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Terms in this set (61)

Pre-trial bias
-Flawed study design• Clearly define risk and outcome, preferably with objective or validated methods. Standardize and blind data collection.
-Selection bias• Select patients using rigorous criteria to avoid confounding results. Patients should originate from the same general population. Well designed, prospective studies help to avoid selection bias as outcome is unknown at time of enrollment.
-Channeling bias• Assign patients to study cohorts using rigorous criteria.

Bias during trial
-Interviewer bias• Standardize interviewer's interaction with patient. Blind interviewer to exposure status.
-Chronology bias• Prospective studies can eliminate chronology bias. Avoid using historic controls (confounding by secular trends).
-Recall bias• Use objective data sources whenever possible. When using subjective data sources, corroborate with medical record.Conduct prospective studies because outcome is unknown at time of patient enrollment.
-Transfer bias• Carefully design plan for lost-to-followup patients prior to the study.
-Exposure Misclassification• Clearly define exposure prior to study. Avoid using proxies of exposure.
-Outcome Misclassification• Use objective diagnostic studies or validated measures as primary outcome.
-Performance bias• Consider cluster stratification to minimize variability in surgical technique.

Bias after trial
-Citation bias• Register trial with an accepted clinical trials registry. Check registries for similar unpublished or in-progress trials prior to publication.
-Confounding• Known confounders can be controlled with study design(case control design or randomization) or during data analysis(regression). Unknown confounders can only be controlled with randomization.
Hindbrain
-Cerebellum Fine motor skills
-Medulla Coordinates heart rate, circulation, respiration
-Reticular formation Regulates sleep, wakefulness and arousal
-Pons Relays information from cerebellum to the rest of the brain

Midbrain
the colliculi: It contains two pairs of bulging, layered bundles of neurons called the superior and inferior colliculi. The superior ones work on preliminary processing of visual signals before they are passed on to the occipital lobe at the back of the head. The inferior ones do work on auditory signals before those are passed through the thalamus to the main auditory processing centre in the cortex.
the tegmentum: It contains two areas named after specific colours: the iron-rich red nucleus (which actually looks pink) is involved in the coordination of movements; the periaqueductal grey is a dense region of grey matter and is involved in suppressing pain. The tegmentum in the midbrain also contains connections that play a role in keeping us alert.
tectum: is responsible for auditory and visual reflexes. It is derived in embryonic development from the alar plate of the neural tube.
the cerebral peduncles: The back of the midbrain contains a pair of large nerve fibre bundles that connect the rest of the brainstem to the forebrain. These cerebral peduncles are the main highway for signals that need to be transported from the cortex to other parts of the central nervous system (CNS), and are especially important for body coordination.

Forebrain
-Limbic System: Emotion/ motivation/ memory
-Hypothalamus Regulates 4 F's
-Amygdala Role in emotional processes
-Hippocampus critical for creating and integrating new memories
-Basal Ganglia Intentional movement

Cerebral Cortex: Large surface area is folded so it can be placed into the limited volume of the skull

Somatosensory Cortex/Motor Cortex: Cortical representations of information are weighted by "importance"
Piaget's contributions
¨ Founded the discipline of cognitive development
¤ Explained, not just described, development

Stages:
..The Sensorimotor Stage
Ages: Birth to 2 Years
Major Characteristics and Developmental Changes:
The infant knows the world through their movements and sensations
Children learn about the world through basic actions such as sucking, grasping, looking, and listening
Infants learn that things continue to exist even though they cannot be seen (object permanence)
They are separate beings from the people and objects around them
They realize that their actions can cause things to happen in the world around them

..The Preoperational Stage
Ages: 2 to 7 Years
Major Characteristics and Developmental Changes:
Children begin to think symbolically and learn to use words and pictures to represent objects.
Children at this stage tend to be egocentric and struggle to see things from the perspective of others.
While they are getting better with language and thinking, they still tend to think about things in very concrete terms.

..The Concrete Operational Stage
Ages: 7 to 11 Years
Major Characteristics and Developmental Changes
During this stage, children begin to thinking logically about concrete events
They begin to understand the concept of conservation; that the amount of liquid in a short, wide cup is equal to that in a tall, skinny glass, for example
Their thinking becomes more logical and organized, but still very concrete
Children begin using inductive logic, or reasoning from specific information to a general principle

..The Formal Operational Stage
Ages: 12 and Up
Major Characteristics and Developmental Changes:
At this stage, the adolescent or young adult begins to think abstractly and reason about hypothetical problems
Abstract thought emerges
Teens begin to think more about moral, philosophical, ethical, social, and political issues that require theoretical and abstract reasoning
Begin to use deductive logic, or reasoning from a general principle to specific information

Criticisms of Piaget
¨ May have underestimated children's abilities
¨ Vague with respect to the processes and mechanisms of change
¨ Stage model doesn't account for variability in children's performance
Undervalues the influence of sociocultural environment