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Terms in this set (106)
Most abundant siliciclastic rock?
shale then sandstone
Most abundant chemical/biogenic?
Minerals found in mafic igneous rocks tend to be ____ stable in a weathering environment than those abundant in felsic igneous rock
Immature is (angular or rounded), _____sorted, includes ___sized grains
angular poorly mud
Supermature is _____-sorted, rounded grains
Glacial sediment that is typically poorly sorted?
Would a fluid with a low viscosity more likely exhibit laminar or turbulent flow?
Which particles would move faster and farther? Suspended or bedload?
Compaction porosity increases or decreases?
Dissolution of this type of sandstone is thought to give a secondary porosity
What holds together a wacke?
What type of rock would make it have a reddish color?
Of the sandstones you've seen in lab....what would you assume to be the most mature?
If you saw an abundance of mica flakes in a rock what type of source rock would you look for?
Compare and contrast calcite and aragonite.
They have the same chemical formula... They are polymorphs. But they have different atomic structures. Calcite tends to have hexagonal cleavage.
Where do we find carbonates form?
Shallow or deep waters?
Epicontinental seas, reefs
Organics in metamorphic rocks look like what?
Black... Graphite and quartz polymorphs
2 examples of phosphorites
How are confining pressure and differential stress different?
Confining, you have the same all around, differential you have a preferred direction like in regional
Where do we get the most metamorphic rocks?
difference between a porphyroblast and a phenocryst
porph meta finer
pheno igenous larger
The presence of what mineral makes soapstone have a greasy feel?
What would the temperature and pressures like to find a migmatite?
chem weathering climate?
what influences type and rate of weathering
mineral content, climate, topography
Detrital sedimentary rocks are classified by _______ _____
conglomerates are formed at ____ energy environments
most common pair?
clay and quartz
common rock produced by the metamorphism of limestone is ______
Dense, nonfoliated metamorphic rock is produced most often from sandstone is
agents of metamorphism are
heat pressure chemical fluids
The primary agent of contact metamorphism is ____
What type of metamorphic rock will shale normally become following low-grade metamorphism?
increasing grain size and grade
slate, phyllite, schist, gneiss
_______ is a metamorphic rock composed of coarse-grained calcite
_______is a metamorphic rock composed of a dense network of interlocking quartz
difference between phyllite and slate
phylite coarser than slates. sheen
metamorphic grade is dependent upon the ____
Given a specific geotherm, ____metamorphic grade rocks occur in the upper part of the crust while ____grade rocks will occur at deeper levels
Non-foliated rocks found in contact metamorphic aureoles are called ______
Which of the following metamorphic facies represent rocks that were metamorphosed under the lowest PT conditions recognized by geologists?
Which of the following metamorphic facies represent rocks that were metamorphosed under the highest pressure conditions recognized by geologists?
contact meta of a shale or mudstone
mechanical break down of rock material by plants, animals, abrasion, and freezing and thawing
The chemical alteration of weathered material brought on by reactions with the hydrosphere, biosphere, and atmosphere
The range in grain size of sediment
The angularity of the edges and corners of grains in a sedimentary rock is referred to as
In general the _______the distance sediment is transported the more well sorted and rounded sediment becomes.
The process of reducing pore space by depositing younger sediments on top of older material is
The cement in a sandstone is typically the result of the precipitation of minerals like _____and ____from solutions
greater than 2mm
conglomerate is ______; breccia is _____
.06 and 2mm
Sand that is cemented with calcite is called
If a sandstone includes less than 15 percent matrix, and is composed of >90 percent quartz then it is called a
framework composed of greater than 25 percent feldspar, (b) the proportion of feldspar to feldspar + rock fragments in the framework is greater than 50%, and (b) the matrix is more than 15 percent?
What would you call sandstone with the following characteristics: (a) a framework composed of greater than 25 percent feldspar, (b) the proportion of rock fragments to feldspar + rock fragments in the framework is greater than 50%, and (b) the matrix is less than 15 percent?
.004 to .06 mm
Siltstones are _____grained than claystones
less than 0.004 mm
______refers to the characteristic of parting into even parallel sheets when struck with a rock hammer.
A common mineral found in carbonate sedimentary rocks is ______
siliceous chemical sedimentary rock is ___
Rock that is the result of compaction of variably decayed plant matter is referred to as
Cross beds and ripples are sedimentary structures that indicate the general direction of wind or water currents during deposition
_________signify the evaporation of water and the drying out of a sedimentary environment
______beds are the result of deposition by turbidity currents
Sediment always carried above the river bed in the moving current is _________load
Sediment dragged, pushed, or bounced along the river bed is ________load
Blue schist forms at very ____pressures but moderately _____temperatures associated with subduction of oceanic crust and sediments.
Amphibolite formed at what type of metamorphism?
Contact meta: ____P; Rock is in upper part of crust, heat supplied from magma body
_____and _____/quartzite are composed of single minerals
_____and _____derived from meta of shales and mudstones
Major source of heat for contact meta is heat from nearby _______ _____
Fault movements at _______depths exhibit sheared and fragmented rock
________meta at great depths in crust where 2 continents collide
What major change occurs during metamorphism of limestone to marble?
calcite grains grow larger and increase in size
_____, a common mineral found in igneous rocks, is the most abundant mineral in detrital sedimentary rocks.
Which of the following sedimentary rock would you expect to have originally been deposited by a very fast-moving mountain stream?
Which of the following forms at the highest grade of regional metamorphism?
Which low-grade metamorphic rock, composed of extremely fine-sized mica and other mineral grains, typically exhibits well-developed rock cleavage?
strong, parallel alignment of coarse mica flakes and/or of different mineral bands
most resistant to chemical weathering?
hornfels forms by ______metamorphism of mudstones and shales
foliated, fine-grained metamorphic rock formed from mudstone and shale
nonfoliated metamorphic rock consisting mostly of calcite
coarse-grained, metamorphic rock with alternating bands or stringers of light and dark minerals
During metamorphism, what is the major effect of chemically active fluids?
aid in the movement of dissolved silicate constituents and facilitate growth of the mineral grains
Metamorphic rocks formed during episodes of mountain building typically show textural characteristics indicative of ____stress and deformation.
The distinctive layers or bands of different minerals in ______may be complexly folded
_____ and _____ are very soft minerals found in some schists.
Talc and graphite
Three major factors involved in metamorphism are
elevated temperature, elevated pressure, and the chemical action of hot fluids.
Which metamorphic rock, widely used for monuments and buildings, would deteriorate significantly in contact with acid rain?
What metamorphic rock forms by intense ductile deformation along fault zones at depth in the Earth?
______flow can transport gravel and cobbles
Particles that roll and slide along the river bottom are called ___load
What type of material is most likely to be transported as suspended load?
Gravel-sized particles are transported by rivers as ______load
The intermittent jumping motion of sand grains along a river bottom is called ______
flow with straight and parallel contours (streamlines)
___________Flow Occurs at Very low fluid velocity over smooth beds Or very viscous material e.g., mud flows, ice
irregular, intertwined and complicated eddies (rather than streamline flow)
. The type of sedimentary structure that describes a layer of sediment in which the grain size steadily decreases
from the bottom to the top of the layer is called:
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