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Terms in this set (162)

Inhibition: the activation of competing information is actively reduced.

A. Part-set cueing: situation in which partial information leads to poorer memory.
- exception to retrieval cues aiding memory
- providing partial information may disrupt a person's retrieval plan

B. Retrieval-induced inhibition: remembering one item may cause forgetting of another item
- blocking of memories with non-truamatic and emotionally neural
- though to be due to inhibitory processes

1) Negative Priming (NP): due to inhibition a decrease in the availability of a memory trace.
- An example of retrieval-induced inhibition
EX) the word RED but in blue lettering - asked what color is the word.

Priming: facilitation of response to related targets. (item is easily retrieved
- for NP can be same or similar items
- NP focus on a response (RT paradigm)


2) Ugly sisters:
1: An unwanted word (s) interferes with retrieval of a target word

2: Similarity between foil and target
- more similar = harder to retrieve info

3: Ugly sisters may contribute to TOT states
(tip of tongue)
- some but not all

4: Ugly sisters may prolong TOT states


Combating Ugly Sisters:
- partial information
- a different task often helps


3) Retrieval Practice Effect: practice with retrieving a subset of items leads to a decrease in recalling the non-practiced items.
- Another form of retrieval-induced inhibition
- In general, rehearsing items should make those items easier to recall later.
- interesting that unpracticed items become less available
- retrieval of information while at the same time inhibiting factors
A. Lifetime Period Memories: distinct periods of time often organized around a theme (category). (Main Folder)
- Highest level of the hierarchy (Example: work)
- broadest
-extending over years or even decades
- structure--> for your own goals in life/ memories that you have


B. General-Event Memories: can include extended sequence or repeated experiences. (sub-folders)
- Can include stereotypical situations (repeated experiences)
- intermediate level
- time frame: weeks months, days
EX) first day at work: observation, receive uniform, training, introductions

1) Sequence of specific events:
EX) sending in resume, getting interview, etc.

2) Repeating Event:
- every sunday eating lunch with Mamaw and papaw and mom and dad (over years)


C. Event-Specific Memories: concerned with the specifics of a particular event.
- Basic level
- level that corresponds most with episodic memories
- can include contextual information


D. Evidence for the Hierarchy:
1. General Comments:
- Sometimes difficult to place a memory at a particular level.
- Overlap of various themes
- value of levels are heuristic


2. Neurological Evidence:
- K.C.: he was unable to remember any event from his life (could give the first two levels but not the 3rd)
- K.S.: she had difficulty with recall of general knowledge but was able to recall specific life events


3) Experimental Evidence:- Suggest hierarchy is top-down (top is life time themes)
- Recorded lifetime periods and general events for participants.
- faster when primed by lifetime events versus general events
A. Life Narrative: our life story

1. General Information on Life Narrative: (framework)
- This view suggests that a narrative structure is used to organize our life experiences.
- recall life events better if recalled in order
- clusters


2. Life story is organized by four types of coherences:

a: Temporal Coherence: order follows the flow of time
- start at beginning and through life
EX) list of typical life events that happen to you

b: Cultural Concept of Biography: looks at typical life events and defined life phases.
- framework (high school/ friends/ area)

c: Thematic Coherence: metaphors, "psychological truths" or "life lessons."
EX) need for intimacy, power

- Implicit: "life is loving" , "life is a struggle"

- Explicit:
- my life has been a series of ups & downs
- my life has been all uphill
- comparing life to a journey
- life as a process that unfolds

d: Causal Coherence: Events are linked in terms of motivation/causes.
- External causes: EX) where you live, moving because parents move (changing schools not your choice)

- Internal causes: EX) You choosing where to go to college, you choosing to change schools because of better academics or sports)


B. Perspectives in Autobiographical Memory:
1. Field Memories: experienced from original perspective
- (first person view)
- how you observed the perspective

2. Observer Memories: view is from outside of ourselves
-(3rd person)


C. Schema-Copy-Plus-Tag Model:
- Autobiographical memories are reconstructed with information from schemas and
scripts.
EX) doctors office--> waiting room
- The schema will serves as the basis for your memory of that event.

*Initially, inconsistent information is easier to remember
- tags for important information that is inconsistent with the schema


longterm--> more likely to focus on schema

D. Item-specific and Relational Processing:
- Schemas are important for providing the relational processing.

- Tags are important for providing the item-specific processing.
Source Monitoring: knowing where (source) the information for a memory came from.
- We want to know under what circumstances we can trust our memories.
-partial information


A. Types of Source Information: several different types of information can help with identifying where a memory came from.

1. Perceptual Detail: when we experience an event we often have more perceptual details about that event.
- perception--> any of the senses (visual)
- (really occurs)
EX) someone read list --> higher voice & lower voice--> remember higher better

2. Cognitive Operations: we may remember mental processes/activities conducted during an event/situation.
- what you were thinking at that time
- manipulating information, forming a mental image
EX) someone asks for directions--> mental map--> figuring it out

3. Amount of semantic detail and/or affective information: to what extent was there a mental or emotional involvement in the event/situation.
- reaction to situation
- mental or emotional reaction

4. Contextual information: context can provide useful information about what is likely to be expected/experiences in that situation.
- expectations

EX) where were you--> at home (who's likely to be there)



B. Types of Source Monitoring:

1: Internal Source Monitoring: ability to distinguish between what you have done and what you have thought about doing.
- perceptual detail
-contextual information
EX) locking the door vs. thinking about locking it

2: External Source Monitoring: distinguishing between two or more external sources (i.e., who told you the info.)
- perceptual, contextual --> (narrow down options, but could be wrong)
-perhaps semantic detail & emotional reactions

3: Reality Monitoring: ability to distinguish between memories of what you have done versus what you have imagined doing.
- Perceptual detail
- Contextual information: likely for things done, less likely for things imagined
- Semantic detail and emotional reactions

C. Source Monitoring Errors:
- several types
(repeated conversations can make it difficult to distinguish between)

D. Source Cueing: when remembering is facilitated by source information.
- source info may help narrow which traces are accessed in a long-term memory
- melody played on piano vs same melody played on guitar

E. Cryptomnesia: unknowingly produce the work of another from memory (e.g., writings, ideas).
- A misattribution in that the person attributes novelty to something that should be familiar
- unconscious plagiarism

F. False Fame: judging someone as more famous than what they are due to a sense of familiarity.
-using familiarity vs. actual information
-earlier presentations of names has an effect on familiarity

G. Sleeper Effect: information previous dismissed is now at a later date viewed as more credible.
- initial source too low in credibility
- content information and source information
A. Implanted memories:
- False information in presented in such a way that participants
believe the information is correct.
-implanting of words & autobiographical memories

1. False autobiographical memories:
-implanting of words & autobiographical memories

a) Relatively ease of creating false personal memories
- Pezdek's experiment with catholic & Jewish adolescents
- 25% recall

b) Wade et al. "One Picture is Worth a Thousand Lies"
+ Hot-air balloon ride: photoshopped picture into an event that never occurred
- up to 50% recall
+ Bugs Bunny: (not disney) participants evaluate the Ad , then talk about their own experience at disney
- talk about seeing Bugs Bunny --> but they didn't because he's Warner Bros.


2. Imagination Inflation: Through the use of imagination, false memories may be created for false events.
- influence on memory traces
- confidence (increases)--> because of repetition

B. Misinformation Effect: info presented after the event biases the recall of the event
- An inference from false information is made
- False memories could be due to a number of reasons:

C. Hypnosis and Memory:
- altered state of consciousness
- increase in susceptibility to suggestion
- often there is a reduction in reality testing
- hypnosis can bolster witness confidence
- can be a "face saving" device

D. Reviewing the experimental support:

1) Evidence support that false memories occur
- simple list learning
- applying it to real life

2) Same mechanisms involved for false memories & accurate memories

E. Limitations:
1) Many studies deal with schema-consistent "mundane events"
- DRM --> consistent

2) To what extent do the results generalize
- can apply to real life events

3) Influence of therapist/therapy may be underestimated.
- if wrong moves are used
- order/ type of questions asked
Information:
- valuable source
- many not be obtained any other way

Jurors view of eyewitness testimony

Each stage of memory: (encoding, storage, retrieval)



A. Wording Effects: wording of questions can influence what people remember
- Memory as a reconstruction of the original event.
- changes in wording can result in different answers
- car accident

More Examples: Participants viewed a film of a car accident

"Did you see a broken headlight?" - 7%
"Did you see the broken headlight?"- 18%

Height estimate:
2a: "How tall was the basketball player?" - 6.58ft
2b: "How short was the basketball player?"- 5.7ft


B. Eyewitness Testimony Paradigm:

1. Misleading Postevent Information:
- Technique pioneered by Loftus
- Participants watch an "event"
- Questions are asked about the event
- Memory test of event (forced choice)


Misinformation Effect: post-event information influences your memory for the original event.
- info afterwards has an effect


a) Red Datsun experiment:
- 30 slides
- filler task
- forced choice
- questions
(Short term vs. long term memory)

b) Autobiographical information:
True events:
Bogus events:

- list of events provided
- some of the stories were true, some not
- recall the events as best as they could
- 25% recall bogus events--> even provide details



Theories accounting for the misinformation effect:
a) Memory coexistence theory:
- the original & misleading information coexist in memory
- harder to access original memory

b) Memory replacement theory:
- New information overwrites the old information
- loftus study: 3 alternatives, 2nd guess


c) Source monitoring theory:
- under alcohol influence: confidence rise, more susceptible to misinformation



3. General findings for Postevent Information:

a) Enhancing Memory:
- mentioning an item increases probability of recall
- car accident--> question w/ stop sign & w/o

b) Compromised memories: alteration of memories due to conflicting or new information
- Participants watched a 3 minute video involving a disruption of a class by eight demonstrators (Loftus, 1975). .
- 1 item on the questionnaire was different:
Group 1: "Was the leader of the four demonstrators who entered the classroom a male?"
Group 2: "Was the leader of the twelve demonstrators who entered the classroom a male?"
- a week later- asked how many demonstrated
G1: 6.4 (up) G2: 8.9 (down)


c) Introducing nonexistent Objects:
"how fast was the white sports car going when it passed the barn while traveling along the country road?"
(asking about things that were never in the clip)
- there was no barn- 17% claimed to have seen the barn


d) Central versus peripheral details
Central items:
- greater accuracy
- more difficult to alter

Peripheral items:
- easier to alter


e) Timing of Postevent Information
- Immediately after the event
- Prior to Recalled


f) One year later:
- Influence of postevent information:
- immediate recall, then 1 year later

- Postcards vs. just story group:
- added more details from postcard than were there

- Wedding feast vs. peasant society:
- no picture: feud in a peasant society

g) Investigations by Police and Attorneys: - Investigation can influence memory
- witnesses interviewed by attorneys for the defendant gave testimony biased in favor of the defendant


C. Arousal Influences
- When eyewitnesses are need, these are often for events that evoke a lot of arousal (crime, car accident)
- Does emotion make memory better or worse?
- complicated relationship


1. Yerkes-Dodson law: moderate levels of arousal lead to better performance than either low or high levels.
- simple task--> higher arousal
- difficult task--> low arousal
- nervous--> don't do as well on performance


2. Easterbrook Hypothesis: when emotional intensity is high, there appears to be a narrowing of attention.
- Ordinary events: emotion decreases typical abilities
- Emotional events: can attend to fewer details then before
(central vs. peripheral details)


3. Weapon Focus: the case in which the presence of a weapon lead to the capture of a good deal of the victim's attention at the cost of other details.
- description
- identification of target
- eye movements (time spent on weapon)
- weapon is unusual

EX) unsuspecting participant waiting hears either:
-innocuous conversation: about equipment
- hostile interaction: bottles breaking, chairs crashing
A. Prior to the Cognitive Interview:
1. Traditional interviews:
- Put the witness at ease (make introductions)
- Asked what happened; followed by questions to fill in the gaps
- Proponents of the Cognitive Interview suggest:
(this will not usually produce optimum results)
- telling, but keep getting interrupted --> don't remember as well


Type of Retrieval:
a) Narrative or free report:
Example: "Tell us all you can remember"
- fewer errors
- but, less complete


b) Controlled narrative question:
Example: "Give us a description of what your assailant was wearing
- asking specific questions --> not getting all info you can

c) Interrogatory Report:
Example: "Did your attacker have dark or light hair?"
- more errors
- introducing more details into the process


Research on type of report
- Free report produced the most accurate reports (but were the least complete).
- Recommend use both with narrative report first & then the interrogatory


B. Cognitive Interview: goal was to improve the results of witness interviews.
- Wanted a technique that would increase the amount of information without increasing the level of confabulation (make up stuff that seems to make sense).
- Based on Encoding (context is important) Specificity Principle
- avoids suggestive or leading questions
- comparison to standard police interviewing techniques


1: Reinstate the Context: reestablish the environment, mood, setting, and/or experiences
- Context enhances: retrieval of stored information
- Related issues: Encoding specificity & mood congruence --> retrieval cues


2: Report Everything: recall all information regardless of apparent importance whether partial or complete information.
- tendency to edit details
- told not to hold back even the smallest of details


3: Recall the events in different orders: witness is asked to recall the event in different temporal orders (e.g., reverse or out-of-order recall).
- forcing you to think more about the event vs. the story
- looking at each stage of the event as a separate entity
- more difficult to embellish the event


4: Change Perspectives: witness is encouraged to take the perspective of another person or object regarding an event.
- Consider the view of another witness, victim, or an "invisible eye" on the wall
- removes personal perspective


C. Advantages/disadvantages:
+ Police officers tends to have less frustration

+ Comparison to standard police interviewing techniques: "yields significant - and sometimes extremely large - gains in witness recall

- Time: takes more time


D. Enhanced Cognitive Interview (or ECI).
- Associating witness recollection of physical appearance, clothing, and sound
- Direct questions
A. Mistaken Identification

1. Innocence Project:
- discover years later that people didn't do the crime after years of serving

2. Examples from Innocence Project:


3. "The problem can be stated rather simply: on the one hand, eyewitness testimony is very believable and can wield considerable influence over the decisions reaches by a jury; on the other hand, eyewitness testimony is not always reliable."


4. Questions regarding eyewitness identification:
- False identification
- Confidence
- Which witnesses are jurors more likely to believe?
- What role do the police officers play in identification of suspects?
- family more likely to lie, witnesses don't have a reason to


B. Eyewitness Identification
1. Techniques used:

a) Mugshots: method used by investigators to help identify a perpetrator of a crime in which a witness/victim looks at photo of known criminals.

b) Lineups: in general a person sees the suspect with a number of foils, and is asked if they can identify the suspect.

c) Showup: typically consists of two detectives walking respondent past the victim.
- don't have enough people for lineup
- another method of recognition


2. Concerns with the techniques:
a) Concerns with Mugshots:

1) failing to identify a perpetrator

2) mistakenly identify an innocent person
- similarity
- familiarity


b) Photo-Biased Lineups: having seen the person in the mugshots increases the likelihood that they will be identified.
- Person has already seen an array of photographs.
- typically one person is seen in both the photos and the lineup
- mistaken identification


c) Unconscious Transference: the phenomenon in which a person seen in one situation is confused with or recalled as a person seen in a different situation.
- "at the wrong place at the wrong time"


d) Relative judgment Principle: in comparison to everyone else in the lineup a person more closely resembles the criminal and so is selected as the criminal.

Exercise: can you pick the suspect?


C. General recommendations for Lineups:
1. Lineup Similarity:
- The suspect should not stand out.

- Matching of foils should include: gender, race, age, height, weight, manner of dress
- plus any particular characteristic mentioned by the eyewitness if possible


a) Of concern is the verbal description given by the witness.
- not necessary for fillers to look identical to the subject
- it is important for the filler to fit the description of the eyewitness

b) Mock witnesses:
- People who have never seen the culprit
- Provided the eyewitness's verbal description of the culprit.
- provided a lineup


There should be a sufficient number of fillers in a lineup.
a) Minimum of 5 fillers (non-suspects)
- (ADLS policy) suggest 10--> 10%


b) The Functional Size of a Lineup:
- Calculation: N/D
N = Nonwitnesses (participants)
D = number of nonwitnesses [participants] who choose the suspect


Instructions: should state that the lineup may not include the perpetrator
- decrease in false information


Lineup Presentation:
a) Simultaneous lineup: witness sees foils and suspect all at one time.
- more likely to do relative judgements (who looks more like they did the crime)

b) Sequential lineup: witness sees one person at a time
- don't know how many are going to be lined up (less likely to compare)

c) Comparing the two types of presentations:


5. Recommendations by Wells and Bradfield
- Person who administers the lineup or photospread : don't know who suspect is

- Obtain a confidence statement from the eyewitness at the time of the identification
- people rehearse what they are going to say


D. Cross-Racial Identification
- Identification of other races
- blacks identification of other whites & blacks
- whites identification of other blacks and & whites
A. Supreme Court Decisions & eyewitnesses: 1. United States v. Wade:
- Court- Pretrial lineup/showup recognized as an important
stage of the criminal proceedings.- Suspect is entitled to have the aid of counsel
- if a lineup is held without the presence of the suspects counsel, then a separate hearing must take place

4. Simmons v. United States (1968)
- Need for prompt identification procedures

5. Kirby v. Illinois (dismantling the rights of the accused)
- Having counsel at lineups was a right only after the suspect has been indicted.
- result- delay of formal charges until after the identification has been made

6. Neil v. Biggers (1972)
- "placed almost exclusive emphasis on the reliability of the identification"
- to what extent is the identification reliable?

a) Biggers Case:
- Over the course of seven months she viewed suspects in photographs, lineups, and a showup.
- police couldn't find suitable lineup so they conducted a show up instead


b) Supreme Court ruled in Neil v. Biggers: "The Court ruled that suggestive procedures are not in and of themselves ground for discounting eyewitnesses because the critical issue concerns the likelihood that the identification was accurate rather than whether the procedure was suggestive per se."


c) Five criteria on evaluations of eyewitness identifications:
- Supreme Court ruled in Neil v. Biggers (1972)

1: Certainty: the eyewitness, to what

2: View: eyewitness talk about having a good view

3: Attention: person attending to details?
- what focusing on

4: Description: accused match the description given?

5: Time: time between crime & identification of person


d) Biggers Criteria - comments by Wells and Bradfield:"In effect, these findings indicate that four of the five Biggers criteria (confidence, view, attention, and description of the perpetrator) can be influenced by suggestive procedure in the form of casual postidentification comment."


7. Manson v. Brathwaite
- "reliability is the linchpin in determining the admissibility of identification testimony"
A. Judgments of Learning: an estimate of how well something
has been learned.
- A rating of the likelihood of correctly recalling a given item on a test
- prediction
- overconfident in judgements of learning


1. Immediate JOL: a judgment is made immediately after learning the material.

2. Delayed JOL: a delay in making the judgment after learning the material.
- typically 30 seconds or more

(people are far worse with Immediate JOL than Delayed JOL)


B. Theories of JOLs:
1. Inability Hypothesis: suggest people are horrible at assessing their own learning.
- suggests delays -shouldn't matter

2. Monitor-Retrieval Hypothesis: information is still in working memory (recently practiced) and so the person thinks s/he has learned the information better that what s/he has.
- delays will have an effect


3. JOL Experimental evidence:
a) Delayed JOL Effect: "The increase in the relative accuracy of JOL ratings with a
short delay"

b) Underconfidence-with-practice (UWP) effect: after repeated presentation (distributed practice), predictions for JOLs lower than performance.


C. JOL cues:
1: Extrinsic: information regarding the learning environment.
- Person often not aware of the impact on learning

Examples: massed vs. distributed practice, presentation times, or type of information
- this type of info/cues often not used in JOLs


2: Intrinsic: inherent characteristics of the information that suggest level of ease of learning (or level of difficulty).
- JOLs are sensitive to these cues

a) Ease-of-Learning (EOL): an inference (by the learner) regarding how easy or difficult a task will be to learn
- Judgment occurs in advance of actual learning
- predictive of subsequent learning


b) Illusion of Knowing (IK): belief that shallow processing is all that is needed to learn difficult information.
- individual will focus on def -> memorization
- difference between word for word vs. actually knowing and understanding on a deeper level

3: Mnemonic: memory of how you have done on previous judgments.
- starting to incorporate your experience


D. Allocation of Study Time:
- Maximizing study time
- distributed practice
- massed practice- people focus difficult items with massed practice

Labor-in-vain effect: studying time is spent on very difficult items which does not lead to much new knowledge learned.
- should focus more on challenging items
- vigosky
- People are pretty quick to make don't know judgments
- people who know, take longer vs. people who don't (quicker to judge)
EX) person asked the same question twice--> slower to respond the second time because memory has some recall of question


VI. Remembering versus Know
A. Remember-Know judgment:
- rate the quality of the memory
- Are these different memory processes?


1. Know [familiar] (information is familiar): recognition without recollection
- no context
- no memory associated with it


2. Remember: recognition with recollection may be context dependent
- remembering details associated with the context itself

Example: the list of words from last lecture & whether we knew them or remembered them


B. Memory Biases:
1. Hindsight Bias: overestimate how predictable a particular outcome was in foresight.
- After-the-fact explanations
- When the end result is know, it is easier to retrieve information that supports it.
- reconstruction of the past events

EX) blurry face- celebrity recognition
EX) tumor/ doctors story



The Knew-it-all-along Effect:
- A variant of the hindsight bias

Stage 1: evaluate info (T/F statements)

Stage 2: feedback (can include knowledge not in stage 1)

Stage 3: indicate what they knew in stage 1



2. Consistency Bias: past emotions and beliefs are seen as consistent with current emotions and beliefs.
- Past feelings and beliefs are "filtered" through our current feelings & beliefs.

- Assumption regarding stability

- Examples: recall of pain, political views



Two step process for reconstruction of earlier attributes and feelings (Ross, 1989):

1) Start with current self-appraisal - how do I feel about ...

2) Use of implicit theories concerning stability
- divorce, later date--> first fight--> memories come back of why they divorced


3. Change Bias: if there is the expectation that there should be a change over time, past memories may be changed in order to reflect a difference from current memories.
- couples looking back on the past 4 years
- compare initial to current assessment
- "recalled that the strength of their love had grown since they last reported it." (looking back, people will adjust previous level of love to a lower point)


Theory of Decline
- one may assume things have gotten worse over time
I. In Utero Learning

- prior to being born, there is memory

A. Preference for mother's voice
- fixation
- sucking rate --> increases

B. Preference for their native tongue
- language

(Both A&B recognition)

C. "Cat in the Hat" Experiment
- mom read book last 6 weeks
- child has preference for the same book (regardless of mom's voice)



II. Infantile Amnesia

Infantile Amnesia (childhood amnesia): The inability to recall events that occurred
when we were very young. Most do not recall many events prior to the age of 4 or 5.



1. Psychodynamic View: according to Freud, forgetting was essential to getting safely
through the childhood years.
- development of superego
- we block the memories to protect ourselves



2. Neurological View:
- Immaturity of brain structures
- hippocampus --> store/learn information
- frontal lobe --> binding memories




3. Schema Organization View: early forgetting is due to a lack of schemata.
- figure out how the world works
- EX) difficult time with specific trip --> remember going but don't remember what occurred.



4. Language Development View: infantile amnesia is due to the lack of mastery early
on of symbolic language
- with an increase in language acquisition we see a decrease in infantile amnesia


Magic Shrinking Machine
- Visited toddlers two to three years of age
- Evaluated their language skills
- returned a year later --> asked questions about the experience


5. Emergent Self View: development of a sense of self helps the child separate
him/herself from the environment.
- formation of episodic memories
- no sense = hard to create auto-biographical memories


6. Multicomponent Development: the initial lack of development of a number of skills
may contribute to infantile amnesia.
- areas of development/ improvement: language, episodic memory system, sense of self, & schemas of how the world works


7. Gender Differences: females can recall earlier memory than males
a) Emotion
- memories with emotions are more likely remembered

b) Age of earliest memories:


8. Cultural Differences:
- whites have better recall than Asians by 6 months





III. Childhood:

A. Semantic Memory:

(Explosion of vvv)
- Vocabulary

- Language development

- Develop scripts & schemas of the world (Around age 3)

B. Episodic Memory:
- change continues in organization & structure
- changes in memory include: awareness increases about the need for using strategies
- a better use of strategies


C. Working Memory:
- Increase in memory span
- 2 years : 2 items
- 6-10 years: 6 items

1. Cognitive Speedup:
-Rehearsal rates
- interest
- maintaining information in working memory



2. Development of Cognitive Inhibition:
- not Raw capacity but the content



- Directed Forgetting: recall is worse on a surprise memory test for a set of items
one is instructed to forget versus items without the forgetting instructions.
- testing first, third, and fifth graders



D. Metamemory: your knowledge and awareness about your own memory
- recency effect



IV. Childhood Amnesia
- last up to around the age of 7
- spotty recall of memories prior to that
I. Memory and Aging:

A. Intelligence
1) Fluid Intelligence:
- Processing of information (performance)
- declines with age

2) Crystallized intelligence:
- Accumulated knowledge (e.g., vocabulary)
- may continue to increase with age
- "expertise"

B. Speed of processing:
- Receive and transmit information
- slower with the aging process



C. Neurological Changes

1. Neural Conduction Speed:
- In general, as we age we tend to respond more slowly
- neurons fire more slowly in older adults
- older adults tend to take longer to engage in any cognitive process

- older people: slower driver: good! (they can keep up with their rate)
- it's those who drive fast and are older who make more mistakes

- Overall performance for some tasks may be similar, but the elderly may
compensate with experience/pre-planning
- number of tasks
- task complexity
- rate of flow of information

2. Declines in Frontal and Temporal Lobes:
- frontal lobes-undergo change (impacts working memory)
- temporal lobes: hippocampus , encoding, storage, and retrieval

D. Theories of Age-Related Memory Declines
- memory changes complex
- attitude about your memory is important

1. Speed Theory:




2. Working Memory Declines:

a) Sub-systems:

1) Phonological Loop: holds up reasonably well
- auditory info


2) Visuo-spatial Sketch Pad: more likely to see a decline
- "Mental walk" (HArd) vs. specific question--> better recall
- images/ ability to navigate in a spatial situation



b) Central Executive: planning--> may be lost
1) chess:
- younger: more moves
- older: think deeper about moves

2) Language production:
- Substitution of pronouns- not sure who to talk about if not said right after
- ambiguous referent

3. Inhibitory Declines:
- decline in frontal lobe function
- with aging- decline in the ability to inhibit irrelevant information


4. Self-Initiated Processing:
- decline in frontal lobe function
- less able to monitor memory processes


II. Some Things Change

Working memory:
- attentional resources
- comprehension & pronouns


A. Episodic Memory:
- Retroactive interference
- Less effective at directed forgetting
(new info interfering with old info)


B. Episodic versus Schematic Information:
- elderly less recall specific details, but info consistent w/ schema better recall



C. Source Monitoring: knowing where info came from
- source monitoring errors (more likely to say info came from someone else)
- false memories (more likely seen in elderly)



- prospective memory (both time based & event based)
- more so for time-based

D. Metamemory:

1. Retrospective Remembering: forgetting a fact or name, confusing when two events
occurred.
- memory for learned info (past)
- failure- forgetting a fact or name, confusing when two events occurred



2. Prospective Memory: (intentional memory)
remembering to do things in the future.

- distinctive cues


- sufficiently informative
- (EX) give someone a message when you see them
- take food out of the oven in 30 min


a) Components of Prospective Memory

1) remember what to do in the future, and
- similar to retrospective

2) remember to do it.
- component that is unique to prospective memory
So, prospective memory is said to be dependant on retrospective memory



b) Types of Prospective Memory

1) Event-based: perform a task when a certain event occurs.

(most elderly do as well as younger people with event-based)


- Environmental cue
EX) when you see Georgia, tell her this...


2) Time-based: (Harder) perform a task at a particular time.
- Internal cue
- often seen as more difficult
- internal timer-> laundry

How to help? take time based & make it more event based.



III. Some Things Stay the Same
1. Semantic Memory:
- general measures of semantic knowledge
- stereotypes


2. Episodic Memory:
- still can tell detailed story but can't remember who told to


3. Higher-Level Memory:
how does the world work - mental models
- verbatim: is lost (good sense but not all details)
- better rehearsed stories-> always told (detailed)


IV. Biological Influences on Learning and Memory:

- "as we get older our physiology gradually changes"

A. Blood Sugar Level:
- given sugary drink--> recall better (Older), but not on younger


B. Competition Stress on Performance: (Max ability for elderly best in morning)
- putt putt example
- elderly do better in morning, worse at night

C. Night or morning person
- elderly tend to get up early
- go to bed early


D. Individual Differences:
- older --> differences get bigger (After 65)
- cognitive reserve--> education helps w/ it


E. Memory & aging
- mid 40's problems with story recall begin
- 50's problems with word recall
- 60's & 70's transience is more marked & consistent

Role of education:
- more education - higher reserve
- less- lower reserve




V. Dementia

Dementia:
- Loss of rational thinking (disruption of neurological function)
- Memory impairment
- Consciousness is fine
- may include problems with learning new information and retrieving old information
- decline in both episodic & semantic memory



A. Alzheimer's Disease (AD):
A. Description
- The most common form of dementia
- cortical dementia (cerebral cortex)

- Treatment more likely to be effective during the early stages
- diagnosis important!

- After diagnosed, on average live for 8 to 10 years.



Common Symptoms:
- As the disease progress more likely to need help
- Often withdraw from social activities - EX) M&P church
- Recognition of family or caregivers may become difficult.


Criteria:
1. Orientation in time and place
2. Memory
3. Language
4. Praxis (control and movement and action)
5. Attention
6. Visual Perception
7. Problem Solving
8. Social Functioning

- A diagnosis of exclusion (rule out other disorders first)
- Progressive--> multiple testing--> changes? or same?

B. Types of Alzheimer's Disease:
1. Familial ( gene component) Alzheimer's disease (FAD):
- Rare form of the disease (less than 10%)
- Early onset - develops before 65
- Gene mutations on chromosomes 1, 14, and 21




2. Sporadic (late-onset):
- Usually develops after the age of 65
- Genetic factors do appears to play a role - ApoE- ApoE2, ApoE3, and ApoE4
- environmental factors : head trauma, long-term depression, stroke

- high levels of ApoE4 = likely to develop Alzheimer's



C. Biological Symptoms:
1. Neurofibrillary Tangles (NFT):
- Found inside of the neuron.
- Unclear how NFT form
- Protein tau
- tangles may be a part of the normal aging process



2. Amyloid Plaques:
- Occur outside the neuron
- Composed of a protein called beta amyloid
(communication with other neurons becomes an issue)



3. Loss of frontal and temporal lobe tissue:
- Number of neurons- decrease
- Neural connections
- issue of communication between parts of the brain


4. Biological indicators of AD:
- Diagnosis made by examining the brain
- Cerebrospinal Fluid
- CAT Scans--> can see shrinkage/loss of tissue


D. Stages of Alzheimer's Disease:
1. Stage 1: (mild) (stages 1-4)
- Less energy and less spontaneity
- Periods of confusion (memory loss)
- May get lost easily
- Often exercises poor judgment (planning, daily life)
- Job performance. (memory problems begin to affect)




2. Stage 2: (moderate) (stages 5-6)
- May do a number of task independently (assistance needed for more complex tasks)
- Speech and understanding become slower,
- Often lose train of thought in mid-sentence
- Depression & irritable
- Time and location: especially if in unfamiliar environment



3. Stage 3: (final stage ) (6-7)
- Lose the ability to chew and swallow
- The "person" is fading
- Eventually will need constant care
- More susceptible to a number of illnesses (pneumonia, infections)




E. Long-term memory in Alzheimer's Disease:
1. Deficits in episodic memory
- Paired-associate learning (obvious impact on LTM episodic memory)
- temporal gradient (loss of new info.)


2. Impaired operation of semantic memory
- Difficulty naming objects
- impact first on functional relations, then parts & properties, then categorial

EX) spoon, coffee, milk
- function : stir in milk


F. Working Memory in Alzheimer's disease:
1. Reduced digit span- recalling fewer items/ decrease
2. Recency effect - okay
- primacy is the issue (won't remember as well)


G. Implicit Learning in Alzheimer's disease:
- learning information, but not knowing they are/not knowing going to be tested on it
- mixed results





H. Treating Alzheimer's Disease


1. Drug Treatments:

- Five FDA-approved drugs
- Lecithin a precursor of choline
- Slow the metabolic breakdown of acetylcholine- vital for memory



2. Tissue Implantation:



3. Therapist:




4. Other Treatments: Looks at whether there is experimental support of not
a) Medication that control depression, anxiety, and psychotic symptoms:

b) Vitamin E:

c) NSAIDs

d) Estrogen- combo therapy not needed

e) Ginkgo Biloba
- study: no change in performance for elderly adults who were not cognitively impaired


I. Aluminum
"Many scientists believe that the buildup of aluminum in the brain of Alzheimer's patients is the result of damage to nerve cells, rather than the cause of this damage."


J. Nun study

Participants: 75-102 years old (beginning of the study)



Language expression (earlier writing):
- Idea Density: high: more resistant to developing alzheimer's, low: more susceptible

- Grammatical Complexity


- Looked at levels of folic acid




III. Other Types of Dementia:
Subcortical diseases (Parkinson's, Huntington's, & multiple sclerosis)
- memory CAN be an issue, other things like motor skills can be issues

A. Parkinson's Disease: (2nd most common neurodegenerative)
- Parts of the brain affected: basal ganglia and the substantia nigra.
- Dopamine
- Coordinating movements, tremors, "pill rolling"
- Age 50
- difficulty in walking
- tremors
- blank facial expression
- decreased eye blinking
- speech: slows down, longer to convey idea, monotone


1. Working Memory:
a) Visuo-spatial sketchpad



b) Central Executive:



2. Episodic Memory:





B. Huntington's Disease:
- Progressive degeneration of the brain
- Uncontrollable muscle spasms & jerky movements.
- Parts of the brain affected: the basal ganglia and the caudate nucleus.
- Age of 40 / Age 60
- familial disease: abnormality of gene on chromosome 4
- piano- playing movements of the fingers
- difficulties with speech

- Central Executive:
- reduced memory span
- difficulties with dual tasks

- Episodic:
- recognition easier

- Problems with free recall


- Loss of episodic memory does not follow a temporal gradient
- retrieval issues
- more uniform over time

Treatment:
- no treatment
- can go to therapy




C. Multiple Sclerosis: Autoimmune
- Demyelinization of neurons


- Short-term memory (encoding & retrieval)


- Scanning short-term memory scanning - slower

- impact on ability of nerve cells in the brain& spinal cord to communicate with each other

- progressive inflammatory disease of the CNS

- can influence: mood, personality, cognition

- change in speech patterns, muscle stiffness & spasms & impaired thermal sensation

- fatigue is a symptom commonly mentioned



Cognitive functions affected by MS:

1. longer to learn new information

2. attention (focus & concentrate)

3. dealing with flow of information

4. verbal fluency problems: production slower
- Tip of tongue

5. visual-spatial abilities: ability to recognize objects, way finding


Treating MS:
- various drugs: attempt to decrease the number of attacks
I. General Categories for classifying amnesia
A. Organic: damage to the brain (most cases)

a) Trauma: specific trauma to brain

b) Disease: diseases involved

c) Certain drugs: can have impact



B. Functional:




II. Media Portrayal of Amnesia

A. Type typically portrayed in the movies
- non-organic


B. Movies block out their oldest most ingrained memories their names
- real amnesia rarely forget their names
- patients lose their abilities to remember new things
- older memories more likely to have been consolidated


C. Easily learns new names of others
- they have a difficult time learning new information


D. People with amnesia make a new life for themselves
- difficulty in retaining new information


E. Blow to the head
- in movies often restores memories
- typically the result of some type of brain damage
- often a 2nd blow produces even more damage


Overlap between "categories"
- area can appear to be a mess
"finding an amnesic to support one's thesis is neither difficult nor sufficient"- Cermak (1982)


III. Long-Term Memory Amnesia
A. Amnesia: a condition in which part of the memory system is impaired beyond what is considered normal forgetting
- General term
- Impairment could be temporary or permanent
- impact on memory processing- systematic

- Two types:
- organic: retrograde & anterograde

B. Retrograde and Anterograde:
- Both can be produced by trauma
- often find both

Classified by:
- cause
- damage (location)
- functional deficit


C. Retrograde Amnesia: difficulty in remembering events that occurred before a specific trauma or disease. (memory failure)

- Complete vs. partial retrograde amnesia


- Period of lost memories may "shrink" over time.


- Last few seconds (prior to accident)

1. Consolidation: storing information at a neural level takes time
- memories are not stored immediately


2. Characteristics of Retrograde Amnesia:
- Autobiographical memories: huge impact

- Delay: trauma doesn't occur right away

Ribot's Law: memory loss is greater (denser) closer to the time of the incident.
(older memories are less susceptible to disruption)

3. Other symptoms:
- irritability
- fatigue
- alterations in personality
- maybe some intellectual impairment (child-like)

4. Case Studies of Retrograde Amnesia:
P.S.: had a stroke - damage to his thalamus
- also had anterograde amnesia
- British Navy during WWII

Gardener:



5. Electroconvulsive Therapy/Shock:

a) Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT):
- Therapeutic treatment
- Often produces retrograde amnesia
- depression


b) Electroconvulsive Shock (ECS):
- Procedure used to study memory
- rats given one trial a day for 18 days
- task & shock
- shorter the delay--> more likely to not recall the task



6. Transient Global Amnesia: rare form of amnesia in which the cause is unknown
and the duration is brief
- memory loss (RA) (moreso autobiographical memories)
- duration (3-8 hours) (impact= few hours to a decade)

-more likely to occur in years 50-70
- thought to be brought about due to emotional or physical stress (exertion)-> sex


D. Anterograde amnesia (encoding issue) : difficult in remembering events that occurred after a specific
trauma or disease.
- May be able to retain information for short periods of time.
- Transfer of information to long-term memory appears not to happen



1. Medial Temporal Lobe and Hippocampus:
- H.M.: had severe epilepsy
- Short term memory seems fine.
- can't acquire new declarative memories


2. Diencephalic Anterograde Amnesia:

a) Korsakoff's Syndrome:
- Occurs in people who are chronic and severe alcoholics.

- Distinct neurochemical pathology
- brain damage as a function of deficiency in vitamin B1 (thiamine)
- common symptoms repeatedly ask questions, temporal sequences, confabulation: trying to fill in the gaps --> not intentional lying



b) Alcoholic "blackout":
- STM seems fine
- impact on ability to form memories-> encoding & consolidation
EX) 2 groups who drank the same amount of alcohol:
- drank quickly: affects memories more
- drank slowly: doesn't affect memories as much


c) Retrograde Facilitation: facilitation of memories prior to an event (alcohol) while
memories after the event are not easily formed


3. Other Cases Studies of Anterograde Amnesia:
- school teacher--> couldn't be an actual teacher (could be a tutor)
- cleaning the house/ shopping was hard
- JC--> sticky notes around the house to help remember




4. Living with Anterograde Amnesia:
- issue of severity of the amnesia
- more severe-> harder it's going to be



D. Mixture of retrograde and anterograde amnesia


Retrograde amnesia temporal gradient:




Amnesia Island: isolation is not good for memory.
- structure & motivation
- nursing homes provide external cues with holidays



IV. Short-term Memory Amnesia
- Amnesia typically involves LTM while STM is fine.


A. Verbal Short-term Memory:
- Damage to left parietal lobe
- K.F. serial position curve recency effect = 1


B. Visuo-spatial Working Memory:
- Damage to the right parietal/occipital lobe



IV. Psychogenic Amnesia
- not organic in nature
- stress related

A. Repression:
- knowledge lost episodic (autobiographical)


B. Dissociative Amnesia:

1. Systematized Amnesia:

2. Localized Amnesia:

3. Generalized Amnesia:



C. Dissociative Fugue:

1. Fugue and Flight:

2. Memory Fugue:

3. Regression Fugue:



D. Dissociative Identity Disorder:
A. Demands on Memory:
- people lead very different lives

- The elderly often report fewer memory lapses than the young.
- elderly have structured lives

B. Use of Mnemonic Aids:
1. Visual Imagery Mnemonics:
- spanish example "orejas" (ears) -> oreo ears

Person Action Object: PAO: EX) 0093495-> 009 (person)-34 (dunking)- 95 (helmet) (chunking)

Method of Loci

2. Verbal Mnemonics:
- Pi poem--> word length= each number in pi

3. Ritual and Oral Tradition:
- making of a traditional japanese ceremonial sword
- value of traditions/rituals- helps recall steps


C. Memory Aids:
- No magic program, exercise, cure ...

- Use the system you have more effectively (consistency & systematic)



D. Three important Factors for memory:

1. Attention and Interest:
Need to pay attention and actively process the information
- Active: more likely to recall
-Passive: less likely to recall



2. Organization: organization helps in two ways:

a) It structures what is being learned

b) relates newly learned material to previous information

3. Practice:
Total time hypothesis
(time on task) #1

E. Three categories for improving memory:

1: General tune-up:

a) Exercise - important for memory

b) check your various senses

c) consult with your doctor (how to be healthier)


2: Deciding what you really need from your memory (can you take shortcuts):
a) Decide what is really important to remember.

b) Determine when you need this type of memory.

c) Find ways to avoid using your memory.
- missing keys? --> make specific spot for them



3: Steps that actually boost your memory power:
1) Pay attention: process the info

2) Make Learning Conscious and Deliberate: practice/work with info

3) Pace your memorization Efforts: distributed practice

4) Use Memory Aids:

5) Memory aid - your memory partner: recall session with someone

6) Be consistent in how you use your memory aids:

7) Make what you need to remember more interesting, more connected, and more
meaningful.
- (visual/ verbal mnemonics)

8) Don't be afraid of memory failures:



Memory Improvement in the Elderly:
McEvoy and Moon
1: Names and Faces: practicing info

2: Appointments: use of calendar/external aid

3: Routine Tasks: consistent habits--> take pills every meal

4: Spatial Orientation: locating a car in a parking lot

5: Locating Objects: don't put objects down without thinking about it

6: Concentration: focus on info you want to remember


Reminiscence Work:
- memory book


Forms of external aids
1: Environmental:

a) proximal environmental aides:
- wall charts, alarms & items in conspicuous places

b) distal environments aids:
- name badges and uniforms, road traffic signs

2: Portable memory aides:
- hard to carry around - might lay it down
- embarrassed because its needed




Working Memory Training Programs

Use of programs: practice; develop strategies

- are claims about "brain training" programs improving general cognition true? ---> NO


Transfer of training
· Near Transfer (similar types of tasks) - yes kinda, maximizing what you already know
· Far Transfer (other cognitive skills)- no, far skills