learner in a fourth-grade class. His teacher wants to help him feel more comfortable participating in class discussions. What method would be helpful in encouraging Samuel to use spoken English in class? A. Sentence stems B. A picture dictionary C. Correct his grammatical errors D. A complete scriptA. Sentence stemsA teacher is using several strategies for his student with a speech disorder. They include: providing written directions and visual cues, breaking down directions into smaller steps, and gaining the student's attention before beginning instruction. The student most likely has a A. Semantic language disorder B. Expressive language disorder C. Pragmatic language disorder D. Receptive language disorderD. Receptive language disorderWhich of the following is an example of a syntactic skill? A. Manipulating the sounds of spoken words B. Arranging words in the correct order to form a sentence C. Defining the meanings of words in the context of a sentence D. Understanding the social rules of languageB. Arranging words in the correct order to form a sentence