Phrase used to characterize 15th-century European rulers who unified, stabilized, and centralized the governments of their countries.
Examples: John I (Portugal), Charles VII, Louis XI (France), Isabella I of Castile, Ferdinand II of Aragon (Spain), Henry VII (England)
Achievements: limited aristocratic power, efficient tax collection, created a standing army, fostered trade, enforced religious unity, encouraged a national identity
Marks the beginning of modern European history. "Liberty, equality, fraternity."
Causes: Enlightenment ideals (popular sovereignty, inalienable rights), French debt, American Revolution, Louis XVI & Marie Antoinette/Versailles
Key Events: Storming of the Bastille, Great Fear, Reign of Terror, formation of the Directory, Napoleon's coup d'etat (1799)
Legacy: feudalism abolished, promotion of nationalism, questioning the role of the Church
Philosophical movement which focused on reason as the primary source of authority (as opposed to absolute monarchy or the Catholic Church)
Dates: 1715-1789 (although some place it as early as 1620 with the Scientific Revolution)
Ideas: individual liberty, religious tolerance, empiricism
Influenced by: Descartes, Locke, Spinoza
Major figures: Beccaria, Voltaire, Diderot, Hume, Rousseau, Kant, Adam Smith
Rulers: Catherine the Great, Frederick I, Joseph
Dahia Ibo Shabaka, Larry S. Krieger, Linda Black, Phillip C. Naylor, Roger B. Beck Akira Iriye, Laurel Carrington, Mattie P. Collins, Peter Stearns, Rudy J. Martinez