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HTH 150 Exam 2
Terms in this set (64)
journals or periodicals
A primary source is
a contemporary account of an event, written by someone who experiences or witnessed the event
the best type of source for a brief, general treatment of a subject is
an encyclopedia article
which of the following is NOT true about a scholarly journal article?
they are written for the general public
news that is first published in newspapers or on news programs could have inaccuracies
You can expect research by scholars to be available early in the information timeline.
if you use the library database to find information you don't need to use the CRAAP or CAARP test to evaluate the source
it is advisable to check any information in more than one source
if information is published on the internet you can assume that it has been reviewed and is a good source
a source is considered authoritative if
it is written by an author who is an expert in the field
to determine information is "fake news" you should
trace the sources of the information
which of the following are likely to be found in a peer reviewed journal?
- letters to the editor
- report on original research
- analysis or commentary on published work
- case studies
- description of a community intervention
- literature reviews, systematic and meta-analysis
primary sources of information
- empirical- original research report
- case studies
- reporting on a program
- conference presentations
- correspondence/letters to editor
- literature reviews
- theoretical articles
- methodological articles
- systematic reviews
- book reviews
- commentary on published work
the typical sections in a scholarly journal include an abstract, introduction, methods, and conclusion or discussion
according to the information provided in the class notes, you should read a research article straight through all the sections in the order they appear in the article
false; suggested reading is abstract, discussion, introduction, results, methods
what information is NOT included in the abstract
a detailed literature review
what information is typically not in the introduction of a scholarly article?
specific information about procedures and statistics used for the study
a research article typically will not reveal weaknesses or limitations found in the study
using NOT provides more results that are less relevant
when do you use parentheses ( ) or quotes " " in searching? (different databases may be different)
to enclose phrases of two or more words to search for the phrase only
using truncation when performing a search can increase the number of search results.
what is a benefit of using a subject search instead of a keyword search?
results are usually more relevant to the topic
in a database, the title, abstract, journal, author, and date are examples of
a full text database
contains complete text of works, such as articles or books
where would you look for a controlled vocabulary in a database?
database subject terms or thesaurus
Case studies are not considered evidence-based even though the authors have studied the case in great depth
when are case reports most useful?
when new symptoms or outcomes are unidentified
Case Control Studies are prospective in that they follow the cases and controls over time and observe what occurs
which of the following is an advantage of Case Control Studies
- they can simultaneously look at multiple risk factors
- they are useful to initially establish an association between a risk factor and a disease or outcome
- they take less time to complete because the condition or disease has already occurred
in a cohort study, an exposure is assessed and then participants are followed prospectively to observe whether they develop the outcome
cohort studies generally look at which of the following?
identifying patient characteristics or risk factors associated with a disease or outcome
having a volunteer bias in the population group is a good thing because it means the study participants are eager to make the study even stronger
Why is randomization important to assign in an RCT?
it enables blinding/masking
it balances out individual characteristics between groups
practice guidelines are available for almost any condition you'll encounter in you patients
practice guidelines are typically written by which of the following?
Public or private organizations
Systematic Reviews are similar to Meta-Analyses, except they do not include a statistical analysis quantitatively combining all the studies
The panels writing Systematic Reviews may include which of the following publication types in their review?
- published studies
- unpublished studies
- cohort studies
- randomized controlled trials
A Meta-Analysis pools together the sample populations from different studies, such as Randomized Controlled Trials, into one statistical analysis and treats them as one large sample population with one conclusion
one potential design pitfall of Meta-Analyses that is important to pay attention to is
if the authors combined studies with conflicting results
to determine the long-term effectiveness of influenza vaccines in elderly people, cohorts of vaccinated elderly and unvaccinated community-dwelling elderly were studied. The results suggest that the elderly who are vaccinated have a reduced risk of hospitalization for pneumonia or influenza.
because people with an exposure are compared to those without exposure following them forward over time
Does the wearing of sunscreen prevent melanoma? An exhaustive literature search was conducted, resulting in 54 studies on sunscreen and melanoma. Each study was then evaluated to determine whether the study focused specifically on ultraviolet-blocking sunscreen and melanoma prevention; 30 of the 54 studies were retained. The 30 studies were reviewed and showed strong positive relationship between daily wearing of sunscreen and a reduced diagnosis or melanoma
because a literature search for numerous studies on a topic with a summary of combined results
The objective of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of the two most widely adopted EIs, AlcoholEdu and The Alcohol eCHECKUP TO GO (e-Chug), in reducing both alcohol use and alcohol-related consequences in incoming college students. To do so, we conducted a 3-group randomized trial comparing AlcoholEdu and e-Chug to an assessment-only control group.
Randomized Controlled Trial
or an experimental study because you have two treatment groups compared to a control group with random placement of participants into groups
This study matched patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) with control subjects and compared their history of autoimmune and chronic inflammatory disorders, makers of severity, and treatment. It found that the risk of NHL was increased in association with rheumatoid arthritis, primary Sjogren syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus, and celiac disease.
Case Control study,
people with disease compared to those without
Searched were performed on PubMed, Scopus, Embase, and Web of Science for relevant studies that were published before November 2016 reporting smoking prevalence and AMS. Two evaluations independently selected studies, extracted data, and assessed study quality. The pooled relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were obtained using random-effects models
similar to systematic review but results from studies were pooled and new results were calculated
106 overweight or obese sedentary young adults ages 18-29 years from the Atlanta metropolitan area were recruited to screen diabetes risk. Survey questionnaires, anthropometric assessment, blood pressure (BP), and laboratory data were collected in a clinical research group unit.
Cross-Sectional Descriptive Study
information was collected on one group, information compiled about the group, no treatment and no comparison groups, past not researched and didn't follow them forward in time, it was one snapshot
basically used to test theory; answers what, how much, how many
generally used to develop theory; answers why, what was the experience, what does it mean
accuracy of a measure, measures what you say is measures; the extent to which evidence about a treatment affect is trustworthy
the measure is able to get consistent results; the extent to which an instrument gets the same results repeatedly
bias resulting differences in groups due to drop outs
bias resulting from how participants are assigned to groups
bias resulting from how treatment or control group information is collected
bias resulting from using volunteers who are convenient to the study as participants
bias resulting from the participant's expectations influencing the results
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