Select the most correct statement concerning skin cancer.
Melanomas are rare but must be removed quickly to prevent them from metastasizing.
A needle would pierce the epidermal layers of the forearm in which order?
corneum, granulosum, spinosum, basale
The dermis ________.
has two layers
If a splinter penetrated the skin into the second epidermal layer of the sole of the foot, which cells would be damaged?
are spidery-shaped cells in contact with cells in the stratum basale
Sudoriferous glands vary in distribution over the surface of the body. Which of the following is correct?
Ceruminous glands secrete cerumen, which is thought to deter insects
Although the integument is a covering, it is by no means simple, and some of its functions include ________.
resident macrophage-like cells whose function is to ingest antigenic invaders and present them to the immune system
Vernix caseosa is a ________.
whitish material produced by fetal sebaceous glands
The ________ gland is a modified sudoriferous gland that secretes wax
Nutrients reach the surface of the skin (epidermis) through the process of ________.
diffusing through the tissue fluid from blood vessels in the dermis
The reason the hypodermis acts as a shock absorber is that ________. The reason the hypodermis acts as a shock absorber is that ________. The reason the hypodermis acts as a shock absorber is that ________.
the major part of its makeup is adipose, which serves as an effective shock absorber
The epidermis is responsible for protecting the body against invasion of bacteria and other foreign agents primarily because it is composed of ________.
four different cell shapes found in five distinct layers, each cell shape with a special function
Keratinocytes are an important epidermal cell because ________.
they produce a fibrous protein that gives the skin much of its protective properties
Melanocytes and keratinocytes work together in protecting the skin from UV damage when keratinocytes ________.
accumulate the melanin granules on their superficial portion, forming a UV-blocking pigment layer
The epidermis consists of five layers of cells, each layer with a distinct role to play in the health, well-being, and functioning of the skin. Which of the following layers is responsible for cell division and replacement?
The integumentary system is protected by the action of cells that arise from bone marrow and migrate to the epidermis. Which of the following cells serve this function?
macrophages called Langerhans' cells
Water loss through the epidermis could cause a serious threat to health and well-being. Which of the following protects us against excessive water loss through the skin?
Lamellated granules of the cells of the stratum granulosum, a glycolipid that is secreted into extracellular spaces.
The dermis is a strong, flexible connective tissue layer. Which of the following cell types are likely to be found in the dermis?
fibroblasts, macrophages, and mast cells
The dermis has two major layers; which of the following constitutes 80% of the dermis and is responsible for the tension lines in the skin?
the reticular layer
Despite its apparent durability, the dermis is subject to tearing. How might a person know that the dermis has been stretched and/or torn?
The appearance of visible, silvery-white scars is an indication of stretching of the dermis.
The papillary layer of the dermis is connective tissue heavily invested with blood vessels. The superficial surface has structures called:
The design of a person's epidermal ridges is determined by the manner in which the papillae rest upon the dermal ridges to produce the specific pattern known as handprints, footprints, and fingerprints. Which of the following statements is true regarding these prints or ridges?
They are genetically determined, therefore unique to each person.
Sudoriferous (sweat) glands are categorized as two distinct types. Which of the following are the two types of sweat glands?
eccrine and apocrine
The composition of the secretions of the eccrine glands is ________.
99% water, sodium chloride, trace amounts of wastes, and vitamin C
Apocrine glands, which begin to function at puberty under hormonal influence, seem to play little role in thermoregulation. Where would we find these glands in the human body?
in the axillary and anogenital area
The sebaceous glands are simple alveolar glands that secrete a substance known as sebum. The secretion of sebum is stimulated ________.
by hormones, especially androgens
In addition to protection (physical and chemical barrier), the skin serves other functions. Which of the following is another vital function of the skin?
It converts modified epidermal cholesterol to a vitamin D precursor important to calcium metabolism.
Burns are devastating and debilitating because of loss of fluids and electrolytes from the body. How do physicians estimate the extent of burn damage associated with such dangerous fluid loss?
by using the "rule of nines"
What is the first threat to life from a massive third-degree burn?
catastrophic fluid loss
The structure of bone tissue suits the function. Which of the following bone tissues is adapted to support weight and withstand tension stress?
Yellow bone marrow contains a large percentage of ________.
In bone formation, a deficiency of growth hormone will cause ________.
decreased proliferation of the epiphyseal plate cartilage
Cartilage is found in strategic places in the human skeleton. What is responsible for the resilience of cartilage?
high water content
The most abundant skeletal cartilage type is ________.
The structural unit of compact bone is ________.
Bones are constantly undergoing resorption for various reasons. Which of the following cells accomplishes this process?
Which hormone increases osteoclast activity to release more calcium ions into the bloodstream?
The universal loss of mass seen in the skeleton, which begins about the age of 40 ________.
reflects incomplete osteon formation and mineralization
Wolff's law is concerned with ________.
the thickness and shape of a bone being dependent on stresses placed upon it
Which of the following glands or organs produces hormones that tend to decrease blood calcium levels?
Spongy bones are made up of a framework called ________.
Osteogenesis is the process of ________.
Growth of bones is controlled by a symphony of hormones. Which hormone is important for bone growth during infancy and childhood?
Normal bone formation and growth are dependent on the adequate intake of ________.