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57 terms

motivation/social

STUDY
PLAY
psychological drives
sex, curiosity, gregariousness (to belong)
solomon
opponent process theory - pleasurable stimuli evoke an opposing inhibitory process
hedonism
an ethical system that evaluates the pursuit of pleasure as the highest good
insulin
secreted by the pancreas, it enables cells to extract glucose from the blood
Masters and Johnson
phases in human sexual response: excitement, plateau, orgasm, resolution
catharsis
(psychoanalysis) purging of emotional tensions
Maslow
hierarchy of needs: physiological, safety, belonging, esteem, self actualization
Zuckerman
sensation seeking scale: thrill and adventure; experience seeking; disinhibition; susceptibility to boredom
Berlyne
optimal state theory - optmal arousal state for max efficiency; below it were bored, above were anxious
James-Lange theory
theory of emotion; stimuli in environment cause physiological change in bodies, then emotion comes; ex. I see a bear which cause my heart to race, then I become afraid
plutchik's circle
mixing emotions to produce new blends
Lewis and Saarni
Five elements of emotions: elicitors, receptors, states, expressions, experience
Ekman
the smile is universally interpreted cross-culturally
Sympathetic nervous system
nervous system that prepares body for emergency, fight or flight
parasympathetic nervous system
nervous system that controls normal body operations
Selye
general adaptation syndrome: alarm, resistance, exhaustion (clock, weights, cars!); racehorses vs turtles
Likert
came up with method of summated ratings, 5 category scale from strongly disagree to strongly agree
Festinger
theory of cognitive dissonance - tendency for people to seek a state of consonance between their behaviors and attitudes
Determinants of attraction
proximity, similarity, personal attributes, familiarity are ____
Heider and Newcomb
A-B-X Theory - person A and B have attraction toward each other and toward person or concept X
Gergen
most prominent names associated with social exchange theory, if cost outruns rewards, attraction declines
Winch
associated with complementarity theory; aspects of personality must complement not conflict
Aronson and Linder
Gain Loss model of attraction. movement from negative to positive evaluation of a person leads to stronger attraction than from neutral to positive
Sternberg
Trianglular theory of love - intimacy, passion and commitment. romantic, companionate, fatuous love
Janis
studied groupthink connected with the kennedy administration during the bay of pigs invasion
proxemics
deals with research relating to territoriality, personal space, unseen dividing lines, and the dynamics of invading another's personal space (Hall)
McGuire's inoculation theory
theory of persuasion which states that people can be immunized against subsequent persuasive communication if they have been familiarized in advance with the arguments and counterarguments
Freedman's foot in the doortechnique
persuasion technique that demonstrates we are likely to agree to large commitment if we have agreed in advance to smaller commitment
door in the face technique
begins with a huge commitment potential and relief comes when a more modest option is given
sherif
studied the auto-kinetic effect and conformity
asch
line judgment technique and conformity
informational influence
influence when person conforms because he thinks the group is correct
normative influence
influence when person conforms because he fears ostracism from the group
Milgram
studied conformity by conducting shock experiment and found people surprisingly obedient to commands
dogmatism
arrogant, stubborn assertion of opinion or belief (Rokeach)
Machiavellianism
the tendency to direct much of one's behavior toward the acquisition of power and the manipulation of other people for personal gain (Christie)
just-world hypothesis
Lerner - people like to believe that the world is just and that individuals get what they deserve
central route
the route of persuasion that contains convincing content
peripheral route
the route of persuasion that pertains tot eh attractiveness or expertise of the source
Klapper
developed the three elements of communication: source, channel, audience
Lewin/Heider
Attribution definitional model -
Behavioral effect (E) = f(environment + personal force)
self-serving bias
"halo" type evaluation of one's own behavior and motives
Fromm
sociopsychoanalytic - 5 types of love: brotherly, motherly, erotic, self, and supernatural
neuroticism, extroversion, openness, agreeableness, conscientiousness
"The Big Five" - Norman, Costa, McCrae, Goldberg, Eysenck developed these characteristics
Interactionist
personality theory based on interaction b/t a given personality trait and a given situation
positive psychology
three pillars of this theory are positive emotions, positive character, positive groups/communication
parapraxes
freudian slips of the tongue (betraying unconscious motivations)
cathexis
freudian concept of investing emtional energy in another person (bonding) by positive feelings
anticathexis
freudian concept of investing emtional energy in another person (bonding) by negative feelings
Kelly
personal construct theory; C-P-C cycle (circumspection, preemption, control)
Cattell
prominent name in factor analysis; 16 personality factor scale (16 PF)
Thomas and Chess
Temperament. 9 basic characteristics (activity level, rhythmicity, approach, reactivity threshold, intensity, dominant mood, distractibility, attention span
Murray
personology; TAT tests (thematic apperception tests)
Rogers
developed the Q-sort; measured difference between idea and actual self
Gough
developed the California psychological inventory; standardized on a diagnosed normal sample from population
McKinley and Hathaway
developed the Minnesota multiphasic personality inventory (MMPI); standardized on diagnosed abnormal clinical subpopulations
Rotter
developed the internal-external control scale (I-E)