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NEUROBIO EXAM 4 (FINAL)
Terms in this set (84)
What does LTP stand for?
LTP is an increase in synaptic strength that occurs when?
When presynaptic and postsynaptic neurons are active simultaneously
What does LTD stand for?
long term depression
LTD is the weakening of a synapse the occurs when?
When simulation of presynaptic neurons is insufficient to activate the postsynaptic neurons
Associative LTP says that the _____________________ of a weak synapse when it and a strong synapse on the same postsynaptic neuron are ______________ simultaneously.
Hebb Rule says that if an axon of a presynaptic neuron is ________________ while the postsynaptic neuron is firing, the synapse between them will be ___________________.
What are the difference between LTP and LTD
LTP makes more spines on dendrites form while LTD causes spines on dendrites to deteriorate. Also, LTP has a stronger EPSP and a stronger postsynaptic response than LTD. Lastly, LTP can happen in as little as 30 mins. And LTD is necessary to get rid of information that you're not using (b/c remembering things requires energy).
_________________ memory is declarative while _________________ memory is non-declarative
If you are consciously recalling information, you are using your __________________ memory
If you are performing a procedural/habit type of skill, you are using your __________________ memory.
What are the three steps of the memory process?
How long does your immediate memory keep a memory?
A few seconds
How long does your short-term (working) memory keep a memory?
How long does your long-term memory keep a memory?
What is consolidation?
the process by which memories become stable in the brain (reinforcing a memory)
What part of the brain is active when consolidating a memory?
Hippocampus (temporal lobe)
Why is it hypothesized that you can consolidate memories in your sleep?
The hippocampus is active during sleep
What parts of the brain (2) are active when retrieving a memory?
Hippocampus and prefrontal cortex
The more the prefrontal cortex is involved in retrieving a memory, the _____________________ (harder or easier) it is to retrieve that memory.
Why is forgetting a form of learning?
You have learned that you don't need to remember something (saves energy)
When ______________________ a memory, it has to go through the same process every time, which makes memories vulnerable. This is why our memories change.
How does the book define intelligence?
The ability to reason, to understand, and to profit from experience
What are some ways we measure intelligence?
- IQ (intelligence quotient) tests
- Standardized testing
- MSR (mirror-self recognition)
- Brain efficiency
What is the average IQ score?
Individuals with higher IQ's use ____________ (more or less) brain energy.
How is processing speed determined?
White matter integrity and nerve conduction velocity as it travels through the brain
Humans have more ____________ (white or grey) matter to ____________ (white or grey) than other animals, which allows us to have faster processing speeds due to myelination
Does intelligence depend more on genes or environment?
Intelligence and cognitive ability _________ (do or don't) decline with age.
An ___________________ ___________________ is a limitation in intellectual functioning (reasoning, learning, problem solving) and adaptive behavior that IS DEVELOPMENTAL IN ORIGIN.
To be considered an intellectual disability, it must cause an IQ at or below _________, deficits in ________________ ________________ such as communication, social participation, & independent living, and onset during __________________ period.
70; adaptive functioning; developmental
How often does Down syndrome occur?
~ 1 in every 700 births
What is the usual cause of Down syndrome?
An extra (21st) chromosome
People with Down syndrome typically have IQs between ______ and ______
What typically causes Fragile X syndrome?
A mutation in the fragile X mental retardation 1 gene (FMR1)
People with fragile X syndrome typically have IQs below _______
What typically causes phenylketonuria?
An inherited inability to metabolize the amino acid phenylalanine (interferes with myelination during development)
Infants are routinely tested for _____________________ and it can be prevented by avoiding foods containing phenylalanine.
What typically causes hydrocephalus?
Cerebrospinal fluid builds up in cerebral ventricles; increased fluid volume crowds out neural tissue
Hydrocephalus can be treated if caught early by doing what?
Installing a shunt
__________ _________ is an infectious disease that can have devastating effects on brain development and intelligence.
______________ _________________ disorder is a set of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by social deficits, communication difficulties, and repetitive behaviors.
About ________ of people with autism spectrum disorder have some sort of intellectual disability. About _______ and a moderate to severe intellectual disability, _______ have average intelligence, and _______ have above average intelligence.
55%; 16%; 28%; 3%
_____________________ is a psychological disorder characterized by perceptual, emotional, and intellectual deficits. It also has both positive and negative symptoms
People with Schizophrenia have deficits in ____________ ____________
Brain tissue (both grey & white matter in 50+ areas)
Schizophrenia causes increased brain activity in the ____________________.
Schizophrenia causes decreased brain activity in the _________________ ______________ ___________.
Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex
People with Schizophrenia have _______________ ventricles.
Schizophrenia causes a lack of coordination between the ________________ and the _______________ _____________.
Hippocampus; prefrontal cortex
Schizophrenia causes lower synchronized activity in the _______________/___________________ circuits.
___________ ___________________ disorder is a psychological disorder characterized by sadness, hopelessness, decreased enjoyment, loss of energy & appetite, slow thought, and sleep disturbances.
Depression causes volume deficits in the ________________ areas, __________________ ______________, and the _______________ _________________ ______________.
Prefrontal; dorsolateral cortex; anterior cingulate cortex
Depression causes increased volume in the __________________.
Depression causes a __________________ in total brain activity.
________________ disorder is a psychological disorder characterized by alternating depression and either anxiety, irritation, or mania.
Bipolar disorder causes __________________ brain activity with manic episodes.
Bipolar disorder causes reduced connectivity in the _____________, _______________ _______________ and _________________.
Cortex; corpus callosum; thalamus
____________________ _______________ disorder is a psychological disorder characterized by feelings of stress and unease most of the time.
Anxiety causes a hyper responsive __________________.
Anxiety causes a hyperactive ________________ ______________ ______________.
Anterior cingulate cortex
___________________ _______________ disorder is a psychological disorder characterized by recurrent, uncontrollable thoughts (obsessions) paired with ritualistic behaviors that remove anxiety (compulsions)
OCD causes increased activity in the _________________ ________________, especially in the left orbital gurus, and in the caudate nuclei
OCD causes reduced connections between the ____________ ______________ and _____________ ___________, and the _____________ and _______________.
Cingulate gyrus; basal ganglia; thalamus; cortex
What are the 2 major activating systems involved with Schizophrenia?
The dopaminergic and serotonergic system
What are the 2 major activating systems involved with major depressive disorder?
The serotonergic and noradrenergic system
What is the major activating system involved with bipolar disorder?
What are the 2 major activating systems involved with generalized anxiety disorder?
The serotonergic and noradrenergic system
What are the 2 major activating systems involved with OCD?
Serotonergic and cholinergic system
What is a circadian rhythm?
the biological clock; regular bodily rhythms that occur on a 24-hour cycle
What kinds of things does your circadian rhythm affect?
Body temp, hormone production, alertness, and urine production
What 3 things contribute to your circadian rhythm?
- ultradian rhythms (shorter rhythms throughout the day)
What kind of brain waves occur when you are awake and actively paying attention?
Beta waves (lower)
What kind of brain waves occur when you are awake and relaxed?
Alpha waves (moderate)
What kind of brain waves occur during stage 1 sleep?
What kind of brain waves occur during stage 2 sleep?
Sleep spindles and K complexes
What kind of brain waves occur during stage 3/4 sleep?
Slow waves (big changes in amplitude)
What kind of brain waves occur in REM sleep?
Fast, random waves
REM sleep is when your _______________ is most active and your _____________ is least active.
What is the activation-synthesis theory of dreams?
During REM sleep, the forebrain integrates neural activity generalized by the brain stem with information stored in memory (memories from throughout the day). It is most likely random.
_________________ is a sleep disorder characterized by the inability to fall asleep or obtain adequate sleep.
________________ is a sleep disorder characterized by sudden onset sleep straight into REM.
What are the four things that could cause insomnia?
- problems with melatonin
- lack of adenosine accumulation
- not enough adenosine dissipating during sleep
- increased serotonin or Orexin
What chemical is often named as a cause of narcolepsy?
What are the symptoms or REM sleep disorder?
The body is active during REM sleep
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Match the term with its correct definition. trait A. ideas and images of the accumulated experiences of all human beings B. the consistency between one's self-concept and one's experience C. methods used by the ego to avoid anxiety D. people who tend to be active and self-expressive and gain energy from interacting with others E. people who tend to be imaginative and look inward for ideas and energy F. the patterns of feelings, motives, and behavior that set people apart from one another G. the use of self-deception to justify unacceptable behaviors or ideas H. a view of oneself as an individual I. the process by which people learn socially desirable behaviors J. an aspect of personality that is considered to be reasonably stable
Choose the letter of the correct term or concept below to complete the sentence. a. motivation b. need c. drive d. incentive e. lateral hypothalamus (LH) f. ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) g. fundamental needs h. psychological needs i. self-actualization needs j. emotion. The need to belong and to give and receive love are part of an individual’s __________.
Humanistic psychologists may assess personality by a. asking a person to compare their ideal self to their actual self. b. asking people to fill out lengthy questionnaires about their beliefs. c. getting people to describe what they see in ambiguous inkblots. d. having a person describe their dreams. e. putting people in a stressful situation to see how they behave under pressure.