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sociology final exam
Terms in this set (40)
a category of people whom we treat as distinct on account of physical characteristics to which we have assigned social importance
a category of people whose members are thought to share a common origin and elements of a common culture
a group that is culturally, economically, and politically dominant
a group that is culturally, economically, and politically subordinate
struggle over resources; genocide, slavery; one group is denied opportunities
2 groups coexist in society while each group maintains identity
minority accepts majority culture as its own; many 2nd generation US immigrants
full integration of minority group into majority culture; group membership no longer affects social relations
irrationally-based negative attitude toward categories of people
unequal treatment of people on the basis of category membership
practice of physically separating majority and minority groups
informal ties to families, friends, neighbors, etc., and involvement in community activities and organizations
a person's biological maleness and femaleness; ascribed status
psychological, social, and cultural aspects of maleness and femaleness; achieved status
expected attitudes and behaviors that society associates with each sex; subject to change, cultural variation
the process of increasing productivity and the standard of living in a society
rich and powerful nations that are economically diversified and relatively free of outside control
poor and weak countries with highly specialized economies over which they have relatively little control
what is a family?
a relatively permanent group of persons linked by social roles who live together and cooperate economically and in the rearing of children
what functions do families serve?
replacement of the population through reproduction, regulation of sexual behavior, economic responsibility for dependents, socialization of the young, ascription of statuses, provision of intimacy and emotional support
people are getting married later; high rates of divorce in US; common to cohabit; people are having fewer children and are having kids later
what patterns have occurred concerning marriage, divorce, cohabitation, fertility, etc.?
2 tiers; college educated are more likely to get married and higher child well-being; high school or less are less likely to be married and lower child well-being
What is Putnam's central argument about class and family structure?
demanding and punitive; strict, punishment; demand respect and obedience
warm and non-demanding; encourage self expression and autonomy; high responsiveness and low demanding; overindulgent
demanding and responsive; use positive reinforcement; discussion-oriented
self-involved parents; little to no demands; lack of responsiveness, poor communication; neglectful in some cases
What is intensive parenting?
over parenting; helicopter parenting; strong investments of time and economic resources into one's children; concerted cultivation, natural growth
conflict, accommodation, acculturation, assimilation
What patterns of interaction between majority and minority groups occur?
prejudice, discrimination, segregation
What processes perpetuate racial and ethnic inequalities?
education, employment, law and justice, politics and government
In what ways are racial inequalities institutionalized?
political activism, educational reforms, fair employment, economic justice/anti-poverty programs
In what ways can our society potentially solve racial and ethnic inequalities?
fulfill basic human needs to learn and social norms; widens the gap between upper and lower third
What functions and dysfunctions arise with education as a social institution in modern American society?
residential sorting, parental engagement, and extracurricular activities; upper third does better; funding, involvement, etc is different
In what ways do class gaps emerge in American schools?
Functionalists view education as an important social institution that contributes both manifest and latent functions. Functionalists see education as serving the needs of society by preparing students for later roles, or functions, in society. Conflict theorists see schools as a means for perpetuating class, racial-ethnic, and gender inequalities. In the same vein, feminist theory focuses specifically on the mechanisms and roots of gender inequality in education. The theory of symbolic interactionism focuses on education as a means for labeling individuals.
How do sociological theories explain education and educational inequalities?
family involvement gaps, education attainment gaps, career opportunity gaps
What class gaps exist in American communities and in community involvement?
lowering divorce, reduce nonmarital birth rates, additional money for poor families, free or reduced prices for preschools, invest more money into schools for lower third, community involvement programs, mentors, move poor families to better neighborhoods
What are Putnam's proposed solutions to the growing class divide among children?
families have gendered statuses, schools have more women teachers, politics are male dominated, wage gap in the workplace
How does gender inequality exist across different social institutions?
occurs in stages; countries that started earlier are ahead; linked to industrialization; western model
How does modernization theory explain development?
capitalism has dominated the global economy for 200+ years; core vs periphery countries; relationship of exploitation--core countries benefit at the expense of the periphery
How does world systems theory explain development?
the human development index (HDI); life expectancy, expected and mean years of schooling, gross national income per capita (GNI)
How does the United Nations (UN) measure human development?
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