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Developmental psychology -
The psychology study of growth, change, and consistency through the lifespan.
Developmental psychology -Examines these changes from multiple perspectives
Examines how both heredity and environment influence these changes
Nature-nurture controversy -
Long-standing dispute over relative importance of nature (heredity) and nurture (environment) in their influence on behavior and mental processes.
e.g., ADHD-genetic component vs. environmental causes
Twin studies - (The Nature-Nurture Interaction)
Developmental investigations in which twins, especially identical twins, are compared in the search for genetic and environmental effects
What Innate Abilities Does the Infant Possess?
Newborns have innate abilities for finding nourishment, avoiding designed to facilitate survival.
(Neonatal Period from birth to one month)
Maturation Timetable for Locomotion-1 month
Responds to sound
Becomes quiet when picked up
Maturation Timetable for Locomotion-2 months
Rolls from side to back
Lifts head and holds it erect and steady
Maturation Timetable for Locomotion- 3 months
Vocalizes to the smiles and talk of an adult
Searches for source of sound
Sits with support, head steady
Gaze follows dangling ring, vanishing spoon, and ball moved across table
Sits with slight support
Discriminates strangers from familiar persons
Turns from back to side
Makes distinctive vocalizations
Maturation Timetable for Locomotion- 7 months
Makes playful responses to mirror
Sits alone steadily
Maturation Timetable for Locomotion- 8 months
Vocalizes up to four different syllables
Listens selectively to familiar words
Pulls to standing position
Infancy(from one month to about 18 months)
Contact comfort-physical contact
Harlow (1965)- the stimulation and reassurance derived from physical touch
Field (1986)-message for premature babies
Attachment-emotional relationship between child and parent
Bowlby (1969)-human attachment is innate
Ainsworth (1989)-attachment style
What Are the Developmental Tasks of Childhood?
Nature and nurture work together to help children master important developmental tasks in the areas of language, acquisition, cognitive development, and development of social relationships
Innateness theory of language -How Children Aquire Language
Children learn language mainly by following an inborn program for acquiring vocabulary and grammar
Language acquisition device (LAD) -
Structure in the brain innately programmed with some of the fundamental rules of grammar
Babbling stage>Vocabulary and grammar
Telegraphic speech (short, simple sentences)
Morphemes (meaningful units of language that make up words)
Overregularization (e.g. using "hitted" and "feets")
Other language skills
Social rules of conversation (e.g., listening)
Abstract words (e.g. hope, truth)
Piaget's stage theory-
Schemas -mental structures thatguide your interpretation of concepts and events
Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development
Birth to about age 2
Child relies heavily on innate motor responses to stimuli
About age 2 to age 6 or 7
Marked by well-developed mental representation and the use of language.
About age 7 to about age 11
Child understands conservation but is incapable of abstract thought
(Social and Emotional Development)Temperament -
An individual's inherited, "wired-in" pattern of personality and behavior
The lifelong process of shaping an individual's behavior patterns, values, standards, skills, attitudes and motives to conform to those regarded as desirable in a particular society
Most approaches to child rearing fall into one of the following four styles:
Other factors influencing a child's development may include:
Effects of day care
Erikson's Psychosocial Stages
Age/Period Principal Challenge
0 to 1 1/2 years Trust vs. mistrust
1 1/2 to 3 years Autonomy vs. self doubt
3 to 6 years Initiative vs. guilt
6 years to puberty Industry vs. inferiority
Adolescence Identity vs. role confusion
Identity vs. role confusion Intimacy vs. isolation
Middle adulthood Generativity vs. stagnation
Late adulthood Ego-integrity vs. despair
What Changes Mark theTransition of Adolescence?
Adolescence offers new developmental challenges growing out of physical changes, cognitive changes, and socioemotional changes
Rites of passage -
Social rituals that usually take place at about the time of puberty and serve as a public acknowledgement of the transition from childhood to adulthood
Onset of menstruation, which signals puberty in girls------Around puberty, boys and girls become more aware of their physical attractiveness
Cognitive Development in Adolescence
Hormones rise to high levels
The frontal lobes undergo a "remodel"
Processes information through the amygdala rather than frontal cortex
This leads to sensation seeking and risk taking, and preoccupation with body image and sex
Adolescence brings Piaget's final stage of cognitive growth (abstract and complex thought)
Kohlberg's Stages of Moral Reasoning
Development of our sense of right and wrong
Using moral dilemmasresponses fell into 6 categories/stages
III. Postconventional (principled) morality
Stage 5: Social contract orientation
Stage 6: Ethical principle orientation
What DevelopmentalChallenges Do Adults Face?
Nature and nurture continue to interact as we progress thorough a series of transitions in adulthood, with cultural norms about age combining with new technology to increase both the length and quality of life for many adults
Intimacy versus isolation-
(Early and Emerging Adulthood)
Intimacy-capacity to make a full commitment
Isolation-inability to connect with others in meaningful ways
to make meaningful and lasting contributions to family, work, society, or future generations.
Most do not undergo a mid-life crisis
Most do not experience the "empty nest syndrome"
Late Adulthood:The Age of Integrity
According to Erikson, the final crisis involves ego-identity vs. despair
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