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formation comes about as a logical consequence of folding, differential growth, and relations to major vascular channels


mesenchymal interaltions vital to normal development


differentiation of numerous enzyme systems

The esophagus becomes abruptly narrowed just causal to

the last pharyngeal pouch.

Where does tracheal evagination begin?

ventrally, just caudal to the last pharyngeal pouch

Where is the origin of the trachea?

the posterior limit of the pharynx

How is the esophagus formed?

original endoderm gives rise to the epithelial lining only, inducing the surrounding mesenchyme to form the rest of the esophagus.

Early on the esophagus is occluded by

proliferation fo the epithelium, but it is cleared by cell death later.

When do the gastric glands and rugae develop?

within the first few weeks of fetal life.

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