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Nutrition Chapter 14
Terms in this set (55)
what are some characteristics of breast milk as opposed to formula?
1. it excels as a form of nutrients
2. it provides immunologic protection
3. efficient fat absorption
4. lower protein
what are some characteristics of formula as opposed to breast milk?
1. it is based on breast milk
2. iron (Fe) fortified is recommended
3. special formulas are available
4. nursing bottle tooth decay
5. it is attempt to copy breast milk
when should you begin introducing solid foods?
1. between 4 and 6 months
how do you test if a child has food allergies?
use single ingredient foods, one at a time in small portions, and have a waiting period. This way, you can tell if your child has allergies and to what.
what are three examples of foods that provide iron?
1. breast milk or iron fortified formula
2. iron fortified cereals
3. meat and meat alternates
what foods provide vitamin C?
fruits and vegetables
what foods should you omit from your child's diet?
honey and corn syrup
from 12 to 14 months, a child's diet should shift from infant foods consisting of mostly __________ or ___________ ________ to mostly ___________ _____________ _________.
formula; breast milk; modified adult foods
true or false? appetite regulates.
true. regulating treats helps normal growth
should you feed a child a vegan diet?
it is possible, but very difficult to meet their energy needs
how do a child's protein needs change over time?
a child's needs increase as he/she grows larger
what organ/process sets the carbohydrate needs of a child?
glucose use by the brain
what is a child's fiber recommendations?
fiber recommendations derive from adult intakes and is adjusted down for children
at 1 to 3 years, ____to _____ percent of energy comes from fat.
at 4 to 18 years, __________ to _________ percent of energy comes from fat
which two vitamins and minerals are necessary?
vitamin D and iron
what do current children's diets lack?
they lack fruits, vegetables, vitamins, and minerals
what are three pieces of advice on dealing with children's different preferences?
1. flavors and temperatures should be mild
2. bribing to eat certain foods fails
3. occasional treats allowed
what is food neophobia?
the fear of new foods
what are two aspects that can influence children's preferences versus parental authority?
environment and parental example
what are four good restaurant choices?
1. split meals
2. choose from appetizers, soups, salads, and side dishes
3. order vegetable toppings and lean meats on pizza (reduce saturated fat by ordering half the cheese)
4. request water, fat free milk, or fruit juice
what are some ways to prevent your child from choking?
1. encourage the child to sit when eating
2. examples: round foods such as grapes, nuts, hard candies, and pieces of hot dog
how do you get a child more interested in eating?
1. include children in food preparation
2. praise for a job well done
what are 8 developmental milestones related to food that occur in children age 1-2?
1. uses a spoon
2. lifts and drinks from a cup
3. helps scrub fruits and vegetables, tear lettuce or greens, snap green beans, or dip foods
4. can be messy and easily distracted
5. large muscles develop
6. experiences slowed growth and decreased appetite
7. develops likes and dislikes
8. may suddenly refuse certain foods
what are 8 developmental milestones related to food that occur in children age 3?
1. spears food with a fork
2. feeds self independently
3. helps wrap, pour, shake, stir, or spread foods
4. follows simple instructions
5. medium hand muscles develop
6. may suddenly refuse certain foods
7. begins to request favorite foods
8. makes simple either/or food choices
what are 6 developmental milestones related to food that occur in children age 4?
1. uses all utensils and napkins
2. helps measure dry ingredients
3. learns table manners
4. small finger muscles develop
5. influenced by tv, media, and peers
6. may dislike many mixed dishes
what are 6 developmental milestones related to food that occur in children age 5?
1. measures liquids
2. helps grind, grate, and cut (soft foods with a dull knife)
3. uses hand mixer with supervision
4. fine coordination of fingers and hands develop
5. usually accepts food that is available
6. eats with minor supervision
children with nutritional deficiencies exhibit ___________ and __________ symptoms
what are three consequences of iron deficiency?
1. causes energy crisis
2. weakens intellectual performance
3. key problem among U.S. children
how can iron toxicity be avoided in a child?
keep them away from supplements
what is the problem with lead?
high concentration levels cause mental, behavioral, and other health problems
what are three potential sources of lead exposure?
1. chips of old lead paint, jewelry that contains lead, and other unlikely objects
2. water from old lead pipes
3. lead dust mixed into outdoor soil, which can stick to clothing and hands
what are four physiological effects of long term elevated blood lead?
1. reduced bone and muscle growth
2. neurological damage
3. kidney malfunction
4. hearing and speech impairment
what are six ways to prevent your child from getting lead poisoning?
1. if home was built before 1978, wash surface that may have traces of lead paint
2. feed children balanced, timely meals with ample iron and calcium
3. prevent children from chewing old painted surfaces
4. refrain from letting young children wear jewelry with unknown metals
5. wash children's hands, bottles, and toys often
6. wipe soil off shoes before entering the home
7. ask a pediatrician to see if your child should be tested for lead
when does a food allergy occur?
when a food protein enters body tissues and triggers and immune response
in an allergic reaction, there is an immune response to ___________.
what is released in response to an antigen?
antibodies and histamine
what is anaphylactic shock?
life threatening reaction caused by a food allergy
what is epinephrine?
easy to administer, life saving drug
what is food intolerance?
unpleasant symptoms that consistently occur after consumption of certain foods
true or false? food intolerance involves an immune response.
what is food aversion?
the intense dislike of a food. it is a biological response
what are 6 symptoms of an allergic reaction to food
1. difficulty breathing, wheezing, and asthma
2. vomiting, abdominal cramps, and diarrhea
3. irritated, reddened eyes
4. tingling sensation and swelling of the tongue and throat
5. hives, swelling, and rashes
6. drop in blood pressure and loss of consciousness; in extreme reactions, death
how many kids have ADHD?
5 to 10 percent of young, school age children
what is ADHD characterized by?
chronic inability to pay attention, along with overly active behavior and poor impulse control
what impacts can ADHD have on a child?
delay in growth, academic failure, and major behavioral problems
true or false? there is a link between nutrition and ADHD.
true or false? sugar makes a child hyperactive.
false: no scientific evidence to support this
what are some ways to manage ADHD symptoms?
1. behavioral therapy and medication
2. others include sufficient sleep, regular mealtimes, a nutritious diet, and daily vigorous outside play
how do dental caries develop?
1. develop as acids produced by bacterial growth in the mouth, which eats into tooth enamel
2. bacteria form colonies in plaque
3. the acid of plaque creates pits that deepen into cavities
what is advanced dental disease?
gum disease severe enough to threaten loss afflicts the majority of U.S. adults by their later years
what are four detriments to not eating breakfast?
1. more likely to be overweight
2. difficulty paying attention in the classroom
3. poor concentration
4. achieve lower test scores
why (developmentally) is breakfast the most important meal of the day?
nutrient losses are rarely made up in other meals
what does the adolescent growth spurt do?
it brings rapid growth and hormonal changes that affect every organ of the body, including the brain
true or false? women have a higher percentage of body fat than men.
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