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Chapter 4 Tissues

the study of tissues
types of tissues
epithelial, connective, muscle and nerve
Nervous tissue
brain, spinal cord, and nerves
internal communication
nervous tissue
muscle tissue
contracts to cause movement
skeletal muscle tissue
muscles attached to bone
cardiac muscle tissue
muscles of the heart
smooth muscle tissue
muscles of walls of hollow organs
connective tissue
bones, tendons, fat and other soft padding tissue
supports, protects and binds other tissues together
connective tissue
what joins cells together to form tissues
tight junctions, desmosomes, gap junctions
tight junction
unbreakable junction that encircles the cell
anchoring junction scattererd along the sides of cells- looks like a spider
gap junction
a nexus-column, that allows chemcial substances to pass between cells
tight junctions
form water tight seals between epithelial cells-prevents molecules from passing through extracellular space between adjacent epithelial cells
strongly holds cells together, connects cytoskeleton and plasma membrane of one cell to the plasma membrane and cytoskeletone of another cell
Gap Junction
tunnels(channels), cylinders that allow chemicals, to pass from cytoplasm of one cell directly to cytoplasm of another cell
allows action potentials to spread from one cells directly to the next cell and next
gap junction
allows cells to communicate and synchronize their activities
gap junction
Epithelial Tissue
tightly packed cells, single or multiple layers of cells, continouse sheets held together by tight junctions and desmosomes
Apical surface
exposed to cavity or exterior
basal suface
anchors cells to basement membrane
basal lamina
composed to proteins secreted by epithelial cells
reticular lamina
composed of proteins secreted by connective tissue cells beneath basement membrane
no blood vessels directly to the epithelial cells, they are nourished by diffusion in underlying connective tissue
supplied by nerve fibers
epithelial cells are able to replace lost or injured cells at a high rate through cell division
Functions of Epithelial Tissue
protection, filtration, lubrication, secretion, absorbtion, digestion, transport, excretion
Single Squamous Eithelia
single layer of flattened cells, diffusion and filtration, disc shapped nuclei, provides a slick, friction reducing lining in lymphatic and cardiovascular systems
Lining of heart, blood vessels hollow organcs of the cardiovascular system, lymphatic vessels
Endothelium- inner lining- single squamous epithelia
epithelium of serous membranes in the ventral body cavity
mesothelium-middle covering- single squamous epithelia
simple cubodial epithelia
single layer of cube like cells with large spherical central nuclei, functions to secrete and absorb
kidney tubules, ducts, secretory portions of small glands and ovary surface
simple cubofial epithelia
simple columnar epithelia
single layer of tall cells with oval nuclei, many contain cilia, goblet cells found in this layer, functions include secretion and absorbtion
nonciliated simple columnar epithelia
line digestive tract and gallbladder
ciliated type
line small bronchi, uterine tubes,some regions of uterus
pseudostratified columnar epithelia
Single layer that varies in heights. Often ciliated. All cells attached to basement membrane but may not reach apical side. Nuclei at different heights. Function: Similar to simple columnar (secretion of mucous and absorption). Location: Non-ciliated found in ducts that carry sperm. Ciliated type found in trachea and much of the upper respiratory tract.
stratified squamous epithelia
thick membrane composed of several layers of cells, APICAL CELLS ARE FLAT, deep cells are cubodial or columnar, basal cells coninually dividing, apical cells replaced from below by dividing basal cells PROTECTS UNDERLYING AREAS SUBJECTED TO ABRASION
Keratinized stratified squamous
apical cells filled with protein keratin which is water proof, friction proof, bacteria proof, located on the spidermis of skin
prevent water loss and protect abrasion
keratinized stratified squamous
nonkeratinized stratified squamous
apical cells have no keratin but instead are moist LOCATION: mouth, espohagus, tongue, vagina
Protects from abrasion
nonkeratinized stratified squamous
stratifed columnar epithelia
apical cells are columnar, limited distribution in the body FUNCTION protection and secretion
pharynx, male urethra, lining some gladular ducts and transition areas between other types of epithelia
stratifed columnar epithelia
stratified cuboidal epithelia
apical cells are cubodial, has two or more layers FUNCTION: protection
large ducts of glands like weat and salivary glands, mammary glands
stratified cuboidal epithelia
transitional epithelia
several cells layers, basal cells are cubodial, surface (apical) cells are dome shaped, FUNCTION allows for stratching as organ fills
urinary bladder, uterus, part of urethra
Glandular epithelia
one or more epithelial cells that makes and secretes an aqueous fluid- into a duct, onto a surface or into interstitial fluid
endocrine glands
ductless glands that produce horomones, secrete horomones into interstital fluid, hormones travel through lymph or blood to target organs FUNCTION maintain homeostatis by regulating bodily activites
pituitary, tyroid, adrenals
endocrine glands
amino acids, proteins, glycoproteins, steroids
endocrine glands
exocrine glands
secretes products onto body surfaces or into body cavities via duct,
sweat, milk, salvia, digestive juices
exocrine gland
goblet cell
uniceller gland, found in the epithelia lining digestive, respiratory urniary and reproductive tracts- exocrine
multicellular exocrine glands
composed of a duct and a secretory unit
duct type
simple (unbranched) compound (branched)
structure of multicellular exocrine glands
tubular, avelolar, tubuloalevelor
products are secreted by exocytosis from secretory granules, (pancreas, sweat, salivary glands)
products are secreted by the rupture of gland cells- entire cell is secreted, new cells continously form
sebaceous gland
exocrine gland-holocrine
apical part of cell fills with secretion then breaks off and is secreted, cell then repairs itself
mammary gland
apocrine gland
Types of Connective tissue
connective tissue proper, cartilage, bone tissue, blood
common tissue of origin for connective tissue, embryonic connective tissue, gel-like ground substance with fibers and starshaped mesenchymal cells
Functions of connective tissue
binding, support, insulation, transpotation(blood)
Structural Elements of connective tissue
cells rarely touch each other. ground substance is unstructed material that fills the space between cells and fibers
cells of connective tissue
-cytes are mature cells of connective tissue, -blasts are mitoctically active and secretory cells
connective tissue proper
cartilage (connective tissue)
bone (connective tissue)
hematopoietic stem cells
bone marrow
red blood cells
adipose tissue (connective tissue) Fat cells
ground substance of connective tissue
medium which solutes diffuse between blood capaillaries and cells
interstital fluid, adhesion proteins
ground substance of connective tissue
ground substance of connective tissue, protein core that traps water in varying amounts affecting the viscosity
hyaluronic acid
viscous, slippery, binds cells together and lubricates
chondroitin sulfate
jelly-like procides support and adhesiveness in cartilage, bone, skin and blood vessels
adhesion proteins
connects to cell membranes of cells- anchors cells to fibers and provide traction of cells movement along fibers
secreted by cells and run like support beams through the ground substance: collagen, elastic, reticular
collagen fibers
strongest and most abundant, bundles of protein- fibrocartlidge
elastic fibers
networks of long, think elastin fibers that allow for stretch, strands of protein: found in skin, blood vessels and lungs
reticular fibers
short, fine and highly branched collagenous fibers. Thin collagen fibers
form delicate branching networks providing support for fat cells, skeletal and smooth muscle cells and cells in spleen and lymph nodes and bone marrow
reticular fibers
loose connective tissue- Areolar
widely distributed underneath epithelia of body. FUNCTION: provides support, holds interstital fluids, defends against infection. stores fatm wraps and cushions organs
fibroblasts, macropages, plasma cellsmast cells, adiposytes
Areolar- loose connective tissue
Adipose Connective Tissue
specialized areolar CT packed adipocytes, reserves food stores, insulates against heat loss, and supports and protects
surrounds capilaries
areloar loose connective tissue
under skin, around kidneys, within abdomen, and in breasts
adipose connective tissue- white fat stores energy: brown fat found in infants to generate heat
reticular connective tissue
loose ground substance with reticular fibers, like in a mesh network to form a soft internal skeleton that supports other cells
tissue found in lymph nodes, bone marrow, and the spleen
reticular connective tissue
Dense regular tissue
packed parallel collagen fiberwith a few elastic fibers, major cell type: fibroblasts, only resists pulling in one direction FUNCTION strong attachement
tissue that is found in tendons( muscle to bone), ligaments(bone to bone) and aponeuroses
dense regular connective tissue
dense irregular tissue
irregularty arranged collaged fibers with few fibroblasts, withstands pulling in many directions
tissue found in dermmis, submucosa of the digestive tract and fibrous capsules of organs and joints
dense irregular connective tissue
elastic connective tissue
very strong with ability to stretch and recoil due to elastic
tissue located in elastic arteries such as the aorta
elastic connective tissue
middle ground between bone and tissue, tough but flexible, it is avascular and not innervated, growth and repair is slow
cells in the space of the matrix called lacunae in cartilage
hyaline cartilage
most abundant, weakest, amorphous firm matrix with impereptible network or collagen fibers
covers ends of long bones, connects ribs to sternum, nose, rings in trachea, epophyseal plates and embryonic skeleton
hyaline cartilage
reduce friction, absorbs function during movement, slightly flexible, supports
hyaline cartilage
elastic cartilage
made with protein elasti, FUNCTION maintains shape and structure whihle allowing flexibility
supports external ear, epiglottis
elastic cartilage
strongest cartilage, thich collage fibers FUNCTION provides strong connections, and absorbs compression shock
pubic symphsis, intervertebral discs, menisci of knee joint
fibrocartilage CT
Bone Tissue ( Connective tissue) osseous
rock like hardness of bone is due to inorganic calcium salts, flexible strength is due to collaged fibers found in bone, osteocytes are found in lacuae, located in the skeleton
compact bone
forms solid outer shell of bones, characterized by osteons
spongy bone
porous bone within the interior of a bone or the ends of bone, characterized by trabeulae(bone spikes) with spaces,
houses bone marrow within spaces
spongy bone
supports body, provides levers for muscular action and protects organs, stores calcium, minerals and fat,
bone tissue
red bone marrow
produces blood cells in bone tissue
yellow bone marrow
stores fat in the bone tissue
connective tissue that does NOT connect things does NOT provie mechanical support
what does blood consist of?
cells (blood cells) surrounded by a nonliving matrix (blood plasma)
transports repiratory gses, nutrients, wastes and other substances located within blood vessels
blood (connective tissue)
muscle tissue-skeltal muscle
long. cylindrical multinucleate cells, obvious striations, FUNCTIONS voluntary movement, locomotion, manipulations of the enviroment, facial expresions
skeletal muscles attached to bones or occasionally to skin
skeletal muscle
cardiac muscle- muscle tissue
branching straited, generally uninucleated cells that interdigitate at specialized juctions
as it contracts it propels blood into circulation, involuntary control
cardiac muscle
smooth muscle
spindle shaped cells with central muclei, no straiations cells arranged closely to form sheets
loacted in mostly in the walls of hollow organs, propels substances or objects along internal passageways, involuntary control
smooth muscle
cutaneous membrane
skin- covers the body surface
mucous membranes
line body cavirites open to the exterior (digestive and respiratory tracts)
serous membranes
membranes in a closed ventral body cavity
parietal serosae
line internal body walls
visceral serosae
cover internal organs
steps in tissue repair
1. inflammation 2. orgnaization and restored blood supply 3. regeneration and fibrosis
cutaneous membranes
skin, keratinized stratified squamous epithelium- connective tissue is dense irrengular
mucous membranes
stratified squamous or simple columnar
adipose tissue
areolar tissue
smooth muscle
skeletal muscle
simple squamous epithielum
simple cubidoal epithelum
simple columnar epithelum
hyline cartildge
cadiac muscle
The epithelial membrane that lines the closed ventral cavities of the body.
Serous membrane
The epithelial membrane that lines body cavities open to the exterior
Mucous membrane
Consists of keratinized stratified squamous epithelium
Cutaneous membrane
Found lining the digestive and respiratory tracts
Mucous membrane
Lines blood vessels and the heart
Forms much of the fetal skeleton and covers the articular surfaces of long bones.
Hyaline cartilage
Structural support of the external ear and other structures that need support with flexibility
Elastic cartilage
Embryonic connective tissue that arises from mesoderm and produces all types of connective tissues
Source of new cells in mature connective tissue
Forms internal supporting framework of soft organs such as the spleen.
Reticular tissue
The shock-absorbing pads between the vertebrae are formed of fibrocartilage
Brown fat is frequently deposited between the shoulder blades of infants
Achilles was wounded by damage to the tendon connecting his calf muscles to his heel. This and all tendons are composed mainly of dense irregular connective tissue
Macrophages are found in areolar and lymphatic tissues
Goblet cells are found with pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium
Simple cuboidal epithelia are usually associated with secretion and absorption
Depending on the functional state of the bladder, transitional epithelium may resemble stratified squamous or stratified cuboidal epithelium
Stratified cuboidal epithelium is moderately rare in the body and found only in the pharynx, larynx, and anorectal junction
Endothelium covers and lines internal cavities such as the pleural and peritoneal cavities
Merocrine glands produce their secretions by accumulating their secretions internally and then rupturing the cell
Salivary glands exhibit simple tubuloalveolar glandular arrangement
Connective tissues that possess a large quantity of collagen fibers often provide the framework for organs such as the spleen and lymph nodes
The basic difference between dense irregular and dense regular connective tissues is in the amount of elastic fibers and adipose cells present
A major characteristic of fibrocartilage is its unique amount of flexibility and elasticity
Cartilage tissue tends to heal less rapidly than bone tissue
Intercalated discs and striations suggest the presence of skeletal muscle
Smooth muscle cells possess central nuclei but lack striations
Most connective tissues have regenerative capacity, while most epithelial tissues do not
Sweat glands are apocrine glands
Endocrine glands are often called ducted glands
Blood is considered a type of connective tissue
Nervous tissue consists mainly of neurons and collagen fibers
Which of the following is not found in the matrix of cartilage but is in bone?
A) live cells
C)blood vessels
D) organic fibers

The reason that intervertebral discs exhibit a large amount of tensile strength to absorb shock is because they possess ________.
collagen fibers
The presence of lacunae, calcium salts, and blood vessels would indicate ________.
osseous tissue
Hyaline cartilage is different from elastic or fibrocartilage because ________.
fibers are not normally visible
Epithelial tissue ________.
has a basement membrane
Which of the following would be of most importance to goblet cells and other glandular epithelium?
Golgi bodies
Mammary glands exhibit a glandular type called ________.
compound alveolar
Simple columnar epithelium of the digestive tract is characterized by ________.
dense microvilli
Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium ________.
lines the respiratory tract
A single-celled layer of epithelium that forms the lining of serous membranes is ________.
simple squamous
Which statement best describes connective tissue
usually contains a large amount of matrix
Matrix is ________.
fibers and ground substance
Cell types likely to be seen in areolar connective tissue include all except: ________.
The tissue type that arises from all three embryonic germ layers is ________.
epithelial tissue
The fiber type that gives connective tissue great tensile strength is ________.
Organized groups of cells (plus their intercellular substances) that have a common purpose form a(n) ________.
The shape of the external ear is maintained by ________.
elastic cartilage
Inability to absorb digested nutrients and secrete mucus might indicate a disorder in which tissue?
simple columnar
Glands, such as the thyroid, that secrete their products directly into the blood rather than through ducts are classified as ________.
Which of the following is true about epithelia?
Endothelium provides a slick surface lining all hollow cardiovascular organs
Chondroblasts ________.
within the cartilage, divide and secrete new matrix
________ epithelium appears to have two or three layers of cells, but all the cells are in contact with the basement membrane.
Pseudostratified columnar
A multilayered epithelium with cuboidal basal cells and flat cells at its surface would be classified as ________.
stratified squamous
An epithelial membrane ________.
never contains mucus-forming cells
Multicellular exocrine glands can be classified ________.
functionally into merocrine, holocrine, and apocrine divisions
Which of the following is true about the mode of secretion of exocrine glands?
Merocrine glands are not altered by the secretory process
Which of these is not considered connective tissue
What are glycosaminoglycans
negatively charged polysaccharides
Which is true concerning muscle tissue
highly cellular and well vascularized
The first step in tissue repair involves ________.
Select the correct statement regarding multicellular exocrine glands
The secretory cells of holocrine glands release their product by rupturing
The three main components of connective tissue are ________.
ground substance, fibers, and cells
Which of the following statements is true of connective tissue?
Collagen fibers provide high tensile strength
Select the correct statement regarding the cells of connective tissue.
"Blast" cells are undifferentiated, actively dividing cells
Select the correct statement regarding tissue repair.
Inflammation causes capillaries to dilate and become permeable
Select the correct statement regarding epithelia.
Stratified epithelia are present where protection from abrasion is important
Select the correct statement regarding adipose tissue
Its primary function is nutrient storage.
________ are commonly found wedged between simple columnar epithelial cells
goblet cells
Select the correct statement regarding factors that affect the tissue repair process.
The age of the person is a factor in the repair process
In adults, new surface epithelial cells and the epithelial cells lining the intestine are derived from _________.
stem cells
What would be a substance you would expect to find expelled from a compound alveolar gland?
Mesenchymal cells are most commonly found in ________ connective tissue.
________ tissue forms the framework for the lamina propria of mucous membranes
Areolar or loose connective
Osteocytes exist in a tiny void called a ________.
Cardiac muscle tissue is single nucleated, has intercalated discs, and is ________.
________ muscle cells are multinucleated.
________ live in the lacuna of cartilage
The uppermost layer of skin is composed of ________.
keratinized stratified squamous epithelium
Kidney tubules are composed of ________ epithelium
simple cuboidal
Multiple rows of cells covering a tissue in which the cells are the same shape from the basement membrane to the surfaces would be ________ epithelia
All epithelial tissue rests upon a ________ composed of connective tissue
basement membrane
The salivary glands are a good example of a ________ exocrine gland
compound tubuloalveolar
Macrophage-like cells are found in many different tissues, and may have specific names that reflect their location or specializations. What is the one functional characteristic common to all macrophage-like cells?
All of the following statements refer to events of tissue repair. Put the events in proper numbered order according to the sequence of occurrence. The initial event, the injury, is already indicated as number one.

1.The skin receives a cut that penetrates into the dermis and bleeding begins.
2.Epithelial regeneration is nearly complete.
3.Granulation tissue is formed.
4.Blood clotting occurs and stops the blood flow.
5.The scar retracts.
6.Macrophages engulf and clean away cellular debris.
7.Fibroblasts elaborate connective tissue fibers to span the break.
1.The skin receives a cut that penetrates into the dermis and bleeding begins
4.Blood clotting occurs and stops the blood flow.
3.Granulation tissue is formed.
7.Fibroblasts elaborate connective tissue fibers to span the break.
6.Macrophages engulf and clean away cellular debris.
5.The scar retracts
2.Epithelial regeneration is nearly complete.