30 terms

Bio Final

Some terms on the bio final that we should know!
Multiple Alleles
three or more forms of a gene that code for a single trait
a condition in which both alleles for a gene are fully expressed
Incomplete Dominance
one allele is not completely dominant over the other allele
a genetic disorder of metabolism
Sickle cell anemia
a genetic disorder in which erythroctyes take on an abnormal curved or "sickle" shape
chrosomal abnormality in which there is one more than the normal number of chromosomes in a cell
muscular dystrophy
any of several hereditary diseases of the muscular system characterized by weakness and wasting of skeletal muscles
Cystic Fibrosis
a human genetic disorder caused by a recessive allele for a chloride channel protein; characterized by an excessive secretion of mucus and consquent vulnerability to infection; fatal if untreated (4% whites are carriers - most common lethal genetic disease)
Tay Sachs
recessive disorder; progressive degeneration of nervous system
Hodgkins disease
a lymphoma that attacks people in early life and is treatable with radiation therapy
point mutation
a mutation due to an intramolecular reorganization of a gene
Hershey & Chase
used bacteriophages and radioactive phosphorus in DNA and sulfur to determine what makes up genes
X-ray of DNA
Watson & Crick
Figured out structure of DNA was a double helix
Franklin's boss won nobel piece prize for helping to determine the structure of DNA
Meselson & Stahl
Used nitrogen isotopes to test the three models of DNA replication; found that semiconservative the most likely model.
all cells come from other cells
Law of Independent assortment
each member of a pair of homologous chromosomes separates independently of the members of other pairs so the results are random
Law of segregation
members of a pair of homologous chromosomes separate during the formation of gametes and are distributed to different gametes so that every gamete receives only one member of the pair
an enzyme that untwists the double helix at the replication forks, separating the two parental strands and making them available as template strands
An enzyme that connects two fragments of DNA to make a single fragment; also called DNA ligase. This enzyme is usedd during DNA replication and is also used in recombinant DNA research.
an enzyme that catalyzes the formation of new DNA and RNA from an existing strand of DNA or RNA
English naturalist who formulated a concept of evolution that resembled Charles Darwin's (1823-1913)
before Darwin - use and disuse (parts that are used become bigger and stronger while other parts deteriorate) and inheritance of acquired characteristics (organism can pass on "modifications" to its offspring
English natural scientist who formulated a theory of evolution by natural selection (1809-1882)
Cell plate
the precursor of a new plant cell wall that forms during cell division and divides a cell into two
Metaphase plate
An imaginary plane during metaphase in which the centromeres of all the duplicated chromosomes are located midway between the two poles