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Bi Sci 004 Exam 4 PSU
Terms in this set (71)
What are the main functions of the respiratory system?
Permits gas exchange between body and environment, has role in voice production.
What is the nasal cavity structure? What divides it in two parts? What is the function of the nasal conchae?
The nasal cavity is divided by a bone and mucus lined septum. Nasal conchae is a shell that adds surface area that filters air, warms/cools it
Why are Eustachian tubes more prone to infections in small children? What is the function of Eustachian tubes?
The tube is smaller in children, therefore harder to drain water. It equalizes pressure.
What is the function of ciliated cells in the respiratory system?
Help cleanse airways of debris
Which part of the respiratory system does larynx surround? What separates the upper and lower respiratory areas? Where are the vocal cords located?
The glottis. Upper and lower respiratory areas. The larynx
Which vocal cords produce higher-pitched sounds, shorter or longer?
Shorter vocal cords
What is below the larynx? How is the cough produced? What is the function of mucus elevator?
Trachea. Cough starts from the contraction of tracheas smooth muscle increasing speed of flow causing cough. Moves particles out of lungs
What is the function of the pleural membranes?
Encase each lung, preventing lungs of separating from the ribs during an exhale.
What are the smallest bubble-like structures in the lungs? What is their function? What is the function of surfactant in alveoli?
Alveoli. Allow for gas transfers. Surfactant doesn't let the alveoli to collapse in contraction
What is external respiration? Ventilation?
Exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between lungs and blood. Moving air in and out of the lungs
Which organs are involved in breathing?
Diaphragm and intercostal muscles
What is the tidal volume? What is the vital capacity? What is the residual volume?
Amount of air in a normal breath. The maximum amount you can exhale after a deep breath. Air contained that cannot be exhaled.
How often do we breathe at rest? How is the rate of breath defined? Is breathing involuntary or voluntary process?
Every 5 seconds. Number of breaths taken every minute. Voluntary.
What makes us exhale at rest?
What makes us breathe faster while exercising?
Sensing pH of blood
How does the pH of blood change if it contains more carbon dioxide?
Leads to acid pH in blood, chemoreceptors detect low pH level, increased breathing rate, the blood pH turns to normal
What is the response to more acid blood?
Bicarbonate ion is quickly created to repel carbon dioxide from blood
How is the breathing mostly regulated: by the oxygen or carbon dioxide level? When do the sensors for oxygen play a role?
Carbon dioxide level. High altitudes.
How many times is the risk of a lung cancer higher for a smoker? How much higher is the risk of a cardiovascular disease? Which of the above has a higher impact in the mortality from smoking?
15. 3. Cardiovascular disease
What is emphysema? How does the smoking cause it? How does smoke cause cancer?
Small bronchioles may collapse during exhale, traps air
What is the effect of smoke on ciliated cells?
Cilia first paralyzes cells in airways, then destroys them
Which component of smoke blocks hemoglobin?
What proportion of smokers manage to quit?
Which component of cigarettes cause addiction? What is the mechanism of its action?
Nicotine. Pleasurable feeling.
How does smoking cause cardiovascular diseases?
Increases LDL (bad cholesterol, decreases HDL (good cholesterol), increase vessel blockage, stimulate blood clots, increase risk of stroke and heart attack
What is the other name for the digestive tract?
What are the two types of digestion?
Mechanical- cutting, churning, and grinding of food
Chemical- actions of acids and enzymes
What are the four layers of the walls of the digestive tracts?
Mucosa- mucous membrane lines GI tract, submucosa- connective tissue blood/lymph vessels and nerves, muscularis- two layers of smooth muscle, and serosa- connective tissue covering and secretes fluid
What are the names of the anterior and posterior parts of the roof of the mouth and what tissues are they composed of?
Anterior- hard palate (contains bones)
Posterior-soft palate (contains smooth muscle)
What is the end of the soft palate? What is its function?
Uvula. It closes off nasal cavity while swallowing
What are the tonsils composed of and what is their function?
Composed of lymphoid tissue. Help protect against infection
What are the four kinds of teeth? How many teeth children and adults have?
Incisors, canine, premolars, molars
Children- 20 Adults- 32
What are the crown and the root of a tooth? What is the enamel, dentin, periodontal membrane, and pulp cavity?
Crown- above gum.
Root- below gum.
Enamel- made of calcium and phosphate, covers tooth.
Dentin- under enamel
Periodontal Membrane- fleshy tissue between tooth and socket that holds tooth in place
Pulp Cavity- inside tooth containing nerves and blood vessels
How many salivary glands do we have? Which enzymes does the saliva contain and what do they break?
3 pairs. Salivary amylase breaks down starches. Lipase breaks down lipids.
What is the function of epiglottis?
Keeps swallowed food from entering trachea
Is there any food adsorption in the esophagus? What is the function of the esophagus?
No. Pushes the bolus to the stomach through peristalsis
What is the name of the muscles found at junctions of the digestive system?
What causes the heartburn?
When stomach acid refluxes back into the esophagus causing irritation
At which side of the body is stomach located?
Which substances can be absorbed in the stomach? What is the name of the product from the stomach?
Caffeine, aspirin, and alcohol. Chyme.
What does the stomach wall secrete? What is the content of it? What is the pH in the stomach? What protects the stomach walls from digestion?
Gastric juice containing Hydrochloric acid. Acidic pH. Mucus protects stomach.
Which bacteria causes stomach ulcers?
What neutralizes the chyme before the small intestine?
Pancreatic secretions that protect the intestinal wall.
What are the three regions of the small intestine? Which one is the shortest? In which region is most digestion going on?
Duodenum, jejunum, ileum. Duodenum is smallest and site of most digestion.
How is the area of the small intestine increased? What are the names of the structures that increase the area? What is the increase for? How many times it gets increased?
Small finger-like structures in the small intestine increase area. Villi. Enhances absorption of nutrients. 16 sq ft
Where are the digestive enzymes mostly produced? Which enzyme does the small intestine make?
Accessory organs. Small intestine makes lactase
How is secretion of digestive juices regulated?
Hormones regulate the juices.
What are the four regions of the large intestine?
Cecum, colon, rectum, anus
Which intestine is longer: small or large?
What is absorbed in large intestine?
Water, salts, and some vitamins
Which area of the large intestine contains the nerves that signal the urge to defecate?
Which area of the large intestine has the appendix connected to it?
Which organ at the end of the alimentary canal is a sphincter?
Which area of the small intestine is also bypassed in the gastric bypass surgery?
What are the major accessory organs?
Liver, gallbladder, pancreas, salivary glands
Which of accessory organs is a gland?
What is the liver divided and subdivided into?
What is the name of liver cells?
What is the name of the emulsifying substance that the liver secretes? What is its function? Where does it eventually go? What is the name of the tube through which the bile goes?
Bile. Breaks down fats. It goes to small intestine. The tubes are Hepatic Ducts
What are the functions of the liver cells? Where does the blood that the hepatocytes filter come from? Where does the filtered blood go?
Remove toxins, dead cells, pathogens, drugs, and alcohol. Hepatic portal veins. Back to circulatory system
How do hepatocytes regulate the sugar concentration in blood?
Through glucose homeostasis. When blood sugar levels are high, glucose monomers join liver to form glycogen. When low, glycogen is broke down into glucose
Which component of the cellular membranes does liver synthesize?
13. In which case the damaged liver cannot regenerate?
Damage related to alcohol, drug use, or some viral infections. Leave scar tissue on liver
14. What is the function of the gallbladder? Is gallbladder a gland?
It stores and concentrates bile which helps emulsify fats. No.
15. Where is the pancreas located? Which three enzymes does it secrete? What else does it produce?
Sits on abdomen, behind stomach, connects to duodenum. Pancreatic amylase, lipase, trypsin. Also produces insulin and glucagon
16. What is the role of sodium bicarbonate?
Neutralize chime to optimize pancreatic function
17. Which hormones does the pancreas produce? What do they regulate?
Insulin and glucagon
18. Which molecule homeostasis is not maintained in diabetes?
What is the type I diabetes disorder? Which body causes it?
Insulin dependent diabetes. Caused by immune system destroying their pancreatic cells
What is type II diabetes? A problem with which cells can cause the type II diabetes disorder?
Non-insulin dependent diabetes. Target cells become insulin resistant
What kind of health problems high blood sugar causes?
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