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PRACTICE QUIZZES BIO 1108
pretty much all of the practice quizzes questions+answers
Terms in this set (150)
The term "N" refers to the size of a population, that is, the number of individuals in that population. In general, in a sample of N individuals, the frequency of an allele is
the number of occurrences of the allele divided by twice the number of individuals in the sample (2n)
If a population is not in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, we can conclude that:
evolution has occurred because one or more of the assumptions of the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium has been violated
The goldenrod gall fly lays its eggs on the buds of goldenrod plants. Larvae hatch from the eggs and then chew through the goldenrod buds and into the stems. The gall fly larvae saliva induces the goldenrod to generate a gall (an outgrowth of tissue, a ball-shaped swelling on the stem). The larva will live inside the gall which provides food and shelter for the developing larva.
The larvae are prey of both parasitoid wasps and birds. Wasps selectively prey on larvae inside the smallest galls while birds selectively prey on larvae inside the largest galls. The size of the gall made by the larvae is a heritable trait. Given this information, we can conclude that the trait 'larval gall size' is subject to:
You find that a wild population of antelope is not in Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium. From this information alone, can you determine the mechanism of evolution operating on the population?
A population with a novel adaptation has evolved that adaptation.
The peppered moth provides a well-known example of natural selection. The light- colored form of the moth was predominant in England before the industrial revolution. In the mid-nineteenth century, a dark-colored form appeared. The difference is produced by a dominant allele of one gene. By about 1900, approximately 90% of the moths around industrial areas were dark colored, whereas light-colored moths were still abundant elsewhere. Apparently, birds could readily find the light moths against the soot-darkened background in industrial areas and therefore were eating more light moths. Recently, use of cleaner fuels has greatly reduced soot in the landscape, and the dark-colored moths have been disappearing. Should the two forms of moths be considered separate species?
Four populations of beetles look very similar, but the males have courtship dances that look different from the dances of the other populations. What function would this difference in dance likely serve if the populations came in contact?
a prezygotic isolating mechanism
How are two different species most likely to evolve from one ancestral species?
allopatrically, after the ancestral species has split into two populations
Which of the following statements is true regarding hybridization?
All of these choices are correct:
-Hybridization can result in fertile offspring
-Hybridization involves the transfer of genetic material between members of similar species
-Natural selection sometimes acts against progeny that result from hybridization
-Hybridization occurs in plants more often than in animals
It is thought that polar bears originated from a population of brown bears (Ursus arctos) that became geographically isolated during a glaciation event that occurred about 150,000 years ago
The Sunshine periwinkle plant blooms in June while Summer periwinkle, a close relative of Sunshine periwinkle, blooms in August. A researcher is raising a population of Summer periwinkle in a controlled growth chamber. Over time the researcher manipulated the day length in the growth chamber and eventually manages to induce some individuals of Summer periwinkle to bloom in June. The researcher finds that she can cross these individuals with Sunshine periwinkle individuals and they produce viable, fertile offspring. What can she conclude about Sunshine periwinkle and Summer periwinkle?
These plants are temporally reproductively isolated from each other
A polytomy is a graphical depiction of what type of relationship between groups?
The common ancestor node with no resolution among descendant groups
Phylogenetic trees are:
both a and b are correct:
-built using observed data
Which phylogenetic group includes only an ancestor and all descendants the ancestor?
When comparing trees with various hypotheses of evolutionary relationships between a group of animals, the tree with ______ would be the strongest candidate.
the fewest changes
A fossil's contribution to phylogenetic trees include:
all of the above:
-records of extinct species
-correlation between evolution and Earth history
If the two guard cells of a stoma decrease their concentration of potassium (K+) ions, what will happen to the corresponding pore?
The pore will close, preventing the diffusion of CO2 out of the leaf
If water molecules (H2O) suddenly stopped forming hydrogen bonds with one another, how would water transport in vascular plants change (if at all)?
It would stop, as water transport relies on H2O molecules being connected by hydrogen bonds
Which of the following are produced by roots in order to increase surface area, allowing for greater access to nutrients in the soil?
In a sunflower population, a mutation arises that results in vessels 4 times wider than wild-type. The mutants will have _________ water-transport capacity, but will also be more susceptible to _________.
higher; cavitation from freezing
Roots elongate continuously in order to _____________.
mine new regions of soil for minerals
Root hairs develop _____.
after the cells elongate
The veins of leaves are _____.
all of the above:
-composed of xylem and phloem
-continuous with vascular bundles in the stem and roots
-finely branched to be in close contact with photosynthesizing cells
A woman is growing an African violet on her windowsill. After several weeks, she notices that the plant is leaning toward the right, in the direction of the window. In the stem(s) of her African violet, where would you expect to find most of the auxin?
on the left (shaded) sides of the stems, facing away from the window
In your vegetable garden you are growing yams. Yams are modified root tissue from the plant. What is the function of the yam for the plant?
It stores sugar for the plant
You purchase two identical houseplants and place them side by side on your windowsill. You water both plants equally. One plant, plant a, you leave alone. On the other plant, plant b, you pinch off the top of the growing stem, effectively removing the apical meristem. Which of the following would you expect to occur?
Plant b will be much bushier, with growth of many lateral branches
What is an advantage of root meristems originating at the pericycle, rather than at other root structures (e.g., the epidermis)?
New roots are directly connected to the xylem and phloem of pre-existing roots
Vascular cambium is one of two lateral meristems, the other being cork cambium. A plant grows in diameter primarily through divisions of the vascular cambium. If you pull a small piece of bark off a tree, and then look at its inside surface, what tissue are you looking at (ignore any remaining cells of vascular cambium that may be left)?
For the "light" reaction to occur, an electron donor (____) and an ultimate acceptor (______) are needed.
Which molecule is oxidized in the photosynthetic reaction?
In terms of the evolution of photosynthesis, which process happened first?
horizontal gene transfer
What is the most abundant protein on Earth?
What is the initial carbon input in the Calvin cycle?
Which of the following statements is true of the seeds of both gymnosperms and angiosperms?
Seeds from both plants contain a diploid (2n) embryo
Which of the following statements is true regarding the fruits produced by angiosperms?
Fruits are typically derived from the wall of the ovary
In ferns, both the gametophyte and sporophyte are physiologically capable of surviving on their own. What is the most likely reason that vascular tissues are present only in the sporophyte generation?
There is no advantage for the gametophyte to grow tall because gametes must be produced near the ground where the water needed for their free-swimming sperm is most likely to be found
Why is dispersal an important part of reproduction?
all of these options are correct:
-It allows for escape from pathogens and parasites
-It reduces competition for resources with closely related individuals.
-It allows genotypes to colonize larger areas
A researcher comes across a plant that has been infected by a pathogen. As a result of the infection, the plant has undergone a systemic acquired resistance (SAR) response and has also generated several siRNAs. Based on this response, what type of pathogen most likely infected the plant?
You may have heard that monarch butterflies (and their caterpillars) are "poisonous" to many predators. What makes these insects so toxic? Read your answer choices carefully!
Monarch caterpillars store cardenolides from milkweeds
Recall that the bullhorn acacia forms a symbiosis with P. ferruginea ants. A researcher takes an acacia seed and plants it in an area without P. ferruginea. What will happen to this acacia plant?
Without P. ferruginea, the plant won't have any defenses and will be eaten by herbivores
A seed from a yew tree germinates on the forest floor. During the first few months of its life, the sapling dedicates most of its resources to increasing in height rather than producing the defensive compound taxol. What is this allocation of resources an example of?
Which of the following proteins allow a plant to mount an immune response against a specific pathogen? Select all the correct choices.
resistance (R) proteins in the plant cytoplasm
Which taxonomic group of land plants still in existence today was the dominant group of land plants when the angiosperms began their rapid increase in speciation and distribution?
Which of the following correctly describes the "fern" we see when we walk in the woods?
a diploid sporophyte
The multicellular gametophytes of ferns are haploid.
Which of the four major groups of gymnosperms is limited to a single species?
Ginkgo trees are popular in urban areas because they thrive under varied conditions and have attractive leaves, especially in the fall. The only drawback is that the fleshy seeds have a disagreeable odor. Consequently, ginkgo trees that produce pollen are preferred over those that produce the fleshy, smelly seeds. Therefore, which of the following statements is true?
ginkgo trees that release male gametophytes are preferred over trees that are pollinated
Many dinosaur movies depict huge tree-like plants growing out of swamps. To what group would these "trees" likely belong?
cycads and lycophytes
Which of the following are characteristics that all bryophytes share? Select all correct choices and only the correct choices.
Cells in the interior of complex multicellular organisms are able to respond to environmental signals through:
receptors designed to detect directly changes in the external environment
How can two cells of a complex multicellular organism have the same genome, but markedly different structures and functions?
Different genes are expressed in different cells
Which one of the following statements correctly describes features shared by simple multicellular eukaryotes?
Cells adhere to one another; most of the cells are capable of a wide range of functions, including reproduction; and the loss of one or more cells usually does not lead to the death of the organism
Which one of the following is believed to be the major event that led to the appearance of large complex animals on Earth?
the increase in atmospheric oxygen
The acquisition of traits necessary for complex multicellularity occurred independently in plants and animals, but took place in a specific order. In what order did these processes evolve?
cell adhesion molecules, a mechanism of communication, bulk flow
Why do mitochondria and chloroplasts have relatively small genomes?
Over time, much of their nucleic acid has migrated to the host cell nucleus
How old are the earliest fossils of eukaryotes?
1.8 billion years
What causes amoeboid feeding cells of cellular slime molds to aggregate into a large multicellular 'slug'?
Why is photosynthesis widely but discontinuously distributed throughout the eukaryotic tree?
Photosynthesis was acquired multiple times through endosymbiosis
Which of the following enabled eukaryotes to evolve complex life cycles and programs of multicellular development?
complex patterns of gene regulation
Recall that the phloem sap of vascular plants moves through the phloem as a result of turgor pressure. How are nutrients transported through fungi?
through hyphae, via osmosis/through hyphae, as a result of turgor pressure ?
Antibiotics work by inhibiting the synthesis of petidoglycan, a component of the bacterial cell wall. Considering this mechanism, what is a possible mechanism of action for anti-fungal drugs?
inhibiting the synthesis of chitin in fungi
A researcher discovers a new species of fungi that forms hyphae, but not septa. This fungus also lacks multicellular fruiting bodies, and does not appear to form either endomycorrhizae or ectomycorrhizae with plants. How should this fungus be classified?
as a zygomycete
A researcher is looking at different petri dishes containing the yeast C. albicans. In the first dish she evaluates, she notices that the yeast do not form hyphae. Is this a mutant strain of yeast?
No, as yeast do not normally form hyphae
Most fungi have numerous branching ____ called _____which form the ____.
filaments; hyphae; mycelium
Comparative embryology helped clarify the relationships among major groups of animals. Bilaterians, for example, are all:
As in many other animals, the endoderm in cnidarians functions in formation of:
the digestive system
Animals colonized land after plants did. The first animals to colonize land were _____, about _____ million years ago.
According to the phylogenetic tree shown, which of the answer choices correctly lists the sequence in which multicellularity, tissues, and bilateral symmetry arose, from the oldest characteristic to the most recent?
Multicellularity, tissues, bilateral symmetry
What is an advantages of having a true coelom?
A true coelom allows the body to move independently of the movement of internal organs
What do all deuterostomes have in common?
The pore formed during gastrulation becomes the anus
A synapomorphy of the vertebrates is the _____.
Which of the following taxa would you NOT classify as an animal?
Which evolutionary innovation was most significant in helping tetrapods become independent of aquatic environments for reproduction?
Which one of these groups does NOT molt?
Which of the following groups are all Lophotrochozoans?
Platyhelminthes, Molluska, Annelida
How did the development of the jaw contribute to evolutionary diversification of early vertebrate lineages?
It made additional food sources available
Which group is most closely related to birds?
What group of mammals has (a) embryos that spend a long time feeding through the placenta than the mother's nipples, (b) young that feed on milk after birth, and (c) a prolonged period of maternal care after leaving the placenta?
Which of the following is a characteristic of all chordates at some point during their life cycle?
Mammals and birds eat more often than reptiles. Which of the following traits shared by mammals and birds best explains this habit?
Which tissue type, or organ, is NOT correctly matched with its germ layer tissue?
nervous : mesoderm
The protostome developmental sequence arose just once in evolutionary history, resulting in two main subgroups, Lophotrochozoa and Ecdysozoa. What does this finding suggest?
The appearance of two distinct groups occurred after the protostome developmental sequence appeared
The evolution of animal species has been prolific. Some experts predict tens of millions of animal species exist. To what can we attribute most of this diversity?
a wide variety of methods for capturing and processing food
Which of the following is a synapomorphy of Ecdysozoans?
the ability to shed their outer covering
The major evolutionary split of protostome animals was based on the _____.
way that the organism grows
An organism that exhibits cephalization probably also ______.
is bilaterally symmetrical
A _______ is a ciliated larva.
The digestive system of most animals is lined with cells through which nutrients are absorbed. What is the embryonic origin of these cells?
Which of the following is a feature of the "tube-within-a-tube" body plan in most animals?
The mouth and the anus form the two ends of the inner tube
The major benefit of the hydrostatic skeleton is possible because of the coelom.
Morphological data are preferred over genetic data in determining the evolutionary history and relatedness of animals.
All Platyhelminthes species are parasitic.
An oviparous animal reproduces by laying eggs.
Holometabolous insects become adults by shedding an exoskeleton.
The feeding cells of Poriferans are called choanocytes.
Cnidaria includes all jellyfish, corals and their relatives.
A behavior is shaped by:
both environmental and genetic factors
According to Niko Tinbergen, which of the following defines―and helps researchers understand―an animal's behavior?
adaptive function, causation, development, and evolutionary history
A lion urinating to mark its territory is a type of communication.
Many species of gulls feed their chicks by regurgitating food. When parents return from foraging, the gull chicks peck at a red spot on the parent's bill, which causes the parents to open the bill and regurgitate their food. Chicks will peck at a red dot painted on any long, slender object. For the chicks, pecking is a _________ and the red dot is a _______. For the adult gulls, the chicks pecking at their bills is a _______ and regurgitating food is a ________.
fixed action pattern, key stimulus; key stimulus, fixed action pattern
A hummingbird is visually attracted to the red, tubular flowers of a trumpet vine. It drinks nectar from the flower and, in doing so, inadvertently transfers pollen from one flower to the next. In this form of communication, who is the sender, who is the receiver, and what information is being transferred? Think carefully here...This is a question that stumps a lot of students and it is bonus points for a reason. Look at the behaviors from the perspectives of both the bird and the plant.
The flower is the sender, the hummingbird is the receiver, and the availability of nectar is the information.
You are watching a group of seals and are observing their behavior on a beach. You notice separate groups of females and observe that each group is affiliated with just a single male. Consider the listed options, what data would support the hypothesis that sexual selection played a role in the evolution of these behaviors?
Most of the offspring of a single group are parented by the male that defends the group.
A large population made of several smaller populations linked by emigration and immigration is a __________________.
The common mud turtle experiences relatively uniform mortality rates throughout its life. This is a type _____ survivorship.
What are the units of r ?
change in individuals per unit time/individuals at starting time
When a population is small relative to its carrying capacity, its growth will initially be _________ and shift to ________ as it continues to grow.
As populations approach carrying capacity, crowding can affect:
birth and death rates through resource limitation, and death rates by increasing the transmission of pathogens and parasites.
In 1987, 18 black-footed ferrets, the last known individuals of this species, were captured and brought into a captive breeding program in Wyoming. In 1989, the total ferret population, still in captivity, was 120 animals. These 120 animals in 1989 represented:
N, the total population size.
Which of the following ecosystem factors would affect the rate of tree growth?
All of these responses would affect the growth of trees:
-The ambient light conditions, and thus photosynthetic production
-The amount of precipitation, and thus photosynthetic production
-The distribution of nutrients in each tree's local environment
-The presence of tree parasites
Consider the characteristics of biomes. Would you expect more biomass in a trophic pyramid from the tropical rainforest compared to one from the taiga?
Yes, because there is higher productivity at the equator than at the poles
Some of the characteristics used to describe biomes include:
annual average precipitation and average temperature plus variation
A/an _____ is a community of organisms and the physical environment it occupies.
Tropical biomes have evolved over _____ years. However, biomes at New England latitudes have experienced an ice age within the past _____ years.
tens of millions of; few thousand
The growing season is that portion of the year when a plant can grow successfully. The growing season is determined by:
seasonal variations in temperature and precipitation
The Coriolis effect governs the:
direction of ocean currents.
Deserts caused by a rain shadow occur on the east (leeward) side of the Sierra Nevada range in California. Why does the desert exist on the east side, but not the west side of the range?
Warm, moist air coming off the ocean rises as it encounters the mountain range and releases all its water as it moves up the mountain and the air cools. Dry air moving down the other side of the mountain causes arid desert.
At the equator, warm air rises and absorbs atmospheric water. The water comes out of the air as it falls at 30 degrees latitude.
If you stand at the equator and throw a ball north (really hard, like Superman), which direction will it deflect relative to where you were standing when you threw the ball?
The ball will deflect east
There are many climatological factors that contribute to high levels of rainfall at the equator. Which of the following is not a reason for high rainfall at the equator?
Temperatures are relatively constant
What physical properties of the Earth best explain why there are different seasons?
The Earth rotates at a slight angle on its axis
If Earth had no oceans, would temperatures at the equator be hotter or colder than they are now?
Temperatures would be hotter
Temperature differences on Earth are caused primarily by:
the amount of solar energy received per unit area at each latitude
Which latitude typically receives more rainfall than any other latitude?
In either freshwater or marine biomes, which regions would you expect to have the highest productivity?
near the surface where sunlight penetrates
On land, _____, which are broad, ecologically uniform areas, are recognized by their characteristic vegetation that reflects adaptation of form and physiology to climate.
This biome is the coldest, with the lowest biodiversity and a permanent layer of ice beneath the soil.
Similar to the tundra, but without a permanent ice layer, this biome is characterized by low and slow growing plants with little protection from UV radiation.
This biome is situated around the equator and boasts the greatest biodiversity of any biome.
tropical rain forest
Moderate temperatures and precipitation, as well as nutrient-rich soil due to annual leaf fall, characterize this biome.
In terms of measuring its costs and benefits in terms of energy spent and/or gained, a mutualism....
results in gain for both individuals
A species' _____________ niche comprises the full range of climate conditions and food resources that permit the individuals in a species to live.
_____ are close interactions between species that have evolved over long periods of time. When these interactions enhance the reproduction and population growth of both species, they are called _____.
between members of the same species and between members of different species
In the late 1960's, Robert Paine conducted landmark studies on biodiversity in the rocky intertidal zone, comparing the species diversity in control plots with diversity in experimental plots from which he removed the top predator, sea stars.After 5 years of Paine maintaining the predator removal and control plots, 15 species of intertidal invertebrates lived in the control plots, while the experimental plots were dominated by only two species, one mussel and one barnacle. The process most likely responsible for the loss of species diversity in the experimental plots was:
A species' ___________ niche will be smaller than its _______ niche due to interactions with other organisms in the community.
Glacier Bay in Alaska is a fjord whose lowlands were covered by glacial ice until around 230 years ago. As the glacier retreated, glacial till was exposed to plant colonization; remarkably (and fortunately for generations of ecologists), the location of the tip of the retreating glacier has been frequently documented since the late 1700's. This means that scientists have been able to develop a detailed timeline of the changes in the plant community, or _____ in Glacier Bay over time.
In Glacier Bay, one of the first species to colonize a newly exposed area of glacial till is fireweed. You would predict that fireweed is a(n) _____-selected species.
Animals are always sinks for CO2.
Plants are always sinks for CO2.
Cellular respiration releases CO2 into the environment.
Photosynthesis removes CO2 from the environment.
Plants are permanent sinks for CO2.
Fossil fuels are stores of CO2.
The ocean is both a source and a sink of CO2.
Humans only contribute to the carbon cycle by the burning of fossil fuels.
A number of plant species have declined in abundance around Boston, Massachusetts, since Thoreau's time. These tend to be:
the plants least able to change their flowering time
As oceans acidify, carbonate ions in the ocean:
become less abundant and less available to organisms that build calcium carbonate skeletons
Regardless of profession, knowledge of biology is important for making informed, environmentally responsible choices.
What is the general effect of humans on the nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) cycles?
We use a great deal of N and P in our farming practices, causing high levels of both nutrients to enter the natural environment
What are possible sources of CO2 in the air?
all of these:
-the burning of plants
-the burning of fossil fuels
-disturbance of solid substances
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