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Final Exam- History
Terms in this set (106)
What were some of Washington's precedents?
He only served two terms.
Who were Washington's cabinet members?
Alexander Hamilton (Secretary of Treasury), Henry Knox (Secretary of War), Thomas Jefferson (Secretary of State), and John Adams (Vice President)
How did the political parties form?
Through disagreements between Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson.
Who were the leaders of the two-party system?
Alexander Hamilton- Federalists, Thomas Jefferson& James Madison-Republicans
According to Hamilton's financial plan, why was it important to assume all the debts?
It made the US more appealing to foreign investors by showing that Americans could repay their debts.
How did the French Revolution affect the Americans and how did Washington deal with it?
The French were trying to recruit the Americans but Washington made it illegal.
What was impressment?
Taking men into the military by compulsion
How did Washington handle Citizen Genet?
He let him stay in America because if he went back, France would kill him.
What did Washington say in his farewell address?
He advised the US for unity at home and neutrality abroad
How was the election of 1800 unique?
The electoral votes for VP were tied, so from then on the VP ran with the President
How did Jefferson "out-Federalize" the Federalists?
The Luisiana Purchase
Burr vs Hamilton
Burr shot and killed A. Ham
ell of Aaron Burr's conspiracy and trial.
He conspired with his connections outside of the country to form a new country
Why was Burr not convicted of treason?
Because he had not engaged in an overt act
How did Jefferson handle the Barbary Pirates?
By attacking the pirates without the permission of congress
Briefly summarize The War of 1812.
a war between the United States and the British empire. The US objected to the empire restricting their trades and stealing of US sailors to serve on British naval ships.
How did the Battle of New Orleans happen after the war was over?
Because the news that the war was over hadn't reached the troops that fought in the battle
How did the war of 1812 benefit America?
It helped strengthen the military and development of the economy
What was the "Era of Good Feelings" about?
Time period where there was only one political party
What happened in the election of 1824?
Quincy Adams and Henry Clay made a deal so Clay would get him elected so he would become Secretary of State.
Talk of the Jackson's view of the spoils system. How did Jackson feel about civil service as a whole?
The spoils system is a system where if you win you get to select people that have the same POV as you to put in your cabinet. He thought that civil service was a good thing because he got to choose who worked for him.
What set Jackson apart from the first six presidents?
He was said to be the first president that was a "common man"
What Supreme Court case ruled in the Cherokees' favor?
Cherokee VS. Georgia
Know some of Jackson's famous quotes.
"One man with courage makes a majority."
What was Andrew Jackson's most enduring nickname? Why was he named this?
Old Hickory, he reminded his troops of an old hickory tree
Talk of Jackson's attack on the bank. How did it hurt Van Buren's presidency?
It put America into a financial crisis that VB had to fix
Was the Americans moving into Mexican territory legal? What were the original Mexican conditions for settlement? Did the Americans obey the rules?
No because they did not follow the rules of no slavery and having to convert to catholiscism
What State earned its nickname by its VOLUNTEERING of People to fight in the Texas War for independence?
The state was Tennessee
Did Mexico recognize Texas as a state?
They did not. They recognized it as a province
What were the official and unofficial reasons for America going to war with Mexico (How did Polk successfully provoke the war)?
America wanted land, so it sent troops down to Texas
The belief that God had ordained the United States to expand from Atlantic to Pacific and all lands in-between
How does Hitlers 'Lebensraum' compare to Manifest Destiny?
He believed that God wanted Germany to control the world, just as the Americans believed the same for themselves and the western US
What was the Mason-Dixon Line originally drawn for? What other purpose did it serve?-
It was supposed to separate the slave and free states, but it then served as the border for the Confederacy
White men voted on whether or not a state was a free or slave state
What was the importance of Uncle Toms Cabin?
It was a novel written about anti-slavery which helped slavery and african americans in the civil war.
What was the Compromise of 1850?-
the compromise of 1850 allowed California to become a state
Who the heck was Millard Fillmore?
He was the thirteen president, who served from 1850-1853, and was the last member of the Know Nothing party.
What was the main problem keeping Kansas and Nebraska from becoming states?-
The government couldn't determine if they would be a free state or a slave state
Who was John Brown? How did his actions help push the country to war?-
John Brown was an abolitionist. He helped push the US to war when he marched through West Virginia to take the towns' federal armory.
Tell of the start of the Republican Party.-
The Republican party started during the Kansas- Nebraska act. They didn't support slavery and wanted the slaves to be freed.
Tell of the Election of 1860 -
It was the 19th presidential election and it was held on November 6, 1820.
What does the word Confederacy mean? What are the weaknesses of one?
Confederacy means a political union.
Explain the war of attrition fought by Grant.
War of attrition is when during a period of conflict, one side attacks the opposing side in a series of small attacks.
Explain the concept of "total war" fought by Sherman.-
Total war is when you are ready to risk a lot to win the war
Explain the "fight to get to fight" issue with black soldiers that was shown in the movie "Glory"
The African American troop wasn't allowed to fight in the war, all they were able to do was to work like they were a slave. The African Americans had to fight the people above them in rank to fight in the war.
What amendments have supposedly guaranteed that Blacks would be free, have the right to vote and would be treated as an equal citizen in the United States?
The 13th Amendment guaranteed that Blacks would be free, the 14th Amendment allowed Blacks to be treated as an equal citizen, and the 15th Amendment gave Blacks the right to vote.
How/Why did Reconstruction end?
How/Why did Reconstruction end?
Explain how "Black Codes" were used to keep Black Americans as 2nd class citizens
Black Codes limited the freedom of the Black Americans to use them as cheap labor.
Explain how grandfather clauses, poll taxes & literacy tests were all used to keep black men from voting
It keeps the black men to vote because usually since they were slaves they couldn't read or they didn't have enough money to pay the poll tax.
Explain the Jim Crow laws.
It was laws that enforced racial segregation, between the end of reconstruction and the civil rights movement.
Why did some Americans want to build an empire?
Americans wanted to build an empire to gain control over more resources, create new markets, and to help the economy. They also wanted to use these countries/territories to expand their military.
Reflecting back on previous learning, how did America feel about its role in the world? (What divine right did we have to expand)?
America used Manifest Destiny, which was the need to help other struggling countries, in North America, by colonizing them.
What were some of the justifications the imperialists would give as to why they were justified in building an empire?
Some of the justifications imperialists would give is that they felt that it was their responsibility to help struggling nations, due to racial superiority. This was also known as White Man's Burden.
What did naval superiority have to do with expansionism? Simply put, why (militarily) did we need foreign colonies, according to Mahan?
We needed foreign countries as coaling stations, to get more fuel, to power boats.
Why did Seward purchase Alaska? How did we obtain Hawaii?
Seward purchased Alaska to expand, and to get rid of Russia's presence in North America. To obtain Hawaii, a revolt was led by Samuel Dole to overthrow the queen.
Why was Cleveland hesitant to accept Hawaii?
Cleveland was an anti-imperialist and believed that the US had acted wrongly.
What was the Berlin Conference of 1884 about? Did it influence America?
The Berlin Conference helped divide up land in Africa to European powers.
How did newspapers play a role in instigating the Spanish-American War (yellow journalism)?
Newspapers swayed people's opinions of the Spanish, by creating false images and stories.
What was the De Lôme letter?
The letter was written by a Spanish Minister to President Mckinely, calling him weak and wanting to be favored by the people. This enraged the US, and the newspapers exaggerated it, leading to the Spanish American war.
Explain the sinking of The Maine. What did we think happened at the time? What do we now think really did happen?
We thought that the USS Maine was sunk by a mine. However, we believe that it was an explosion in the coal room that sunk the ship
Explain the Teller and Platt amendments and how Guantanamo Bay is in our hands today.
The Teller amendment said that if the US won they couldn't annex Cuba. The Platt amendment proposed that if Cuba was not acting how the US would like them to, the US would invade them.
How did the Spanish American War help push the U.S. into being a world power?
The US defeated the Spanish, ending their presence as a colonial power. The US also gained many new territories and land.
What did Rudyard Kipling have to do with our ascension as a world power (look at McKinley's view on keeping the Philippines)?
Kipling helped watch over the Philippines.
How did the war help push the U.S. into being a world power?
The US defeated the Spanish, ending their presence as a colonial power. The US also gained many new territories and land.
What was the Open Door policy with China? Did Hay get open approval for his proposal? How did he respond to this situation?
The Open Door policy was a policy proposed by the US, stating that all countries would have equal trade with China. Hay never got formal approval from other countries, but said they had reached an agreement.
How long did it take Japan to modernize and industrialize?
a long time
what were 2 ways to get to the West Coast Prior to the Panama Canal
1) go around Argentina's southern tip
2)Go cross country across the US
Which European country originally tried to build the canal?
What famous event in U.S. History (in 1849 - hint) spurs new interest in finding a quicker way west?
California Gold Rush
What war pushed the U.S. into action about the canal (not in comic)?
Spanish American War
Which South American country controlled Panama (the U.S. negotiated with them to buy Panama originally)?
How did the Americans alleviate the malaria/yellow fever issue?
They got rid of mosquitos
Who controls the Panama canal today?
What was a muckraker?
A journalist in the Progressive Era who exposed established institutions and leaders as corrupt through popular magazines or newspapers.
Explain The Jungle and its influence on America. What did the author (Upton Sinclair) mean when he said "I aimed at the public's heart, and by accident I hit it in the stomach."
This book exposed the conditions of the meatpacking industry. The book shocked America and federal food safety laws were created. Sinclair said, "I aimed at the public's heart, and by accident I hit it in the stomach," He meant for The Jungle to help meatpacking workers, instead it outraged people about the meat they were eating.
Tell of the progressive Amendments (16th- 17th-18th & 19th)
16th-Income tax 17th- Senators would be directly elected by voters 18th- Outlawed consumption of Alcohol (prohibition) 19th- Allowed women to vote
Talk of Susan B. Anthony and Alice Paul
Susan B Anthony was a woman who fought over equal rights between women and men. She was able to persuade and pass the Married Women's Property Act and the 19th Amendment that allowed all women to vote.
Alice Paul was also a women's activist and she helped fight for the 19th amendment.
Explain how one man's vote changed the constitution (the article on how "One good boy" helped give women the right to vote).
After most of the states had voted, Tennessee was left to vote for the 19th amendment. Their vote decided whether the 19th amendment was passed. Tennessee's vote was close with Harry Burn voting to give women voting rights
What lead to WW1? (Hint: isms)
What country (territory) was accused by Russia of being part of the plot to kill the Archduke?
What was the Archduke's name (first and last name)? What country was he the heir to the throne of?
Franz Ferdinand throne of Austria-Hungary
Who (political group) assassinated the Archduke?
The black hand.
What do experts believe are the four underlying causes of the war (the 3 "isms" and the other one)?
Militarism, Nationalism, Imperialism, and Alliances
What Countries were the central powers?
Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy (later)
What new technology was used in the land war? What new technology was used in the seas? What will become banned for WWII from this?
Tanks, Machine guns, submarines, chemicals, poison gas, etc.
Explain how America was drawn into WWI (unrestricted submarine warfare, the Zimmerman telegram and the sinking of the Lusitania).
Germany allowed the submarines (U-Boats) to down any boat in a zone around Great Britain, including the Lusitania which had 128 Americans on it, and they sent a message asking Mexico to attack the US.
5. Whose debt were the Americans supposed to be repaying when they entered the war?
France from the revolution
Why did Russia stop fighting and sign a treaty with Germany giving up a great amount of land prior to the end of the war?
They had a revolution and the Tsar (Emperor) was overthrown by a communist government.
When did the Armistice take place?
November 11, 1918 at 11 am
What was the name of the peace treaty that officially ended the war?
The Treaty of Versailles.
The treaty was not fair to all sides, explain how did the peace of WWI lead into the problems of WWII?
It forced Germany to pay for everything, including damage.
Why did America not sign the Versailles Peace Treaty (that was created in a large part by Woodrow Wilson)?
The Senate refused to sign it because Wilson wouldn't negotiate with them.
Explain how the Kellogg-Briand Pact is like a Hollywood wedding?
The Kellogg-Briand Pact said that war would be abolished, but it fell apart quickly, much like a Hollywood wedding.
How did America react to the end of the war?
The Americans rejected the Treaty of Versailles because of isolation.
Talk of the escapism of the 1920s. Why did America have flappers?
Everyone was tired of war and did not want to be depressed so flappers were created so that Americans could have more fun.
Talk of Charles Lindbergh and his impact on America.
Lindbergh became a nation hero when he crossed the Atlantic by plane, and when his baby was kidnapped it made kidnapping a federal crime.
18th Amendment - talk of Prohibition and its effect on America. How did WWI help get it passed?
The 18th amendment is when there was a law passed not allowing all alcohol. Prohibition caused a lot of crime, like mobs because even though it was illegal people still wanted to drink alcohol. WW1 connected Germans to prohibition.
7. What year did the Great Depression begin?
8. Who was the president when it started?
9. What % of banks fail (in round numbers)
10. Why did the Smoot-Hawley tariff hurt Americans even more?
It hurt Americans because it taxed things made overseas and sold here in America.
11. What did the president do after the tariff that hurt Americans further?
He raised taxes on Americans
12. How many Americans were out of work in the early 1930s?
1 in 4 (25%) or about 15 million people
13. What else went wrong with America at this time?
The Dust Bowl= without prairie grass there was nothing to hold down the top soil so in the dry season the good dirt was blown away.
14. Who was elected president based on his "New Deal"?
Franklin Delano Roosevelt (FDR) was elected because of his New Deal which promised to give jobs and money to the unemployed
15. What 2 things brought the United States out of the Great Depression?
A good union and WW2
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