BIO Ch. 32 Terms Exam 4
Terms in this set (44)
Immunity that depends on the production of antibodies specific to a particular pathogen by the organism's own body.
adaptive immune system
An internal defense system in vertebrates that acts against pathogens in a highly specific manner, with specialized defense cells mobilized against particular strains of pathogens. Its immune memory allows it to remember a first encounter with a specific strain of pathogen and to mobilize an especially speedy and precisely targeted response to a repeat infection by the same strain.
A protein that is produced by a B cell and binds specifically to a particular antigen.
The part of the adaptive immune system that relies on antibodies to fight off pathogens. By binding with the antigens of invading pathogens, antibodies tag the alien substances or cells for destruction by other members of the immune system defense team. B cells play an integral role.
A characteristic protein or other molecule produced by an invading pathogen that is recognized as alien by particular lymphocytes and that incites B cells to produce antibodies directed against it.
antigen-presenting cell (APC)
An immune cell that displays an antigen.
One of two basic types of mature lymphocytes. Mature in the bone marrow, and they are involved in antibody-mediated immunity.
A repeat vaccination administered periodically to maintain immunity to specific antigens by raising antibody concentrations and memory B cell numbers through fresh exposure to those antigens.
The cooperative effort of the innate and adaptive immune systems to recognize and destroy cancer cells.
The part of the adaptive immune system whose role is to destroy cells harboring pathogens and other substances that are sensed as foreign by the body. T cells play an integral role.
The process by which a lymphocyte that has bound to its specific antigen reproduces rapidly, yielding large numbers of genetically identical lymphocytes with exactly the same antigen-recognizing proteins that the parent cell has.
A type of protein that circulates in the blood plasma and concentrates at sites of tissue damage, stimulating macrophage and neutrophil production and activity.
Any of a class of small protein cells that participate in inflammation.
cytotoxic T cell
A lymphocyte that binds to cells that have been infected by a virus and helps destroy them.
Any of a variety of small chains of amino acids, secreted by skin cells, that can destroy many types of bacteria, and even certain types of viruses, by creating holes in their lipid layers.
helper T cell
A type of lymphocyte that stimulates cytotoxic T cells and B cells.
A protein released by mast cells that causes blood vessels to dilate and capillaries to become more porous.
The individual, or organism, in which a particular parasite or pathogen lives.
The capacity of the adaptive immune system to remember a first encounter with a specific strain of pathogen and to mobilize an especially speedy and precisely targeted response to a repeat infection by the same strain.
The organ system in animals, consisting of defensive proteins and specialized immune cells (such as white blood cells in vertebrate animals), that destroys invading pathogens.
Part of the nonspecific response to invading pathogens, allergens, or tissue damage. Characterized by redness, swelling (due to fluid accumulation), and warmth (local increase in temperature).
innate immune system
An internal defense system that is immediately set in motion when the external barriers fail to stop a pathogen. Its response to pathogens is nonspecific, deploying a preset repertoire of defensive actions.
A chemical released by virus-infected cells that attaches to the plasma membranes of nearby cells, interfering with the ability of the virus to enter and infect those cells.
A pocket of tissue lying along a lymphatic duct that contains large numbers of white blood cells and traps pathogens.
One of a network of tubes that return interstitial fluid to the circulatory system.
The network of vessels that returns interstitial fluid from the body to the circulatory system.
Any of several types of white blood cells that bind to specific antigens and then contribute in various ways to the destruction of the pathogens that bear those antigens.
A type of white blood cell that releases histamine and is found in a number of tissues, including blood, as well as epithelial and connective tissues.
A type of B cell that remains in the body as a long-term record of the primary immune response to a particular pathogen. During a second exposure to that pathogen, these specific to the pathogen multiply rapidly to produce large numbers of lymphocytes that can attack it.
natural killer (NK) cell
A type of white blood cell that destroys any cell whose plasma membrane is marked with foreign proteins, including viral proteins.
An immune response found in most animals that leads to the destruction of cells not recognized as belonging to the organism.
Immunity gained by an individual through antibodies that it receives from another individual (a nursing infant from its mother, for example) or another organism (for example, horses, which are used in the production of snakebite antivenom).
An organism or virus that infects a host and causes disease, harming and in some cases killing the host.
A type of white blood cell that destroys invading cellular organisms by engulfing them (phagocytosis). Macrophages and neutrophils are two examples.
A form of endocytosis by which a cell engulfs a large particle, such as another cell; "cell eating."
A type of sticky cell fragment that circulates in the blood and helps form a blood clot by combining with proteins that also circulate in the blood to form a gel-like mesh that traps blood cells.
primary immune response
The relatively slow mobilization of B cells and T cells following the first exposure to a pathogen.
Any of a class of lipid-based signaling molecules with varied functions, which include raising body temperature and dilating blood vessels to increase blood flow during inflammation.
secondary immune system
The rapid defensive response, following a second exposure to a pathogen, that is mediated by memory B cells produced during the first exposure to that pathogen.
An immune response in which an organism recognizes and responds much more rapidly to a particular parasite or pathogen to which it has had previous exposure.
One of two basic types of mature lymphocytes. Migrate from the bone marrow to mature in the thymus, and they are involved in cell-mediated immunity.
A poison produced by a living organism. Small to large molecules and include poisonous proteins.
A preparation of killed or weakened pathogens that is used to stimulate the vertebrate immune system as protection against future attack by that pathogen.
white blood cell
Any of several types of cells that are part of an animal's nonspecific and specific internal defenses against pathogens.