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Some terms on the bio final that we should know!

Multiple Alleles

three or more forms of a gene that code for a single trait


a condition in which both alleles for a gene are fully expressed

Incomplete Dominance

one allele is not completely dominant over the other allele


a genetic disorder of metabolism

Sickle cell anemia

a genetic disorder in which erythroctyes take on an abnormal curved or "sickle" shape


chrosomal abnormality in which there is one more than the normal number of chromosomes in a cell

muscular dystrophy

any of several hereditary diseases of the muscular system characterized by weakness and wasting of skeletal muscles

Cystic Fibrosis

a human genetic disorder caused by a recessive allele for a chloride channel protein; characterized by an excessive secretion of mucus and consquent vulnerability to infection; fatal if untreated (4% whites are carriers - most common lethal genetic disease)





Tay Sachs

recessive disorder; progressive degeneration of nervous system

Hodgkins disease

a lymphoma that attacks people in early life and is treatable with radiation therapy

point mutation

a mutation due to an intramolecular reorganization of a gene

Hershey & Chase

used bacteriophages and radioactive phosphorus in DNA and sulfur to determine what makes up genes


X-ray of DNA

Watson & Crick

Figured out structure of DNA was a double helix


Franklin's boss won nobel piece prize for helping to determine the structure of DNA

Meselson & Stahl

Used nitrogen isotopes to test the three models of DNA replication; found that semiconservative the most likely model.


all cells come from other cells



Law of Independent assortment

each member of a pair of homologous chromosomes separates independently of the members of other pairs so the results are random

Law of segregation

members of a pair of homologous chromosomes separate during the formation of gametes and are distributed to different gametes so that every gamete receives only one member of the pair


an enzyme that untwists the double helix at the replication forks, separating the two parental strands and making them available as template strands


An enzyme that connects two fragments of DNA to make a single fragment; also called DNA ligase. This enzyme is usedd during DNA replication and is also used in recombinant DNA research.


an enzyme that catalyzes the formation of new DNA and RNA from an existing strand of DNA or RNA


English naturalist who formulated a concept of evolution that resembled Charles Darwin's (1823-1913)


before Darwin - use and disuse (parts that are used become bigger and stronger while other parts deteriorate) and inheritance of acquired characteristics (organism can pass on "modifications" to its offspring


English natural scientist who formulated a theory of evolution by natural selection (1809-1882)

Cell plate

the precursor of a new plant cell wall that forms during cell division and divides a cell into two

Metaphase plate

An imaginary plane during metaphase in which the centromeres of all the duplicated chromosomes are located midway between the two poles

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