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Period 8 - APUSH Vocab Terms
Terms in this set (109)
A. Philip Randolph
Labor and civil rights leader in the 1940s who led the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters; he demanded that FDR create a Fair Employment Commission to investigate job discrimination in war industries. FDR agreed only after he threatened a march on Washington by African Americans.
US and Soviet Union raced each other to match or top the other's nuclear weapons.
This is the name given to the sudden surge in birth rates experienced in the United States following the conclusion of WWII and reaching its peak in 1957.
Berlin Blockade & Airlift
In 1948, Stalin cut off all supply lines to West Berlin, which was controlled by the Allied powers. The United States reacted by beginning an around the clock airlift of supplies to West Berliners. The diplomatic reaction of the United States demonstrated the resolve of the United States in response to Soviet pressure. Eventually, the blockade was lifted. What was the name of this exchange? (I will need the whole name)
Reference to the constant competition in the arenas of social, economic, political, and technological progress, between the United States and the Soviet Union throughout the cold war.
A system of economic production based on the private ownership of property and the contractual exchange for profit of goods, labor, ad money.
A conflict that was between the US and the Soviet Union. The nations never directly confronted each other on the battlefield but deadly threats went on for years.
A political and economic system where factors of production are collectively owned and directed by the state.
This foreign policy stance made the United States oppose the expansion of communism throughout the world.
A system of government by the whole population or all the eligible members of a state, typically through elected representatives.
This President was a Modern Republican. Conservative about federal spending and liberal about personal freedoms, he also warned against a military industrial complex. Believed in a balanced budget and lower taxes, but not in getting rid of existing social and economic legislation.
Eisenhower proposed and obtained a joint resolution from Congress authorizing the use of U.S. military forces to intervene in any country that appeared likely to fall to communism. Used in the Middle East.
Truman proposed this domestic policy in his 1949 State of the Union address; it sought to extend many of FDR's New Deal Programs and shepherd a new season of social and economic progress in America.
General MacArthur (Period 7 & 8)
He was one of the most-known American military leaders of WWII. He liberated the Phillipines and made the Japanese surrender at Tokyo in 1945, also he drove back North Korean invaders during the Korean War. He was relieved of command by Truman.
House of Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC)
This committee originally intended to search out pro-Fascists and communists, but later investigated un-American propaganda, considered an attack on constitutional government. It had the power to require witnesses to answer all questions or face contempt of Congress charges. Those against the committee refused to cooperate, and were called "unfriendly witnesses," who claimed this committee violated their freedoms of speech and association.
Interstate Highway Act
When you hop on 85 to go to Atlanta, you can thank Eisenhower who passed this legislation - it created new infrastructure to link states and improve interstate commerce and travel.
Not a literal boundary, this term was used to illustrate the ideological and the physical divide between Eastern and Western Europe throughout the Cold War.
This Pacific war began in June 1950 when North Korea, with help by the Soviets and Chinese, attacked South Korea. The U.S government sought to help South Korea regain its democracy, and also tried to unify all of Korea under one democratic rule. However, the U.S was overconfident in winning as China got involved in the war and pushed the U.S further into South Korea. Even with the major losses, the president justified such actions with NSC-68, which pledged that the U.S would not only contain communism, but take a further step to drive back Communist influence, especially militarily. This war was a major contributor to the decline in Truman's popularity.
America's first suburb, found in New York. Billy Joel is from here!
This leader led the Communists to victory over the Nationalists in the Chinese Civil War. He had a little red book and installed a command economy and government.
This was the strategy that the United States used to rebuild Europe—especially those countries at risk of falling to communism—after the conclusion of WWII.
Massive Retaliation or Mutually Assured Destruction
If you press the little red button, I'll press the little red button. This foreign policy of guaranteeing nuclear retaliation of equal or greater force is known as what?
During the 1950s, this wave of hysteria swept the American political scene, and the namesake Senator began accusing individuals within the US State Department of being communists. What was this phenomenon known as?
Military Industrial Complex
The 1950's president and war general actually warned against this - the terms refers to legislative and economic ties between congressmen, the armed forces, and the private industrial sector.
First introduced by Eisenhower, it was the theory to help the poor and aged, while trying to limit the powers of central government.
National Security Council (NSC)
Under the National Security Act of 1947, this was established to administer and coordinate defense policies and to advise the president. It consisted of the president, the secretary of defense, the secretary of state, and others appointed by the president. As a result, the distinction between citizen and solider blurred, and the ties between the armed forces and State Department grew closer.
National Security Council Paper 68 (NSC-68)
A highly classified document signed into action by Harry Truman, this was the United States' plan of action for defending the Western Hemisphere from the expansion of communism and any associated nuclear threat.
This was the alliance that linked all of the democratic nations throughout Western Europe and North America against the forces of communism.
Soviet "Satellite" Nations
Small nations usually in Eastern Europe, such as Lithuania or Czechoslovakia, with independently functioning governments claiming ultimate loyalty to Moscow.
Oh no. The Soviets launched something into space while we were sitting in our big suburban homes listening to Elvis. Maybe we should go start NASA now. (What was the "something" that they launched into space called?)
This federal legislation of 1947 substantially limited the tools available to labor unions in labor-management disputes, bringing an end the use of union dues for political activities, mandating an eighty day cooling off period in case of strikes affecting national safety, and required union officials to swear they were not Communist. While Truman did veto this act as he saw it a violation of freedoms, the newly Republican dominated Congress overrode his veto.
As the United States grew worried over Greece, Turkey, and the Middle East possibly falling to communism, this doctrine in 1947 pledged the United States to the containment of communism in Europe and elsewhere. It was the foundation of foreign policy at the time and prompted the U.S to support any nation threatened by communism or the Soviet Union.
Executive Order 9981
Passed in 1948, this order from Truman desegregated the military.
This term only entered standard usage at the end of World War II, as the 15 years following the war saw unprecedented attention to America's adolescents and this particular group. Advertisers took advantage of the growth of this group in order to appeal to them with new, inventive products as they became consumers in the 1950s. They developed a shared culture.
This term was used to describe the black rhythm and blues that played in the air, popularized by Elvis Presley. It came to be an expression of revolt against conformity to blandness found in postwar suburbs, and blurred the lines of racial divides in music.
Written by John K. Galbraith, this book was written to illuminate social elements of post-WWII society, most notably the proliferation of wealth originating in the private sector, as well as its effect on 1950's society and culture.
Televisions made it much easier to advertise nationwide, and spread consumer crazes across the country quickly. Consumers had more spending power than ever before because of increased credit and credit cards as well as easy payment plans. Consumer credit increased by 800% between 1945 and 1957
This legislation, ratified by ¾ of the states, declared poll taxes illegal.
Bay of Pigs
This site in Cuba was the stage for an unsuccessful landing of fourteen hundred anti-Castro Cuban refugees in April 1961, who were secretly armed and trained by the U.S who had hoped to trigger a popular uprising to take down Castro. However, Castro's army easily subdued them, and revealed that the CIA did not understand the Cuban Revolution. Kennedy was embarrassed as he took the blame for the failed invasion.
Betty Friedan's The Feminine Mystique
Written by Betty Friedan in 1963, this depicted how difficult a woman's life is because she doesn't think about herself, only her family. It said that middle-class society stifled women and didn't let them use their talents. Attacked the "cult of domesticity."
Brown v. Board of Education
The Supreme Court case in 1954 overruled Plessy v. Ferguson, declared that racially segregated facilities are inherently unequal, and ordered all public schools desegregated.
Civil Rights Act of 1964
This act in 1964 prohibited discrimination in employment and most places of public accommodation on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, or national origin. It also outlawed bias in federally assisted programs, and created the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. It was signed by Lyndon B. Johnson, who used civil rights as the opportunity to establish himself as a great leader.
CORE (Congress of Racial Equality)
This civil rights organization was formed in 1942 and helped to pave the way for the following civil rights movement of the 1950s and 1960s; they are most known for sit-ins at restaurants.
Cuban Missile Crisis
This was the most serious confrontation of the cold war in October 1962. The crisis consisted of the United States seeing missile launching sites in Cuba, and Kennedy's response of imposing a blockade and ordering the removal of all missiles. It was not as much about Cuba was it was between the Soviet Union and the United States over the placement of Soviet nuclear missiles.
Right-wing Democratic splinter group in 1948 election, organized by Southerners who objected to the Democrats' civil rights program, they met in Birmingham, Ala., and nominated Gov. Strom Thurmond of South Carolina for president.
This was President Kennedy's plan to build up conventional troops and have a limited war without going to nuclear war; this was a change from massive retaliation.
Freedom Rides of 1961
Often braving attacks by angry White mobs, civil rights activists rode interstate buses into the segregated southern United States in 1961 to challenge local laws or customs that enforced segregation.
In the spring of 1964, a coalition of workers led by SNCC launched this project, an effort to register black voters and directly challenge the rule of segregation. The campaign took place in the rural areas of Mississippi.
A 1954 peace agreement that divided Vietnam into Communist-controlled North Vietnam and non-Communist South Vietnam until unification elections could be held in 1956
The Economic Opportunity Act launched this set of programs introduced by Lyndon Johnson between 1963 and 1966, which were designed to break the cycle of poverty by providing funds for job training, community development, nutrition, and supplementary education.
Ho Chi Minh
Vietnamese revolutionary nationalist leader, he organized Vietnamese opposition to foreign occupation, first against the Japanese and then the French; became leader of North Vietnam. He led the war to unify the country in the face of increased military opposition from the United States
John F. Kennedy
President from 1961-1963, this man is known for his involvement in the Civil Rights movement, and in the struggle with communism on front far closer to the USA than Russia.
Little Rock 9
These teenagers attempted to attend Central High School, only to meet a mob there in 1957. Eisenhower ordered the 101st airborne to protect them at school.
Lyndon B. Johnson
Succeeding another president after that man's untimely death, this president is known for his very aggressive domestic policy that expanded the American welfare state. He also presided over the season of heaviest American involvement in Vietnam.
This man emerged in the early 1960s as the foremost advocate of racial unity and black nationalism. He criticized integration, and encouraged breaking free of white domination "by any means necessary." He became a speaker for the Nation of Islam, a movement among blacks that emphasized self-sufficiency and separation from white society.
March on Washington (1963)
During this massive demonstration in the nation's capital, civil rights leaders sought to gain the attention of the country It was at the end of this event that the "I have a Dream" speech occurred.
Martin Luther King, Jr.
Discipled by Gandhi, this man led the Civil Rights Movement; his methods of civil disobedience were particularly effective in gaining national attention.
Nation of Islam (Black Muslims)
A religious group, also popularly known as the Black Muslims, founded by Elijah Muhammad to promote black separatism and the Islamic religion.
John F. Kennedy brought in an "exciting and stylish" administration when elected President. He promised to revive the domestic and foreign agenda, which he did through this initiative, designed to reinvigorate a sense of national purpose and energy. Kennedy showed how he was going to take more of an aggressive stance than Eisenhower, and tried to advocate higher minimum wage and Social Security programs.
Ngo Dinh Diem
American ally in South Vietnam from 1954 to 1963; his repressive regime caused the Communist Viet Cong to thrive in the South and required increasing American military aid to stop a Communist takeover. He was killed in a coup in 1963.
Office of Economic Opportunity
A federal agency, founded in the 1960s as part of the War on Poverty conducted by President Lyndon Johnson. It distributed federal money to a variety of local programs designed to promote educational opportunities and job training among the poor and to provide legal services for the poor. It was abolished in the middle 1970s, and its programs have been curtailed or scattered among other federal agencies, particularly the Department of Health and Human Services.
SNCC (Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee)
This black civil rights organization was founded in 1960 and drew heavily on younger activists and college students, organizing some of the first sit-ins. It later evolved from its initial nonviolent stance to promoting separatism between races and using violence to do so.
A southern document signed by more than a hundred southern politicians. Stated that the states could nullify fed laws that they didn't like and pressured southern states to ignore and reject the Brown decision.
The top of the judicial branch with nine judges who determine through their judgment in court cases if laws are upheld or declared unconstitutional.
The Albany Movement
Coalition formed in 1961 of activists from SNCC and the NAACP and other groups in a small city in Georgia to launch a massive attempt w/ boycotts and sit-ins. The police, however, protect the protesters and treat activists with civility. Because there's no violent white reaction there, the protests fail to gain attention.
This man, because of his successful litigation on behalf of the NAACP in the Brown v. Board case, was named the first black supreme court justice in 1967.
Tonkin Gulf Resolution
This decision, made by Congress in 1964, gave the president broad powers to wage war in Vietnam.
Southern Vietnamese communists, whom the US fought against in the Vietnam War.
Voting Rights Act of 1965
Congress passed this law, which made it easier for African Americans to vote by eliminating discriminatory literacy tests and authorizing federal examiners to enroll voters that were denied registration at the local level.
War on Poverty
This phrase represents LBJ's commitment to help eliminate the obstacles to success faced by people with low socio-economic status.
This group produced the official report that documented what happened during the JFK assassination (that Lee Harvey Oswald did it, that there was a magic bullet, that it wasn't a government coverup, blah blah blah).
This counterculture festival occurred in 1969 on a farm in New York State. Hippies gathered at the concert for a three-day party that involved sex, drugs, and rock and roll. Artists such as Jimi Hendrix and Janis Joplin wowed the crowd that lived together in the dirt and mud of the farm. Young people found a connection with the work of folk signers such as Bob Dylan and Joan Baez, whose protest songs galvanized the counterculture.
Rachel Carson wrote in 1962 about her suspicion that the pesticide DDT, by entering the food chain and eventually concentrating in higher animals, caused reproductive dysfunctions. In 1973, DDT was banned in the U.S. except for use in extreme health emergencies. This was one of the contributors to the environmental movement of the time.
Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965
This act was a part of the movement to reform the country's immigration policies. It abolished national origins quotas that had been in place since the 1920s, addressed the grievances of eastern and southern European groups who had been shut out since the mid-1920s, and placed on emphasis on family reunification, which in turn led to a cycle of chain immigration and sponsorship. There was also an increase in the number of Asian immigrants, and increased undocumented immigration from Latin America as a response to new restrictions.
Alcatraz Island (1969)
AIM occupied the abandoned prison on an island in San Francisco Bay for two years in an effort to claim the island as Native American land. They claimed the island by "right of discovery."
American Indian Movement
One of the many 1970's civil rights movements that involved this minority taking over Alcatraz, as well as pressing to receive more federal land for the minority's tribes. (must write this out)
This organization was formed by African Americans in order to protect the black community from police brutality. They are often portrayed as violent because they tended to carry weapons in self-defense.
Racial slogan that signaled a growing challenge to King's non-violent civil rights movement by militant younger blacks.
Leader of the Chicano Movement. He formed the National Farm Workers Association, which later became the United Farm Workers. He helped to improve conditions for migrant farm workers and unionize them
The culture of the young people who rejected mainstream American society in the 1960's, seeking to create an alternative society based on peace, love, and individual freedom.
Democratic Convention of 1968
This event demonstrated how deep the divisions within the United States had become. Antiwar activists marched around the hall, and undisciplined police helped cause the violence between peace and protesters. Herbert Humphrey was nominated at that time.
A lessening of tensions between U.S. and Soviet Union. Besides disarming missiles to insure a lasting peace between superpowers, Nixon pressed for trade relations and a limited military budget. The public did not approve.
Equal Rights Amendment
This proposed change in the constitution would guarantee women the same rights as men, particularly having to do with issues in the workplace and pay-scales.
First president to be solely elected by a vote from Congress. He entered the office in August of 1974 when Nixon resigned. He pardoned Nixon of all crimes that he may have committed. The Vietnam War ended in 1975, in which he evacuated nearly 500,000 Americans and South Vietnamese from Vietnam. He closed the war.
They believed in anti-materalism, free use of drugs, they had a casual attitude toward sex and anti-conformity. In the 60's, they practiced free love and took drugs, flocked to San Francisco. They lived in communal "crash pads", smoked marijuana and took LSD, had a sexual revolution, and experienced a counter culture. They were also protestors who influenced US involvement in Vietnam
Iranian Hostage Crisis
In November 1979, Iranian fundamentalists seized the U.S embassy in Tehran as the current leader was getting healthcare in the U.S and held 52 Americans hostage for 444 days, leading to this crisis. While Carter's secretary of state Cyprus Vance encouraged negotiation, Carter called for a rescue mission, which failed, and resulted in much political and economic fallout from the crisis.
He was Georgia's governor for four years before he was elected the dark-horse president of 1976, promising to never lie to the people. He was politically successful at first, but was accused of being isolated with Georgians after a while. His greatest foreign policy achievement was when he peacefully resolved Egypt and Israel relations in 1978.
Kent State (Incident)
On May 4, 1970 an anti-war demonstration at the namesake university in Ohio led to the death of four students and the injury of several others at the hands of the Ohio National Guard.
La Raza (Unida)
A Mexican-American political party in the Southwest that advocated the creation of an autonomous Mexican-American state within a state.
My Lai Massacre
Americans conducted a mass killing of a village in South Vietnam, after which many bodies were found mutilated and sexually abused. It increased domestic opposition to the war.
This organization is an oil cartel; they were the cause of stagflation in the 70's as their embargo was designed to punish the US in their support of Israel in the Yom Kippur War.
These documents, leaked from high ranking government officials, documented secrets about the fighting in Vietnam, most notably that the US fought secretly in Cambodia and Laos.
Nixon visited China for a week to meet with Chairman Mao Zedong for improved relations with China. His diplomacy was called ______ because Nixon's visits followed a sporting event that eased tensions between the two countries.
He was elected president in 1968 on promises of "Peace with Honor" in Vietnam. He later resigned during his second term because of an infamous scandal.
Roe v. Wade
In this case, Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional most state statutes restricting abortion. It ruled that a state may not prevent a woman from having an abortion during the first 3 months of pregnancy, and could regulate, but not prohibit abortion during the second trimester. Decision in effect overturned anti-abortion laws in 46 states, and went directly against the New Right's campaign against abortion.
This treaty was signed Nixon and Brezhnev in Moscow in May, 1972. The negotiation signaled the beginning of détente between the Soviets and the Americans.
Saturday Night Massacre
Richard Nixon's executive dismissal of independent special prosecutor Archibald Cox, and the resignations of Attorney General Elliot Richardson and Deputy Attorney General William Ruckelshaus on October 20, 1973 during the Watergate scandal.
Nixon appealed to this group of Americans, the many who disapproved of the 1960's foreign and domestic policies, but said little; this voting bloc elected him.
The 1970s were characterized by this, a period of both high recession and high inflation, with skyrocketing prices, rising unemployment, and little economic growth. Both Ford and Carter promised to try to end this economic downturn, but failed.
This man was a U.S. civil-rights activist who in the 1960s originated the black nationalism rallying slogan, "black power. However, he was initially an integrationist and leader of SNCC who later shifted to the Black Panther Party as he felt nonviolence brought no changes.
In 1969 the NYC police raided the Stonewall Inn, a bar in Greenwich Village. Patrons resisted arrest and the clash pitted the bar's largely homosexual patrons, who claimed police harassment, against law enforcement officials.
This marked a central turning point for sexual politics. Borrowing ideas and rhetoric from the civil-rights movement, gays began an effort to win social and legal acceptance and to encouraged gays to affirm their sexual identity.
Students for a Democratic Society
Formed in 1960, students from nine different universities met to form a campus based political organization, encouraging liberal students to make their voices heard. This group condemned anti-Democratic tendencies of large corporations, racism and poverty, and called for a participatory Democracy, which would give people control over the decisions affecting their life.
Trail of Broken Treaties
A cross-country protest in 1972 designed to bring attention to American Indian issues, like treaty rights, living standards and inadequate housing. AIM and other Native American groups all participated in the protest. Drew up the Twenty-Points position paper, meant to reestablish the sovereignty of the Indian Nations.
Pitched by the media as a major loss, communists launched a large attack on American forces in Vietnam, even though they had agreed to a temporary ceasefire.
"The Great Nixon Turn-Around"
The namesake president in 1971 put a 90 day freeze on wages which helped end a recession.
Cold War military conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from November 1, 1955, to April 30, 1975 when Saigon fell. This war followed the First Indochina War and was fought between North Vietnam, supported by its communist allies, and the government of South Vietnam, supported by the United States and other capitalist nations.
The strategy involving moving US troops out of Vietnam and turning the fighting over to the South Vietnamese military. It failed.
War Powers Act (1973)
Wanting to prevent another Vietnam War in the future, this gave any president the power to go to war under certain circumstances, but required that he could only do so for 90 days before being required to officially bring the matter before Congress.
In June 1972, five men were arrested for breaking into the Democratic National Committee's executive quarters in this hotel. Two White House aides were indicted and they quit. The Senate hearing began in May 1973, where Nixon admitted to complicity in the burglary. In July, 1974, Nixon's impeachment began, so he resigned on August 8.
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