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181 terms

Science 10 Final

Everything...(Biology, Chemistry, and Physics) Set it so that you see the 'Definition' of the cards as it is the question and the 'Term' is the answer.
STUDY
PLAY
Scalers
Only to describe magnitude (distance).
Vectors
Describes magnitude and direction.
Vector quantities
Displacement and position are quantities of...
Uniform motion
Motion with constant velocity. (same as uniform speed)
Uniform speed
Motion with constant velocity. (same as uniform motion)
Speed
Distance traveled by an object overtime. (scalar)
Velocity
Displacement traveled by an object overtime.
Constant motion
No change in speed. (no acceleration)
Newton's Second Law of motion
Acceleration of a mass is porportional to the net force applied to it.
Mass
Amount of matter in a object.
Weight
Force of gravity acting upon an object.
Kinetic energy
Heat energy is a form of _________ energy
Kinetic energy
Most organized form of energy. Anything that moves
Potential energy
Electrical energy is a form of ________ energy
Potential energy
Chemical energy is a form of ________ energy
Kinetic energy
The bottom of a pendulum contains this type of energy
Spontaneous generation
Life arrose from non-living matter.
Redi
Someone who tested spontaneous generation with jars of meat. Lead to the discovery of active principle.
Active principle
Air created micro-organisms.
Pasteur
Tested the theory of active principle with a swan flask. Lead to biogenesis
Biogenesis
Living organisms could only be produced by living things.
Hooke
Discovered cells under a microscope through a thin slice of corks.
Lee
First to describe single-cell organisms as he studied blood cells, pond water, and matter scraped from his teeth.
The two S
Discovered and created the cell theory. Studied plants and animal cells, noticing that they had nucleis.
Virchow
Tested the two S's hypothesises and concluded that "Where a cell exists, there must have been a pre-existing cell".
Cell theory
All organisms are composed of one or more cells. Cells are the smallest funtion unit in life. All cells are produced from other cells.
Living organisms
_______________ need energy. Produce wastes. reproduce. grow. respond and adapt to environment.
Light micoscope
Contains simple and compound microscropes.
Compound microscope
View objects illuminated by visible light.
Electron microscope
Objects viewed by a beam of electrons. (instead of light)
Electron microscope
Includes TEM and SEM.
Transmission Electron Microscope
Produces 2 dimensional images of a specimen using a beam of electrons.
Scanning Electron Microscope
Produces 3 dimensional images of a specimen using a beam of light.
Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope
Produces 2 and 3 dimensional images of a specimen using a laser that 'slices' the 3D specimen.
Scanning Tunnelling Microscope
Produces a 3 dimensional image of a specimen as a metal probe brought near a specimen, electrons flow onto the atoms of the specimen.
Cell membrane
Protects the cells interior from its exterior.
Cell membrane
Vesicles are located at this place to transport materials in and out of the cell.
Cell membrane
Lipids are the composition of this cell structure. (Phospholipid bilayer)
Nucleus
Directs all cell activities and contains DNA.
Nucleus
Contains, the nuclear pores, nuclear envolope, and nucleolus.
Nucleolus
Rhibosomes are produced in this location inside the nucleus of a cell.
Lysosomes
Digestive enzymes (type of protein).
Lysosomes
This cell structure is produced in the golgi apparatus.
Endoplasmic reticulum
Contains a rough and smooth cell structure.
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
Studded with rhibosomes.
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
This cell structure builds proteins which are then packaged in vesicles for transport.
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
Makes lipids and packages larger molecules (lipids and proteins) in vesicles. These packages are then transported to the golgi app.
Vesicles
'Wrapping paper on a present'.
Golgi apparatus
Acts like a post office.
Golgi apparatus
Sorts and repackages the molecules which are then distributed to other parts of the cell.
Golgi apparatus
Where lysosomes are produced.
Mitochondria
Power house of a cell.
Mitochondria
Produces ATP for the cell.
Centrials
Located outside the nucleus. Responsible for the divisons of cells.
Vacuoles
Storage space for food water and minerals in a cell.
Cell wall
Only plant cells have this as it is rigid and supportive.
Cell wall
This structure of the sell is composed of cellulose.
Central vacuoles
Only plant cells have this as it is a bigger storage place for food, water and minerals in the cell.
Chloroplasts
Organelle of photosynthesis.
Cell membrane
Composed of phospholipids and proteins arranged in two layers called phospholipid bilayer.
Phospolipid bilayer
Composed of hydropillic heads and hydrophobic tails.
Selective transport
Moving certain substances across the membrane.
Membranes
Permable, semi-permable, impermeable.
Protein
These types of molecules carry special sugars called glycoproteins.
Channel Proteins
Forms tunnel-like pores in the cell membrane allowing electrically charged ions in and out of the cells.
Channel Proteins
Allows electrically charged ions in and out of cells.
Carrier Proteins
Changes shape to allow certain molecules cross the cell membrane.
Carrier proteins
Allows certain molecules cross the cell membrane.
Selective transport
Passive and Active as a type of what transport?
Passive transport
A type of selective transport which allows no energy to be used.
Active transport
Need use of ATP to transport substances pass the concentration gradient.
Passive Transport
Diffusion and Osmosis as a type of what transport?
Diffusion
A type of passive transport describing the movement of particles from high to low concentration.
Osmosis
A form of diffusion involving the movement of water molecules from a high to low concentration.
Brownian motion
the constant movment of particles.
Equilibrium
Molecules are distributed evenly.
Concentration gradient
Difference in concentration between two areas.
Diffusion
Concentration gradient, temperature, and particle size contribute to factors of __________?
Dialysis membrane
A membrane that allows the movement of molecules based on size.
Hypertonic
Contains more solute.
Hypotonic
Contains less solute.
Hypertonic
Contains less water.
Hypotonic
Contains more water.
Isotonic
Cell/solution is ________ to the cell/solution as there is equalibrium.
Turgor pressure
Water pressure inside plant cells that allows them to remain rigid.
Turgor pressure
Cell walls help this type of pressure become possible.
Pumps
Type of active transport protein as it ______ ions in and out of the cell. (Potassium and Sodium ions)
Endocytosis
Cells engulf large particles by extending their cytoplasm around the particle.
Endocytosis
This process is used by cells to take in substances, in which the membrane folds in, encloses the item in a sphere, then pinches off a vesicle.
Endocytosis
A type of process that involves Phago and Pinocytosis.
Phagocytosis
Large solid particles are ingolfed.
Pinocytosis
Small liquid particles are ingolfed.
Exocytosis
A process that expells compounds into the external environment by fusing the membrane of a vesicle or vacuole with the cell membrane
Reverse osmosis
Process used to filter water
Kidney dialysis
Process used to filter out wastes in blood while keeping in the important components (blood cells, proteins etc). Involves a dialysis tubing.
Transdermal patch
Process to deliver medication into a body though a semi-permeable skin patch.
Photosynthesis
Biochemical process powered by light energy in which carbon dioxide from the air and water from the soil are combined to make glucose and oxygen.
Photosynthesis
6 CO2 + 6 H2O + Light Energy --> C6H12O6 + 6 O2
Epidermal Cell
Upper and lower cells of a leaf that are tightly interlocked to prevent physical damage or penetration by pathogens. (disease)
Waxy cuticle
Substance on the top layer of epiidermis that acts as a water barrier to conserve water.
Palisade Tissue
One of the main types of photosynthesis cells of plants. Long and narrow that are closly packed together containing chloroplasts.
Palisade Tissue
One of the main types of photosynthesis cells of plants that are located right beneath the upper epidermis.
Spongy Tissue cells
One of the main types of photosynthesis cells of plants that are lossely packed and contain few chloroplasts. These cells help the leaf exchange gases and water with the environment.
Spongy Tissue cells
One of the main types of photosynthesis cells of plants that helps the leaf exchange gases and water with the environment.
Stomata
Guards cells surrounding the _______ therefore controlling the opening and closing of it.
Guard cells
Stomatas are surronded by these types of cells, controlling their opening and closing.
Stomata
Allows gass in and out of the leaf.
Vascular Tissue
Searies of tubes that transport fluids. (Leaf veins)
Xylem
This vascular tissue carries water and minerals from the roots to the leaves.
Phloem
This vascular tissue carries sugars produced by the leaves to various parts of the plant.
Vascular Bundle
The xylem and phloem are arranged together in this type of bundle.
Cellular respiration
Both plants and animals consume oxygen and produce carbon dioxide and water during _________.
Cellular Respiration
C6H12O6 + 6 O2 --> 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + energy (heat etc)
Transpiration
Evaporation of water from leaves.
Osmosis
In transpiration, water moves into the guard cells by ________.
Increases
In transpiration, water moves into the guard cells by osmosis, and as it does so, the pressure inside the cells _______ and causes the cell to swell.
Transpiration
Light, humidity and temperature relate to the factors of _______.
Transportation systems
transport of nutrients and wastes over short and long distances.
Xylem, Phloem
Transportation of materials within the body of plant involves two types of vascular tissue, ________ and _________. (water, sugars)
Xylem tissues
Consist of long tubes consisting of only cell wall.
Xylem vessels
Xylem tissues form _______.
Xylem vessels
Type of vessel that transports water and inorganic minerals through the plant from the root to stem and leaves.
Phloem
Living cells form ______ vessels with porus cell walls. Consists of sieve tubes and companion cells arranged from end to end.
Phloem vessels
_______ vessels transports organic food material (produced by leaves during photosynthesis) to all parts of the plant.
Osmosis
Water enters the plants roots by ________.
Facilitate diffusion
Type of diffusion used by transport proteins to aid the diffusion of particles across the membrane of a cell.
Active transport
Root cells use facilitate diffusion and ______________ to move minerals across their membranes. (Uses ATP)
Cohesion
The attraction between molecules (water)
Adhesion
Tendancy for water molecules to stick to certain surfaces.
Stimuli
Environmental factors that induce a responce from an organism.
Tropism
Plant responce to a stimulus.
Phototropism
A plant's responce to light.
Gravitropism
A plant's responce to gravity.
Auxins
Type of growth chemical in a plant that regulates the amount, type and direction of growth.
Total Magnification
(Eyepiece Power)(Objective Power)
Object Size
(FOV) / (# of cells that fit across the diameter)
Increase or decrease in magnification or FOV
Magnification(1) x FOV(1) = Magnification(1) x FOV(2)
Matter
Mixture and Pure substances are elements of _______.
Mixture
Division of hetrogeneous and homogeneous.
Hetrogeneous
A mechanical mixture.
Hetrogeneous
Visiable (You can see the different elements/compounds inside)
Homogeneous
A solution.
Homogeneous
Not visable (You cannot see the different elements/compounds inside)
Pure substances
Division of elements and compounds.
Element
Cannot be chemically broken down further
Compound
Composed of two or more elements. Can be chemically broken down.
Dalton
All matter is made up of atoms. Atoms cannot be created or destroyed.
Dalton
Billard Ball model.
Thomas
Raisin bun model
Thomas
Atoms are made of positively charged sphere with small electrical charges them.
Rutherford
Nuclear model
Rutherford
Concluded that the nucleus of an atom contained all positive charges and negative charges located great distances away.
Rutherford
Discovered what the nucleus was composed of and electrons.
Bohr
Concluded that electrons exist in energy levels.
Bohr
Electron shells
Nucleus
This part of the atom consist of protons and neutrons.
Electrons
Negatively charged
Periods
Horizontal rows of the periodic table are called...
Groups or families
Verticle columns are _______ or ________ of elements.
Physical
Elements in columns share similar _________ and chemical properties.
Chemical
Elements in columns share similar physical and ________ properties.
Ductile
Ability of a metal to be stretched.
Malleable
Ability of a metal to be bent
Alkali Metal
Group 1 elemets.
Alkali Earth Metals
Group 2 elements.
Transition Metals
Group 3-12 elements.
Halogens
Group 17 elements.
Noble gases
Group 18 elements.
Ions
These elements have either extra positive or negative charges.
Ionic Compounds
Consist of cations and anions.
Cations
Another name for metals.
Anions
Another name for non-metals.
Acids
_____ are made up of positive and negative ions but the positive ion is hydrogen (H+).
Acids
These compounds are highly soluable in water.
Law of Conservation of mass
During a chemical reaction, the total mass of the reacting substances are always equal to the total mass of the resulting substances.
Chemical Change
Energy is released/consumed, odour change, color change, irreversable, formation of a precipitate (somtimes) are all forms of what change?
Formation
element + element --> compound
Simple decomposition reaction
compound --> element + element
Single Replacement reaction
element + compound --> new compound + new element
Double Replacement reactions
compound + compound --> new compound + new compound
Combustion reaction
compound + oxygen --> most common oxides.