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Nutrition Chapter 14 pt 2
Terms in this set (31)
true or false? how you live and think at age 20 affects your life at age 60-80
what are the five groups of people who reach old age in good physical or mental
2. those who abstain from alcohol or drink moderately
3. are physically active
4. are well nourished and consume sufficient fruits and vegetables
5. maintain healthy body weights
what are the two things that the "greying of America" depends on?
1. health related behaviors
how long is the human lifespan? can we lengthen it with supplements?
125 years; no
true or false? energy recommendations decrease with age.
what is sarcopenia?
an age-related loss of muscle tissue with serious health implications
what kind of physical activity is recommended?
resistance training recommended
what are your protein needs in later years?
protein DRI values remain about the same through adult life, but physical conditions change may affect both the amounts of protein needed and its sources
what is osteoarthritis related to
what is rheumatoid arthritis?
immune system malfunction
what is gout?
a form of arthritis, prevalence increases with age
what are three changes in the digestive tract?
1. intestines lose muscle strength, resulting in sluggish motility that leads to constipation
2. stomach inflammation, abnormal bacterial growth, and greatly reduced acid output impair digestion and absorption
3. pain and fear of choking may cause food avoidance or reduced intake
describe hormone changes as you get older
among many hormone changes, the pancreas secretes less insulin and cells become less responsive to it, causing abnormal glucose metabolism
what are two changes to the mouth as you get older?
1. tooth loss, gum disease, and reduced saliva output impede chewing and swallowing
2. choking may become likely because pain may cause avoidance of hard-to-chew foods
describe changes in sensory organs as you get older.
1. diminished sight can make food shopping and prep difficult
2. diminished senses of smell and taste may reduce appetite, although research is needed to clarify this effect
how much activity should older people participate in?
what are some benefits to exercising for older people?
1. more lean body mass
2. better balance
3. stronger immune systems
4. improved sleep quality
5. fewer injuries
6. better overall health
7. live longer
what vitamins can you consume as an older person to maintain good eyesight?
1. dark green leafy vegetables may protect from macular degeneration
2. vitamin E, carotenoids, and vitamin C may inhibit onset of cataracts
what can dehydration effects be confused for?
what can dehydration in a bedridden person lead to?
how do iron needs change later in life?
it improves, especially with women after menstruation ceases
what are two consequences of zinc deficiency?
1. known to impair immune function and appetite
2. may increase the likelihood of infectious diseases such as pneumonia
what three major nutritional factors contribute to long life? what are three additional factors?
1. abstinence from, or moderation of, alcohol use
2. regular nutritious meals
3. weight control
1. regular adequate sleep
2. abstinence from smoking
3. regular physical activity
most chronic diseases involve __________.
what causes alzheimers disease?
the cause is unknown, but genetic inheritance clearly contributes
when does alzheimers disease occur?
when areas of the brain that coordinate memory and cognition become littered with clumps of abnormal protein fragments and tangles of nerve tissue that damage or kill brain cells
what are obstacles to eating adequately?
living situation, medications, alcohol abuse
what are four programs that help the elderly?
1. social security
2. the supplemental nutrition assistance program, or SNAP
3. Administration on Aging
4. meals on wheels
how can someone improve their restaurant meals?
1. restrict your portion sizes that do not exceed your energy needs
2. ask that excess portions be placed in take-out containers
3. ask for extra vegetables, fruit, or salad
4. request whole-grain breads and pasta
what are three characteristics of caffeine?
1. stimulant drug
3. interactions subtle but significant
what are three characteristics of tobacco?
1. many adverse health effects
2. depresses hunger and body fatness
3. accelerates vitamin C breakdown
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