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Genetics Final Study Guide- Exam 2 Practice Questions
Terms in this set (40)
Which of the following statements about the nutritional requirements and growth of bacteria is FALSE?
Auxotrophic mutants can grow on medium that lack carbon source because they can synthesize their own nutrients.
_____________ medium contains all of the substances required by bacteria for growth and reproduction
_____________ solidifies when cooled and provides a solid, gel-like base for bacterial growth.
Which of the following statements about bacterial genome is FALSE?
All bacteria contain a single circular double-stranded DNA as their genome.
Which of the following statements about plasmids is FALSE?
they are essential for bacterial growth
Forms of DNA replication include all of the following, EXCEPT:
DNA replication requires all of the following, EXCEPT:
a template, topiosomerase, primase, dCTP
Which of the following proteins relies on complementary base pairing during the DNA replication process?
Okazaki fragments are produced because:
lagging strands are copied discontinuously.
DNA polymerase I has 5'→3' exonuclease activity, which means:
it can cut out RNA primers as it runs in to them
All DNA polymerases synthesize new DNA by adding nucleotides to the _____ of the growing DNA chain.
Which of the following typically only has one origin of replication?
What type of synthesis occurs on the leading strand?
The diagram below represents a replication fork. The leading strand is the:
Suppose that some cells are grown in culture in the presence of radioactive nucleotides for many generations so that both strands of every DNA molecule include radioactive nucleotides. The cells are then harvested and placed in new medium with nucleotides that are not radioactive so that newly synthesized DNA will not be radioactive. What proportion of DNA molecules will contain radioactivity after two rounds of replication?
Which of the following enzymes do NOT aid in unwinding of DNA for replication?
What is the function of DNA ligase?
Connects Okazaki fragments by sealing nicks in the sugar-phosphate backbone
The proofreading function of DNA polymerases involves:
3′ → 5′ exonuclease activity.
Which activity is NOT associated with DNA polymerases?
Ability to synthesize a DNA from scratch without a primer
For which of the following is the "end-replication problem" relevant?
_______ are tandemly repeated DNA sequences located at the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes.
Telomerase activity is most likely to be found in which cells in humans?
Which of the following eukaryotic polymerases is correctly matched with its function?
all correctly matched
In order for the large genomes of eukaryotes to be replicated in a timely manner, replication occurs from thousands of origins scattered along the chromosomes. However, the use of multiple origins creates a problem of timing of replication: the entire genome must be replicated once, and only once, each cell cycle. This is accomplished through a process known as:
Meselson and Stahl showed that DNA is replicated by a __________ system.
Which of the following is NOT true of negatively supercoiled DNA?
Has less than 10.4 bp per turn of its helix
How many complete rotations would most likely correspond to a positively supercoiled DNA molecule that is 100 bp in length?
Which of the following is NOT true of bacterial DNA?
Bacterial DNA is confined to a region in the cell called the nucleoid.
Which of the following amino acids has a positive charge that helps to hold the DNA in contact with the histones?
Which of the following statements about euchromatin is TRUE?
Makes up most chromosomal material and is where most transcription occurs
Which of the following is an example of an epigenetic change in eukaryotes?
The addition of methyl groups to cytosines in the promoter region of a gene
A link has been proposed between cocaine exposure and expression of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene. Rats exposed to cocaine showed increased binding of transcription factors to the BDNFpromoter compared to rats exposed to saline. What is the most likely explanation?
Cocaine increases the acetyl attachment to histones, promoting binding to the BDNF promoter.
Twisting of the stacked bases in DNA results in:
The ______ is the portion of the chromosome where microtubules attach during mitosis and meiosis. It often consists of highly repetitive DNA, although a specific sequence is not essential to its function.
The agouti locus helps determine coat color in mice, and this phenotype can vary from light to dark between genetically identical individuals. You discovered a drug that reduces the variation in the agouti phenotype. What is a likely explanation for this drug's mechanism of action?
inhibits DNA methyl transferases
After the formation of nucleosomes, the next level of DNA compaction in eukaryotes is:
30 nm fibers
How many H1 proteins does a typical bacterial cell contain?
While working on Drosophila you find a new mutant strain with an abnormal histone H3 gene. This novel histone mutant is predicted to cause the nucleosomes to bind an extra 15 bp of DNA compared to wild type. If you digest isolated chromatin with a nuclease to release the core nucleosomes, what size DNA fragments would you expect from the mutant flies?
At which of the following amino acids would a histone most likely be acetylated?
one with most C
There are some genomes that have been reported to be positively coiled instead of negatively supercoiled, which is the status of most genomes that we have studied. The genomes that are positively supercoiled seem to belong to viruses and cells that exist at very high temperatures. Why might positive supercoiling be an advantage at high temperatures?
It keeps the hydrogen-bonded bases from separating, so the DNA stays double stranded.
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