Psychology Chapter 6 class notes

Psychology chapter 6 class notes (development over the lifespan)
Developmental psychology -
The psychology study of growth, change, and consistency through the lifespan.
Developmental psychology -Examines these changes from multiple perspectives
Examines how both heredity and environment influence these changes
Nature-nurture controversy -
Long-standing dispute over relative importance of nature (heredity) and nurture (environment) in their influence on behavior and mental processes.
e.g., ADHD-genetic component vs. environmental causes
Twin studies - (The Nature-Nurture Interaction)
Developmental investigations in which twins, especially identical twins, are compared in the search for genetic and environmental effects
What Innate Abilities Does the Infant Possess?
Newborns have innate abilities for finding nourishment, avoiding designed to facilitate survival.
Prenatal period -
The developmental period before birth
Placenta -
An organ that develops between the embryo/fetus and the mother
Teratogens -
Toxic substances that can damage the developing organism
Sensory abilities-(Neonatal Period from birth to one month)
visual and auditory preferences
Social abilities-(Neonatal Period from birth to one month)
mirror neurons
Innate reflexes-
(Neonatal Period from birth to one month)
Postural reflex
Grasping reflex
Rooting reflex
Stepping reflex
from one month to about 18 months
Neural Development
sensitive periods
brain development
Synaptic pruning
Maturation -
The unfolding of genetically programmed processes of growth and development over time
Maturation Timetable for Locomotion-
Maturation Timetable for Locomotion-1 month
Responds to sound
Becomes quiet when picked up
Vocalizes occasionally
Maturation Timetable for Locomotion-2 months
Smiles socially
Recognizes mother
Rolls from side to back
Lifts head and holds it erect and steady
Maturation Timetable for Locomotion- 3 months
Vocalizes to the smiles and talk of an adult
Searches for source of sound
Sits with support, head steady
4 months
Gaze follows dangling ring, vanishing spoon, and ball moved across table
Sits with slight support
5 months
Discriminates strangers from familiar persons
Turns from back to side
Makes distinctive vocalizations
6 months
Lifts cup and bangs it
Smiles at mirror image
Reaches for small object
Maturation Timetable for Locomotion- 7 months
Makes playful responses to mirror
Sits alone steadily
Maturation Timetable for Locomotion- 8 months
Vocalizes up to four different syllables
Listens selectively to familiar words
Pulls to standing position
Maturation Timetable for Locomotion- 10 months
Plays pat-a-cake
Maturation Timetable for Locomotion- 1 year
Walks alone
Infancy(from one month to about 18 months)
Contact comfort-physical contact
Harlow (1965)- the stimulation and reassurance derived from physical touch
Field (1986)-message for premature babies
Attachment-emotional relationship between child and parent
Bowlby (1969)-human attachment is innate
Ainsworth (1989)-attachment style
Secure attachment
Anxious-ambivalent attachment
Avoidant attachment
What Are the Developmental Tasks of Childhood?
Nature and nurture work together to help children master important developmental tasks in the areas of language, acquisition, cognitive development, and development of social relationships
Innateness theory of language -How Children Aquire Language
Children learn language mainly by following an inborn program for acquiring vocabulary and grammar
Language acquisition device (LAD) -
Structure in the brain innately programmed with some of the fundamental rules of grammar
Babbling stage>Vocabulary and grammar
One-word stage
Two-word stage
Telegraphic speech (short, simple sentences)
Morphemes (meaningful units of language that make up words)
Overregularization (e.g. using "hitted" and "feets")
Other language skills
Social rules of conversation (e.g., listening)
Abstract words (e.g. hope, truth)
Cognitive development -
The process by which mental abilities change over time
Piaget's stage theory-
Schemas - mental structures that guide your interpretation of concepts and events
Assimilation -
Mental process that incorporates new information into existing schemas
Accommodation -
Mental process that modifies schemas in order to accommodate new information
Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development
Concrete Operational
Formal Operational
Birth to about age 2
Child relies heavily on innate motor responses to stimuli
Sensorimotor intelligence
Mental representations
Object permanence
About age 2 to age 6 or 7
Marked by well-developed mental representation and the use of language.

Animalistic thinking
Concrete Operational
About age 7 to about age 11
Child understands conservation but is incapable of abstract thought
Mental operations
Formal Operational
From about age 12 on
Abstract thought appears
(Social and Emotional Development)Temperament -
An individual's inherited, "wired-in" pattern of personality and behavior
Socialization -
The lifelong process of shaping an individual's behavior patterns, values, standards, skills, attitudes and motives to conform to those regarded as desirable in a particular society
Most approaches to child rearing fall into one of the following four styles:
Authoritarian parents
Authoritative parents
Permissive parents
Uninvolved parents
Other factors influencing a child's development may include:
Effects of day care
Leisure influences
Erikson's Psychosocial Stages
Age/Period Principal Challenge
0 to 1 1/2 years Trust vs. mistrust
1 1/2 to 3 years Autonomy vs. self doubt
3 to 6 years Initiative vs. guilt
6 years to puberty Industry vs. inferiority
Adolescence Identity vs. role confusion
Identity vs. role confusion Intimacy vs. isolation
Middle adulthood Generativity vs. stagnation
Late adulthood Ego-integrity vs. despair
What Changes Mark the Transition of Adolescence?
Adolescence offers new developmental challenges growing out of physical changes, cognitive changes, and socioemotional changes
Adolescence -
Developmental period beginning at puberty and ending at adulthood
Rites of passage -
Social rituals that usually take place at about the time of puberty and serve as a public acknowledgement of the transition from childhood to adulthood
Puberty -
Onset of sexual maturity
Onset of menstruation, which signals puberty in girls------Around puberty, boys and girls become more aware of their physical attractiveness
Cognitive Development in Adolescence
Hormones rise to high levels
The frontal lobes undergo a "remodel"
Processes information through the amygdala rather than frontal cortex
This leads to sensation seeking and risk taking, and preoccupation with body image and sex
Adolescence brings Piaget's final stage of cognitive growth (abstract and complex thought)
Kohlberg's Stages of Moral Reasoning
Development of our sense of right and wrong
Using moral dilemmas responses fell into 6 categories/stages
Preconventional morality
Stage 1: Reward/punishment
Stage 2: Cost/benefit orientation; reciprocity
II. Conventional morality
Stage 3: "Good child" orientation
Stage 4: Law-and-order orientation
III. Postconventional (principled) morality
Stage 5: Social contract orientation
Stage 6: Ethical principle orientation
Critiques of Kohlberg's theory:
Culture and morality
Gender and morality
The increasing influence of peers
Identity crisis
Period of turmoil?
What Developmental Challenges Do Adults Face?
Nature and nurture continue to interact as we progress thorough a series of transitions in adulthood, with cultural norms about age combining with new technology to increase both the length and quality of life for many adults
Intimacy versus isolation-
(Early and Emerging Adulthood)
Intimacy-capacity to make a full commitment
Isolation-inability to connect with others in meaningful ways
Exploration and experimentation
work, lifestyle, worldviews
Challenges of Midlife
Peak period of life as opposed to "over the hill"
Generativity vs. stagnation
to make meaningful and lasting contributions to family, work, society, or future generations.
Most do not undergo a mid-life crisis
Most do not experience the "empty nest syndrome"
Late Adulthood: The Age of Integrity
According to Erikson, the final crisis involves ego-identity vs. despair
Ego-identity -
The ability to look back on life without regrets and to enjoy a sense of wholeness
The Last Developmental Problems You Will Face-Some of the most obvious changes that occur with age affect physical abilities such as:
Thinking, learning, and problem solving
Sexual functioning
Social interaction