Ch 2. Nursing

1. Acid-base balance occurs when the pH level of the blood is between:
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Terms in this set (18)
b. they can invade healthy cells, tissues, and organs.

Malignant (cancerous) cells have no comparison to the original cells from which they are derived, and they have the ability to invade healthy cells, tissues, and other organs through tumor formation and invasion. On the other hand, Benign cells do not have the ability to spread to other tissues or organs.
d. platelets

Clotting is a complex, multi-step process through which blood forms a protein-based clot to prevent excessive bleeding. Platelets (thrombocytes) are the specialized cells that circulate in the blood and are activated when an injury occurs. Once activated, these cells become sticky, causing them to clump together to form a temporary, localized, solid plug.
a. hypercoagulability

Hypercoagulability refers to an increase in clotting ability caused by an excess of platelets or excessive plately stickiness, which can impair blood flow. The opposite end of the spectrum involves an inability to form adequate clots, which often occurs when there is an inadequate number of circulating platelets or a reduction in platelet stickiness.
a. arterial

rterial thrombosis is manifested by decreased blood flow (perfusion) to a distal extremity or internal organ. For example, the distal leg can become pale and cool in the case of a femoral arterial clot due to blockage of blood to the leg. This is an emergent condition and requires immediate intervention.
c. reasoning

reasoning is the high-level cognitive thinking process that helps individuals make decisions and judgments. Personality is the way an individual feels and behaves, while Memory is the ability of an individual to retain and recall information. Amnesia refers to a loss of memory caused by brain trauma, congenital disorders, or acute health problems
A form of inadequate cognition in older adults which is manifested by an acute, fluctuating confusional state is known as:b. delerium Delerium is the form of acute, fluctuating confusion which lasts from a few hours to less than 1 month and that may be treatable. Dementia is a chronic state of confusion that may last from a few months to many years and that may not be reversible. Amnesia refers to a loss of memory caused by brain trauma, congenital disorders, or acute health problems.. The most common causes of decreased comfort for a patient are pain and ____________.c. emotional stress Pain and emotional stress are the two leading causes of discomfort for a patient. For example, patients who are having surgery are often anxious and feel stressed about the procedure. This emotional stress may negatively impact the outcome of surgery.3. The inability to pass stool is known as ____________.b. obstipation Obstipation is the inability to pass stool during bowel elimination. Constipation refers to the condition where stool can be hard, dry, and difficult to pass through the rectum. Diarrhea is at the opposite end of the continuum from constipation, and occurs when stool is watery and without solid form. Elimination is the general term to describe the excretion of waste from the body by the gastrointestinal tract and by the urinary system.14. Hypokalemia can occur in patients with prolonged diarrhea and is caused by a decrease in:d. potassium Hypokalemia occurs when there is a decrease in serum potassium. It can be a life-threatening condition because it often causes rhythm abnormalities. An excess of potassium is referred to as Hyperkalemia.15. The minimum hourly urinary output in a patient should be at least:c. 30 mL per hour 30 mL per hour is the minimum hourly urinary output in a normal healthy adult. A decrease in urinary output is a sign of diminished kidney activity and fluid deficit.16. The best indicator of fluid volume changes in the body is:c. blood pressure Changes in weight are the best indicator of fluid volume changes in the body. Monitoring blood pressure, checking pulse rate and quality, and assessing skin and mucous membranes for dryness are strong secondary indicators7. Immunity which occurs when antibodies are passed from the mother to the fetus through the placenta or through breast milk is called:a. natural passive Artifical passive immunity occurs via a specific transfusion. Natural active immunity occurs when an antigen enters the body and the body creates antibodies to fight off the antigen. Artifical active immunity occurs via vaccination or immunization.18. A major serum protein that is below normal in patients who have inadequate nutrition is:a. Albumin serum laboratory test to measure Albumin is the most common assessment for generalized malnutrition