Upgrade to remove ads
MASSIVE AP US History (APUSH) Vocabulary
Terms in this set (676)
The study of how history is done, such as how different people perceive past events and how a source's point-of-view impacts its portrayal of the past.
An early form of corn grown by Native Americans
sophisticated cultural developed as a result of stable agriculture and trade; allows for priesthood, traders, farmers, etc
a member of a nomadic group whose food supply depends on hunting animals and collecting plant foods.
The exchange of plants, animals, diseases, and technologies between the Americas and the rest of the world following Columbus's voyages.
a set of rigid social categories that determined not only a person's occupation and economic potential, but also his or her position in society
A political system in which nobles are granted the use of lands that legally belong to their king, in exchange for their loyalty, military service, and protection of the people who live on the land
an economic and political system in which a country's trade and industry are controlled by private owners for profit, rather than by the state.
the act of conquering or bringing under control; enslavement
independence and self-government
rice, wheat, corn, oats, sorghum, rye and millet (cash crops in the New England colonies)
of the same kind
A pattern of exchange between Western Europe, Western Africa, North and South America, and the Caribbean. Made it easier to get goods from foreign places.
A system of enforced servitude in which some people are owned by other people.
system in Spanish America that gave settlers the right to tax local Indians or to demand their labor in exchange for protecting them and teaching them skills.
farming in which only enough food to feed one's family is produced
The process of supplying water to areas of land to make them suitable for growing crops.
1680, Native American revolt against the Spanish in late 17th century, expelled the Spanish for over 10 years, Spain began to take an accommodating approach to Natives after the revolt
Belief that objects, such as plants and stones, or natural events, like thunderstorms and earthquakes, have a discrete spirit and conscious life.
Money paid by one country to another in return for protection
A system of inheritance in which the eldest son in a family received all of his father's land. The nobility remained powerful and owned land, while the 2nd and 3rd sons were forced to seek fortune elsewhere. Many of them turned to the New World for their financial purposes and individual wealth.
1096-1270, a series of holy wars undertaken by European Christians to free the Holy Land from Muslim rule.
1517-1648, a religious movement that began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the creation of Protestant churches.
Spanish 'conqueror' or soldier in the New World. They were searching for the 3 G's: gold, God, and glory.
the buying and selling of goods
Joint Stock Company
A company made up of a group of shareholders. Each shareholder contributes some money to the company and receives some share of the company's profits and debts.
Colonists who received free passage to North America in exchange for working without pay for a certain number of years
A religious group who wanted to purify the Church of England. They came to America for religious freedom and settled Massachusetts Bay.
Absolute legal ownership of another person, including the right to buy or sell that person.
people who leave their homes to work for a time in other regions or countries
the colonial american desire to emulate English society, including English taste in foods, customs, and architecture
stresses the importance of personal conversion and faith as the means of salvation
An economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by selling more goods than they bought
gradual intrusion on a person's territory, rights, etc.
Seven Years War
1756-1763, known also as the French and Indian War, between the French and their Indian allies and the English that proved the English to be the more dominant force of what was to be the United States both commercially and in terms of controlled regions.
A commercial exchange in the Atlantic that was dominated by the British due to remarkable growth in it's colonies. It is commonly referred to as the "triangle trade," designating a three-way transport between Europe, Africa, and the colonies. Moreover, it was inextricably linked to trade with the Indian and Pacific Oceans.
Metacom's War (King Philip's War)
1675-1676, period of bloody conflict between Wampanoag Indians and Puritan settlers in New England, an example of Indian resistance to English expansion in North America.
First Great Awakening
1730-1755, religious revival in the colonies, George Whitefield and Jonathan Edwards preached a message of atonement for sins by admitting them to God. The movement attempted to combat the growing secularism and rationalism of mid-eighteenth century America. Religious splits in the colonies became deeper.
European intellectual movement of the 18th century that applied the lessons of the Scientific Revolution to human affairs and was noted for its commitment to open-mindedness and inquiry and the belief that knowledge could transform human society.
joint-stock company in London that received a charter for land in the new world. Charter guarantees new colonists same rights as people back in England.
1580-1631, helped found and govern Jamestown. His leadership and strict discipline helped the Virginia colony get through the difficult first winter.
1585-1622, one of the English settlers at Jamestown (and he married Pocahontas). He discovered how to successfully grow tobacco in Virginia and cure it for export, which made Virginia an economically successful colony.
parcels of land consisting of about 50 acres which were given to colonists who brought indentured servants into America. They were used by the Virginia Company to attract more colonists.
1676, Nathaniel Bacon and other western Virginia settlers were angry at Virginia Governor Berkley for trying to appease the Doeg Indians after the Doegs attacked the western settlements. The frontiersmen formed an army, with Bacon as its leader, which defeated the Indians and then marched on Jamestown and burned the city. The rebellion ended suddenly when Bacon died of an illness.
House of Burgesses
the first elected legislative assembly in the New World established in the Colony of Virginia in 1619, representative colony set up by England to make laws and levy taxes but England could veto its legislative acts.
A three way system of trade during 1600-1800s Africa sent slaves to America, America sent Raw Materials to Europe, and Europe sent guns and rum to Africa
1620, the first agreement for self-government in America. It was signed by the 41 men on the Mayflower and set up a government for the Plymouth colony.
1588-1649, Puritan governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony. Speaker of "City upon a hill"
"City on a Hill"
John Winthrop wanted Massachusetts Bay Colony to be a Puritan model society based on Christian principles. Puritans tried to live perfect lives.
1603-1683, founded Rhode Island for separation of Church and State. He believed that the Puritans were too powerful and was ordered to leave the Massachusetts Bay Colony for his religious beliefs.
1591-1643, Puritan woman who was well learned that disagreed with the Puritan Church in Massachusetts Bay Colony. Her actions resulted in her banishment from the colony, and later took part in the formation of Rhode Island. She displayed the importance of questioning authority.
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
Set up a unified government for the towns of the Connecticut area (Windsor, Hartford, and Wethersfield). First constitution written in America.
1694- He was the founder of Maryland, a colony which offered religious freedom, and a refuge for the persecuted Roman Catholics.
Maryland Act of Toleration
1649 - Ordered by Lord Baltimore after a Protestant was made governor of Maryland at the demand of the colony's large Protestant population. The act guaranteed religious freedom to all Christians.
Salem Witch Trials
Several accusations of witchcraft led to sensational trials in Salem, Massachusetts at which Cotton Mather presided as the chief judge. 18 people were hanged as witches. Afterwards, most of the people involved admitted that the trials and executions had been a terrible mistake.
Preacher during the First Great Awakening; "Sinners in the hands of angry god"
English dissenters who broke from Church of England, preached a doctrine of pacifism, inner divinity, and social equity, under William Penn they founded Pennsylvania
William Penn's "Holy Experiment"
An English Quaker who founded Pennsylvania, which was based upon religious toleration. He also made friends with the Lenape Indians (in contrast to other colonies' wars).
American intellectual, inventor, and politician He helped to negotiate French support for the American Revolution.
American poet (born in Africa) who was the first recognized Black writer in America (1753-1784)
John Peter Zenger
Journalist who questioned the policies of the governor of New York in the 1700's. He was jailed; he sued, and this court case was the basis for our freedom of speech and press. He was found not guilty.
Albany Plan of Union
plan proposed by Benjamin Franklin in 1754 that aimed to unite the 13 colonies for trade, military, and other purposes; the plan was turned down by the colonies and the Crown
1st President of the United States; commander-in-chief of the Continental Army during the American Revolution (1732-1799)
Proclamation of 1763
A proclamation from the British government which forbade British colonists from settling west of the Appalachian Mountains, and which required any settlers already living west of the mountains to move back east.
1763 - An Indian uprising after the French and Indian War, led by an Ottowa chief named Pontiac. They opposed British expansion into the western Ohio Valley and began destroying British forts in the area. The attacks ended when Pontiac was killed.
A hit-and-run technique used in fighting a war; fighting by small bands of warriors using tactics such as sudden ambushes
skilled workers who make goods by hand
a person doing unskilled manual work for wages
American colonists who remained loyal to Britain and opposed the war for independence
American colonists who were determined to fight the British until American independence was won
having title or possession by reason of birth
a system of government in which people make their own laws
Thomas Paine's Common Sense
Pamphlet published in 1776 that persuaded American Colonists to support independence.
Declaration of Independence
the document recording the proclamation of the second Continental Congress (4 July 1776) asserting the independence of the colonies from Great Britain
groups of citizen soldiers
the revolution of the American colonies against Great Britain (1775-1783)
having certain characteristics in common, such as age, race, or gender
Articles of Confederation
1st Constitution of the U.S. 1781-1788 (weaknesses-no executive, no judicial, no power to tax, no power to regulate trade)
a law passed by Congress in 1787 that specified how western lands would be governed
Ohio, Indiana, Michigan, Illinois, Wisconsin, and part of Minnesota
Meeting in 1787 of the elected representatives of the thirteen original states to write the Constitution of the United States.
A system in which power is divided between the national and state governments
Separation of Powers
Constitutional division of powers among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches, with the legislative branch making law, the executive applying and enforcing the law, and the judiciary interpreting the law
A collection of 85 articles written by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison under the name "Publius" to defend the Constitution in detail.
Bill of Rights
The first ten amendments to the Constitution
Formal approval, final consent to the effectiveness of a constitution, constitutional amendment, or treaty
17th century English philosopher who opposed the Divine Right of Kings and who asserted that people have a natural right to life, liberty, and property.
An English policy of not strictly enforcing laws in its colonies
Sons of Liberty
A radical political organization formed by Samuel Adams after the passage of the Stamp Act to protest various British acts; organization used both peaceful and violent means of protest
Sugar Act of 1764
An act that raised tax revenue in the colonies for the crown. It also increased the duty on foreign sugar imported from the West Indies.
Stamp Act of 1765
required colonists to pay for an official stamp when buying paper items
Stamp Act Congress
group of colonists who protested the Stamp Act, saying that Parliament couldn't tax without colonist' consent
Quartering Act of 1765
Act forcing colonists to house and supply British forces in the colonies; created more resentment; seen as assault on liberties.
Declaratory Act of 1766
reasserted Britain's power over colonies, response to Boston Tea Party
The first bloodshed of the American Revolution (1770), as British guards at the Boston Customs House opened fire on a crowd killing five Americans
A free black man who was the first person killed in the Revolution at the Boston Massacre.
Committees of Correspondence
Organization founded by Samuel Adams consisting of a system of communication between patriot leaders in New England and throughout the colonies
Boston Tea Party
A 1773 protest against British taxes in which Boston colonists disguised as Mohawks dumped valuable tea into Boston Harbor.
Intolerable Acts (Coercive Acts) of 1774
The four Massachusetts acts by Parliament in response to the Boston Tea Party which closed Boston port, revoked right of trial by a jury of peers, imposed martial law, and forced colonists to quarter troops. Became key event leading towards the revolution.
The legislative assembly composed of delegates from the rebel colonies who met during and after the American Revolution
Olive Branch Petition
A document sent by the Second Continental Congress to King George III, proposing a reconciliation between the colonies and Britain
Battle of Saratoga
Turning point of the American Revolution, convinced the French to give the U.S. military support. It lifted American spirits, ended the British threat in New England by taking control of the Hudson River
The French entered the war in 1778, and assisted in the victory of the Americans seeking independence from Britain
Battle of Yorktown
Last major battle of the Revolutionary War. Cornwallis and his troops were trapped in the Chesapeake Bay by the French fleet. He was sandwiched between the French navy and the American army. He surrendered October 19, 1781.
Treaty of Paris
agreement signed by British and American leaders that stated the United States of America was a free and independent country (1783)
A refusal to buy or use goods and services.
Ideas spread to influence public opinion for or against a cause.
Rebellion led by Daniel Shays of farmers in western Massachusetts in 1786-1787, protesting mortgage foreclosures. It highlighted the need for a strong national government just as the call for the Constitutional Convention went out.
"Father of the Constitution," Federalist leader, and fourth President of the United States.
1789-1795; First Secretary of the Treasury. He advocated creation of a national bank, assumption of state debts by the federal government, and a tariff system to pay off the national debt.
The Great Compromise
Compromise made by Constitutional Convention in which states would have equal representation in one house of the legislature and representation based on population in the other house
Article I, Section 8, of the Constitution, which allows Congress to make all laws that are "necessary and proper" to carry out the powers of the Constitution.
A government tax on imports or exports
a bank chartered by the federal government
The revolution that began in France in 1789, overthrew the absolute monarchy of the Bourbons and the system of aristocratic privileges, and ended with Napoleon's overthrow of the Directory and seizure of power in 1799.
a joining together for some common purpose
a strong supporter of a party, cause, or person
Area west of the Appalachian mountains
organized groups that attempt to influence the government by electing their members to important government offices
America's first Vice-President and second President. Sponsor of the American Revolution in Massachusetts, and wrote the Massachusetts guarantee that freedom of press "ought not to be restrained."
Author of the Declaration of Independence
A term used to describe supporters of the Constitution during ratification debates in state legislatures.
Led by Thomas Jefferson, believed people should have political power, favored strong STATE governments, emphasized agriculture, strict interpretation of the Constitution, pro-French, opposed National Bank
A major influence of the Latin American revolutions because it is the only successful slave revolt in history; led by Toussaint L'Ouverture.
a system of government where rank-and-file citizens rule themselves rather than electing representatives to govern on their behalf
Article VI of the Constitution, which makes the Constitution, national laws, and treaties supreme over state laws when the national government is acting within its constitutional limits.
19th century drastic changes in transportation (canals, railroads), communication (telegraph), and the production of goods (more in factories as opposed to houses)
federal projects, such as canals and roads, to develop the nation's transportation system
A northern American politician. He developed the American System as well as negotiated numerous compromises.
Expectation that women would instill Republican values in children and be active in families; helped increase education for women
Washington's Farewell Address
Warned Americans not to get involved in European affairs, not to make permanent alliances, not to form political parties and to avoid sectionalism.
A sense of belonging to a nation and a belief in its political aspirations
Missouri Compromise of 1820
Allowed Missouri to enter the union as a slave state, Maine to enter the union as a free state, prohibited slavery north of latitude 36˚ 30' within the Louisiana Territory
A statement of foreign policy which proclaimed that Europe should not interfere in affairs within the United States or in the development of other countries in the Western Hemisphere.
1803 purchase of the Louisiana territory from France. Made by Jefferson, this doubled the size of the US.
Jay's Treaty (1794)
Was made up by John Jay. It said that Britain was to pay for Americans ships that were seized in 1793. It said that Americans had to pay British merchants debts owed from before the revolution and Britain had agreed to remove their troops from the Ohio Valley
1794 protest against the government's tax on whiskey by backcountry farmers
French diplomat who in 1793 tried to draw the United States into the war between France and England (1763-1834)
A 1797 incident in which French officials (X, Y, and Z) demanded a bribe from U.S. diplomats
Alien and Sedition Acts of 1798
passed by Federalists, signed by President Adams;; increased waiting period for an immigrant to become a citizen from 5 to 14 years, empowered president to arrest and deport dangerous aliens, & made it illegal to publish defamatory statements about the federal government or its officials.
The idea advanced by Rousseau, Locke, and Jefferson, that government is created by voluntary agreement among the people involved and that revolution is justified if government breaks the compact by exceeding its authority.
Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions
Written anonymously by Jefferson and Madison in response to the Alien and Sedition Acts, they declared that states could nullify federal laws that the states considered unconstitutional. (1799)
Invented the cotton gin
Tripoli Wars (Barbary Wars)
Barbary pirates raise fee to stop impressment, Jefferson refuses, a series of naval battles that shows US can hold their own as a Navy
Battle of Tippecanoe
Battle between Americans and Native Americans. Tecumseh and the Prophet attempted to oppress white settlement in the West, but defeated by William Henry Harrison. Led to talk of Canadian invasion and served as a cause to the War of 1812.
Lewis and Clark
Sent on an expedition by Jefferson to gather information on the United States' new land and map a route to the Pacific. They kept very careful maps and records of this new land acquired from the Louisiana Purchase.
The power of the courts to declare laws unconstitutional
The 16 judges that were added by the Judiciary Act of 1801 that were called this because Adams signed their appointments late on the last day of his administration.
American jurist and politician who served as the chief justice of the U.S. Supreme Court (1801-1835) and helped establish the practice of judicial review.
Marbury v. Madison
Established judicial review (1803)
McCulloch v. Maryland
Maryland was trying to tax the national bank and Supreme Court ruled that federal law was stronger than the state law (1819)
Gibbons v. Ogden
New York granted a monopoly on a motorboat company, and the Supreme Court declared it unconstitutional, stating that the Constitution explicitly gave the national government the right to regulate commerce.
Embargo Act of 1807
This act issued by Jefferson forbade American trading ships from leaving the U.S. It was meant to force Britain and France to change their policies towards neutral vessels by depriving them of American trade. It was difficult to enforce because it was opposed by merchants and everyone else whose livelihood depended upon international trade. It also hurt the national economy, so it was replaced by the Non-Intercourse Act.
Southerners and Westerners who were eager for war with Britain. They had a strong sense of nationalism, and they wanted to takeover British land in North America and expand.
British practice of taking American sailors and forcing them into military service
War of 1812
A war (1812-1814) between the United States and England which was trying to interfere with American trade with France.
Meeting of Federalists near the end of the War of 1812 in which the party listed it's complaints against the ruling Republican Party. These actions were largley viewed as traitorous to the country and lost the Federalist much influence (1814)
Battle of New Orleans
A battle during the War of 1812 where the British army attempted to take New Orleans. Due to the foolish frontal attack, Jackson defeated them, which gave him an enormous popularity boost.
Era of Good Feelings
A name for President Monroe's two terms, a period of strong nationalism, economic growth, and territorial expansion. Since the Federalist party dissolved after the War of 1812, there was only one political party and no partisan conflicts.
Anti-Jackson political party that generally stood for national community and an activist government
A policy of favoring native-born individuals over foreign-born ones (immigrants)
an artificial waterway constructed to allow the passage of boats or ships inland or to convey water for irrigation.
people who risk their time, money, and other resources to start and manage a business
a type of cloth or woven fabric
Second Great Awakening
A series of religious revivals starting in 1801, based on Methodism and Baptism. Stressed a religious philosophy of salvation through good deeds and tolerance for all Protestant sects. The revivals attracted women, Blacks, and Native Americans.
Due to the Second Great Awakening, many Americans believed that perfection was attainable. Included a series of movements such as prison reform, temperance, etc.
A belief or theory that opinions and actions should be based on reason and knowledge rather than on religious belief or emotional response
A person who wanted to end slavery
a movement in the arts and literature that originated in the late 18th century, emphasizing inspiration, subjectivity, and the primacy of the individual. Favored emotion above reason.
Second Party System
The second party structure in the nation's history that emerged when Andrew Jackson first ran for the presidency in 1824. The system was built from the bottom up as political participation became a mass phenomenon.
Seneca Falls Convention
(1848) the first national women's rights convention at which the Declaration of Sentiments was written
restraint or moderation, especially in regards to alcohol or food
Economic program advanced by Henry Clay that included support for a national bank, high tariffs, and internal improvements; emphasized strong role for federal government in the economy.
A system of public employment based on rewarding party loyalists and friends.
a fear or hatred of foreigners or strangers
A device for rapid, long-distance transmission of information over an electric wire. It was introduced in England and North America in the 1830s and 1840s.
Identical components that can be used in place of one another in manufacturing, invented by Eli Whitney
place in which workers and machines are brought together to produce large quantities of goods
the goal to create an ideal society based on cooperation and economic self-sufficiency, or a perfect society
a line of track providing a runway for wheels, were used for easier transportation to the west, boosted economy
the freeing of slaves
Cult of Domesticity
idealized view of women & home; women, self-less caregiver for children, refuge for husbands
the American Party; anti-immigrant and anti-Catholic. When asked, they would respond "I know nothing."
Tariff of Abominations
1828 law that significantly raised tariffs on raw materials and manufactured goods. This favored North manufacturing and was hated by the South.
John C. Calhoun
South Carolina Senator - advocate for state's rights, limited government, and nullification
A state's refusal to recognize an act of Congress that it considers unconstitutional
gave the president power to use military force to collect tariffs if the need arose, used by Andrew Jackson against South Carolina
Second Bank of the U.S.
A national bank chartered by Congress in 1816 with extensive regulatory powers over currency and credit; modeled after Hamilton's original bank and fixing Revolutionary War debt
an artificial waterway connecting the Hudson river at Albany with Lake Erie at Buffalo
Refers to the presidential election of 1824 in which Henry Clay, the Speaker of the House, convinced the House of Representatives to elect Adams rather than Jackson. This started the Two-Party system.
American inventor who designed the first commercially successful steamboat and the first steam warship (1765-1815)
"Father of the Factory System" in America; escaped Britain with the memorized plans for the textile machinery; put into operation the first spinning cotton thread in 1791.
Indian Removal Act
(1830) a congressional act that authorized the removal of Native Americans who lived east of the Mississippi River
Worcester v. Georgia
Supreme Court Decision - Cherokee Indians were entitled to federal protection from the actions of state governments which would infringe on the tribe's sovereignty - Jackson ignored it
Trail of Tears
the forced removal of Cherokees and their transportation to Oklahoma
Charles G. Finney
urged people to abandon sin and lead good lives in dramatic sermons at religious revivals
Church founded by Joseph Smith in 1830 with headquarters in Salt Lake City, Utah, religious group that emphasized moderation, saving, hard work, and risk-taking; moved from IL to UT
1770's by "Mother" Ann Lee; Utopian group that splintered from the Quakers; believed that they & all other churches had grown too interested in this world & neglectful of their afterlives; prohibited marriage and sexual relationships; practiced celibacy
A group of socio-religious perfectionists who lived in New York. Practiced polygamy, communal property, and communal raising of children.
Founded Mormonism in New York in 1830 with the guidance of an angel. 1843, Smith's announcement that God sanctioned polygamy split the Mormons and let to an uprising against Mormons in 1844; translated the Book of Mormon and died a martyr.
Successor to the Mormons after the death of Joseph Smith; responsible for the survival of the sect and its establishment in Salt Lake City, Utah
William Lloyd Garrison
1805-1879, prominent American abolitionist, journalist and social reformer. Editor of radical abolitionist newspaper "The Liberator", and one of the founders of the American Anti-Slavery Society.
1817-1895, American abolitionist and writer, he escaped slavery and became a leading African American spokesman and writer. He published his own biography, and founded the abolitionist newspaper, the North Star.
"The North Star"
antislavery newspaper published by Fredrick Douglass
United States abolitionist born a slave on a plantation in Maryland and became a famous conductor on the Underground Railroad leading other slaves to freedom in the North (1820-1913)
passed in 1851 in Maine, was one of the first statutory implementations of the developing temperance movement in the United States.
American Temperance Society
An organization group in which reformers are trying to help the ever present drink problem.
A reformer and pioneer in the movement to treat the insane as mentally ill, beginning in the 1820's, she was responsible for improving conditions in jails, poorhouses and insane asylums throughout the U.S. and Canada.
1796-1859, secretary of the Massachusetts Board of Education, "Father of the public school system", proponent of public school, set the standard for public schools throughout the nation, pro training & higher salaries to teachers
1793-1880, Quaker who attended an anti-slavery convention in 1840 and her party of women was not recognized, she and Stanton organized the Seneca Falls Convention in New York in 1848
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
1815-1902, abolitionist, suffragist, prominent advocate of women's rights, organized the 1848 Seneca Falls Convention with Mott
"Declaration of Sentiments"
declared that all "people are created equal"; used the Declaration of Independence to argue for women's rights (Seneca Falls Convention)
Susan B. Anthony
1820-1906, social reformer who campaigned for women's rights, the temperance, and was an abolitionist, helped form the National Woman Suffrage Association
Hudson River School
1825, founded by Thomas Cole, first native school of landscape painting in the U.S., attracted artists rebelling against the neoclassical tradition, painted many scenes of the river, landscapes instead of portraits
American writer remembered for the stories "Rip Van Winkle" and "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow," contained in The Sketch Book (1819-1820).
James Fennimore Cooper
Wrote numerous sea-stories as well as the historical romances known as the Leather stocking Tales, featuring frontiersman Natty Bumppo. Among his most famous works is the romantic novel The Last of the Mohicans, which many people consider his masterpiece.
wrote The Scarlet Letter, then become a leading anti-transcendentalist
pioneered by Ralph Waldo Emerson in the 1830's and 1840's, direct communication with God and Nature, no need for organized churches, incorporated the ideas that mind goes beyond matter, intuition is valuable, that each soul is part of the Great Spirit, and each person is part of a reality where only the invisible is truly real. Promoted individualism, self-reliance, and freedom from social constraints, and emphasized emotions.
Ralph Waldo Emerson
American transcendentalist who was against slavery and stressed self-reliance, optimism, self-improvement, self-confidence, and freedom. He was a prime example of a transcendentalist and helped further the movement.
Henry David Thoreau
American transcendentalist who was against a government that supported slavery. He wrote down his beliefs in Walden, started the movement of civil-disobedience
A notion held by a nineteenth-century Americans that the United States was destined to rule the continent, from the Atlantic the Pacific.
(1846-1848) The war between the United States and Mexico in which the United States acquired one half of the Mexican territory.
to add or attach (especially to a nation)
1848, awarded as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo after the Mexican American War. U.S. paid $15 million for 525,000 square miles.
Loyalty to one's own region of the country, rather than to the nation as a whole
Compromise of 1850
California admitted as free state, territorial status and popular sovereignty of Utah and New Mexico, resolution of Texas-New Mexico boundaries, federal assumption of Texas debt, slave trade abolished in DC, and new fugitive slave law; advocated by Henry Clay and Stephen A. Douglas
1854, Created Nebraska and Kansas as states and gave the people in those territories the right to chose to be a free or slave state through popular sovereignty.
Dred Scott Decision
A Missouri slave sued for his freedom, claiming that his four year stay in the northern portion of the Louisiana Territory made free land by the Missouri Compromise had made him a free man. The U.S, Supreme Court decided he couldn't sue in federal court because he was property, not a citizen.
Republican Party (1854)
anti-slavery Whigs and Democrats, Free Soilers and reformers from the Northwest met and formed party in order to keep slavery out of the territories
to withdraw (especially from a union or nation)
16th President of the United States saved the Union during the Civil War and emancipated the slaves; was assassinated by Booth (1809-1865)
Tippecanoe and Tyler too
this was Tyler's slogan during his election, using his vicotry during the Battle of Tippecanoe as a "pro" for voting for him
American who settled in Texas, one of the leaders for Texan independence from Mexico
Commander of the Texas army at the battle of San Jacinto, later elected president of the Republic of Texas
As dictator of Mexico, he led the attack on the Alamo in 1836. He was later defeated by Sam Houston at San Jacinto.
location where gold was discovered in California in 1848, setting off the gold rush
a period from 1848 to 1856 when thousands of people came to California in order to search for gold.
People who rushed to california in 1849 for gold
54 40 or Fight
slogan of those wanting to take all of Oregon, line of latitude where people wanted Oregon border; did not want compromise of 49th parallel, as was done by President Polk
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Treaty that ended the Mexican War, granting the U.S. control of Texas, New Mexico, and California in exchange for $15 million
A government in which the people rule by their own consent
Nat Turner's Rebellion
Rebellion in which Nat Turner led a group of slaves through Virginia in an unsuccessful attempt to overthrow and kill planter families, most violent slave rebellion
Free Soil Party
A political party dedicated to stopping the expansion of slavery (1847-1848)
A former political party in the United States; formed in 1839 to oppose the practice of slavery; merged with the Free Soil Party in 1848
Fugitive Slave Law
Enacted by Congress in 1793 and 1850, these laws provided for the return of escaped slaves to their owners. The 1850 law was tougher and was aimed at eliminating the underground railroad. North did not enforce this law.
a system of secret routes used by escaping slaves to reach freedom in the North or in Canada
Harriet Beecher Stowe
wrote Uncle Tom's Cabin, a book about a slave treated badly, received wide attention on the treatment of slaves
Christian thinkers who defended and explained Christian beliefs
A sequence of violent events involving abolitionists and pro-Slavery elements that took place in Kansas-Nebraska Territory. The dispute further strained the relations of the North and South, making civil war imminent.
Constitutional Union Party
a political party formed in 1860 by a group of northerners and southerners who supported the Union, its laws, and the Constitution (do-nothings)
Abolitionist who was hanged after leading an unsuccessful raid at Harper's Ferry, Virginia (1800-1858)
John Brown's scheme to invade the South with armed slaves, backed by sponsoring, northern abolitionists; seized the federal arsenal; Brown and remnants were caught by Robert E. Lee and the US Marines; Brown was hanged
1856 - Charles Sumner gave a two day speech on the Senate floor. He denounced the South for crimes against Kansas and singled out Senator Andrew Brooks of South Carolina for extra abuse. Brooks beat Sumner over the head with his cane, severely crippling him.
Agreement with Mexico that gave the US a small part of present-day New Mexico & Arizona in exchange for $10 million (manifest destiny)
Election of 1860
Lincoln, the Republican candidate, won because the Democratic party was split over slavery. As a result, the South no longer felt like it has a voice in politics and a number of states seceded from the Union
total war; Union is perpetual v. liberty before Union; began w/ bombardment of Fort Sumter; Lee surrendered at Appotomax; 600k casualties; legacy expanded federal power and destroyed agrarian south
the southern states that seceded from the United States in 1861
northern states during the Civil War
Issued by Abraham Lincoln on September 22, 1862, it declared that all slaves in the confederate states would be free
A 3-minute address by Abraham Lincoln during the American Civil War (November 19, 1963) at the dedication of a national cemetery on the site of the Battle of Gettysburg
Declares that all persons born in the U.S. are citizens and are guaranteed equal protection of the laws
Citizens cannot be denied the right to vote because of race, color, or previous condition of servitude
A system used on southern farms after the Civil War in which farmers worked land owned by someone else in return for a small portion of the crops. It kept the black farmers in debt and poverty.
Separation of people based on racial, ethnic, or other differences
Plessy v. Ferguson
a 1896 Supreme Court decision which legalized state ordered segregation so long as the facilities for blacks and whites were equal
the basic physical and organizational structures and facilities (e.g., buildings, roads, and power supplies) needed for the operation of a society or enterprise.
After the Civil War, a group that believed the South should be harshly punished and thought that Lincoln was sometimes too compassionate towards the South.
the period after the Civil War in the United States when the southern states were reorganized and reintegrated into the Union
1860, failed attempt to prevent Civil War by Senator Crittenden, offered a Constitutional amendment recognizing slavery in the territories south of the 36º30' line, noninterference by Congress with existing slavery, and compensation to the owners of fugitive slaves
Federal fort in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina; the confederate attack on the fort marked the start of the Civil War
President of the Confederate States of America
New York Draft Riots
July 1863 just after the Battle at Gettysburg. Mobs of Irish working-class men and women roamed the streets for four days until federal troops suppressed them. They loathed the idea of being drafted to fight a war on behalf of slaves who, once freed, would compete with them for jobs.
Union war plan by Winfield Scott, called for blockade of southern coast, capture of Richmond, capture Mississippi River, and to take an army through heart of south
Battle of Bull Run
1861, outside of D.C., People watched battle, Stonewall Jackson, Confederate general, held his ground and stood in battle like a "stone wall." Union retreated. Confederate victory. Showed that both sides needed training and war would be long and bloody
A general for northern command of the Army of the Potomac in 1861; nicknamed "Tardy George" because of his failure to move troops to Richmond; lost battle vs. General Lee near the Chesapeake Bay; Lincoln fired him twice.
Robert E. Lee
Confederate general who had opposed secession but did not believe the Union should be held together by force
Ulysses S. Grant
an American general and the eighteenth President of the United States (1869-1877). He achieved international fame as the leading Union general in the American Civil War.
Battle of Antietam
A battle near a sluggish little creek, it proved to be the bloodiest single day battle in American History with over 26,000 lives lost in that single day.
Merrimac and Monitor
battle between the ironclad ships that the North and South used during the Civil War
Battle of Gettysburg
Turning point of the War that made it clear the North would win. 50,000 people died, and the South lost its chance to invade the North.
Name for Union paper money issued during the Civil War, not backed by gold or silver. Value would fluctuate depending on status of the war
Lincoln's reconstruction plan for after the Civil War, proclaimed that a state could be reintegrated into the Union when 10% of its voters in the 1860 election pledged their allegiance to the U.S. and pledged to abide by emancipation.
a pardon to a group of people
Organization run by the army to care for and protect southern Blacks after the Civil War
Laws denying most legal rights to newly freed slaves; passed by southern states following the Civil War
Jim Crow Laws
Laws designed to enforce segregation of blacks from whites
A derogatory term for Southerners who were working with the North to buy up land from desperate Southerners
A northerner who went to the South immediately after the Civil War; especially one who tried to gain political advantage or other advantages from the disorganized situation in southern states
Waving the Bloody Shirt
An expression used as a vote getting stratagem by the Republicans during the election of 1876 to offset charges of corruption by blaming the Civil War on the Democrats.
A clause in registration laws allowing people who do not meet registration requirements to vote if they or their ancestors had voted before 1867.
Conservative white Democrats, many of them planters or businessmen, who reclaimed control of the South following the end of Reconstruction
a secret society of white Southerners in the United States, created after the Civil War, opposed blacks and other minority groups
Compromise of 1877
Ended Reconstruction. Republicans promise to remove troops from the South, make Hayes the President, David Key as a Democrat in Hayes' cabinet, and construction of continental railroad and industrialization in the South
1862, provided free land in the West to anyone willing to settle there and develop it. Encouraged westward migration.
Morrill Land Grant Act
1862, federal government had donated public land to the states for the establishment of college; as a result 69 land- grant institutions were established.
Booker T. Washington
African American progressive who supported segregation and demanded that African American better themselves individually to achieve equality.
first black man to get a Ph.D. from Harvard. Founded the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). Demanded the blacks receive social equality right away
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
Railroad connecting the west and east coasts of the continental US
areas of federal land set aside for American Indians
effort by the government to convert Native Americans to European-Americans and Christianity
Using machines in farming to increase farm production; displaced many farmers; farmers created organizations to resist corporate power (Grange)
An association of workers, formed to bargain for better working conditions and higher wages.
An amount of money paid to an employee at a specified rate per hour worked
an economic system in which business leaders use profits to expand their companies
larger companies absorbing the smaller companies and forming a new company
An increase in the percentage and in the number of people living in cities (18th and 19th century)
moving to a country
After the Civil War, southerners promoted a new vision for a self-sufficient southern economy built on modern capitalist values, industrial growth, and improved transportation. Henry Grady played an important role.
time free from work or duties
name for buffalo, important animal for Native Americans
Late 1800s to Early 1900s - time of large increase in wealth caused by industrialization
Government grants of land or money to railroad companies to build railroads in the West.
Idea that government should play as small a role as possible in economic affairs.
Gospel of Wealth
called on those who accumulated wealth to share their riches for the betterment of society
ethnic groups that share a common culture or ancestry
to make American in character and nationality
The belief that only the fittest survive in human political and economic struggle.
The development of industries for the machine production of goods.
Term used to describe the corporations and monopolies since the industrial revolution of the late 1800s.
using children to work in factories and businesses
Dawes Severalty Act (1887)
adopted by Congress in 1887, authorized the President of the United States to survey American Indian tribal land and divide it into allotments for individual Indians. Those who accepted allotments and lived separately from the tribe would be granted US citizenship.
A ritual the Sioux performed to bring back the buffalo and return the Native American tribes to their land.
In 1890, after killing Sitting Bull, the 7th Cavalry rounded up Sioux at this place in South Dakota and 300 Natives were murdered and only a baby survived.
Sand Creek Massacre
an attack on a village of sleeping Cheyenne Indians by a regiment of Colorado militiamen on 29 November 1864 that resulted in the death of more than 200 tribal members
Frederick Jackson Turner
1861-1932, American historian who said that humanity would continue to progress as long as there was new land to move into. The frontier provided a place for homeless and solved social problems.
United States general who was killed along with all his command by the Sioux at the battle of Little Bighorn (1839-1876)
Leader of Nez Perce. Fled with his tribe to Canada instead of reservations. However, US troops came and fought and brought them back down to reservations
Helen Hunt Jackson
1830-1885, United States writer of romantic novels about the unjust treatment of Native Americans (A Century of Dishonor)
an African American who migrated from the South to Kansas in the post-Reconstruction years
Refers to the industrialists or big business owners who gained huge profits by paying their employees extremely low wages. They also drove their competitors out of business by selling their products cheaper than it cost to produce it. Then when they controlled the market, they hiked prices high above original price.
American inventor best known for inventing the electric light bulb, acoustic recording on wax cylinders, and motion pictures.
Alexander Graham Bell
Invented the telephone
A railroad owner who built a railway connecting Chicago and New York. He popularized the use of steel rails in his railroad, which made railroads safer and more economical.
A Scottish-born American industrialist and philanthropist who founded the Carnegie Steel Company in 1892. By 1901, his company dominated the American steel industry.
John D. Rockefeller
Established the Standard Oil Company, the greatest, wisest, and meanest monopoly known in history
Standard Oil Company
Founded by John D. Rockefeller. Largest unit in the American oil industry in 1881. Known as A.D. Trust, it was outlawed by the Supreme Court of Ohio in 1899. Replaced by the Standard Oil Company of New Jersey.
Banker who buys out Carnegie Steel and renames it to U.S. Steel. Was a philanthropist in a way; he gave all the money needed for WWI and was payed back. Was one of the "Robber barons"
Knights of Labor
1st effort to create National union. Open to everyone but lawyers and bankers. Vague program, no clear goals, weak leadership and organization. Failed
Haymarket Square Riot (1886)
Chicago labor protest organized to protest the treatment of workers at the McCormick Harvester Company as well as methods used by police in dealing with protesters; ended abruptly when an unknown assailant threw a bomb that killed 7 police officers; 8 anarchists were convicted of conspiracy. The public blamed trade unions for the violence.
American Federation of Labor (AFL)
a national organization of labor unions founded in 1886 by Samuel Gompers
He was the creator of the American Federation of Labor. He provided a stable and unified union for skilled workers.
an agreement some companies forced workers to take that forbade them from joining a union. This was a method used to limit the power of unions, thus hampering their development.
A company with a labor agreement under which union membership can be a condition of employment.
Strikebreakers hired by employers as replacement workers when unions went on strike
Great Railroad Strike (1877)
A large number of railroad workers went on strike because of wage cuts. After a month of strikes, President Hayes sent troops to stop the strike
Homestead Strike (1892)
It was one of the most violent strikes in U.S. history. It was against the Homestead Steel Works, which was part of the Carnegie Steel Company, in Pennsylvania in retaliation against wage cuts. The riot was ultimately put down by Pinkerton Police and the state militia, and the violence further damaged the image of unions.
Pullman Strike (1894)
Workers led by Eugene Debs rebelled because the Pullman Palace Car Company cut wages by 1/3 and the American Federation of Labor refused to support the strikers. Military action was needed in order to keep mail delivery on track.
Interstate Commerce Act
Established the ICC (Interstate Commerce Commission), monitors the business operation of carriers transporting goods and people between states, created to regulate railroad prices
the application of scientific principles to increase efficiency in the workplace
Frederick Winslow Taylor
American mechanical engineer, who wanted to improve industrial efficiency. He is known as the father of scientific management, and was one of the first management consultants
1863-1947. American businessman, founder of Ford Motor Company, father of modern assembly lines, and inventor credited with 161 patents.
people who oppose all forms of organized government
1839-1898, founder of the WCTU and dean of the Women at Northwestern University
Woman's Christian Temperance Union (WCTU)
1873, founded in Ohio to combat the evils of excessive alcohol consumption, embraced a broad reform agenda, including campaigns to abolish prostitution and gain the right to vote for women.
A prohibitionist. She believed that bars and other liquor-related businesses should be destroyed, and was known for attacking saloons herself with a hatchet.
National Women Suffrage Association
A group that worked for a constitutional amendment to give women the right to vote
Melting Pot Theory
American culture is a blend of many different cultures
United States naturalist (born in England) who advocated the creation of national parks (1838-1914)
Popular novelist during the Industrial Revolution who wrote "rags to riches" books praising the values of hard work
Corrupt organized groups that controlled political parties in the cities led by a boss; attempts to grab more votes for his party.
Progressive reform centering around protecting the natural environment.
dishonest or fraudulent conduct by those in power, typically involving bribery.
A movement in the late 1800s / early 1900s which emphasized charity and social responsibility as a means of salvation.
A group of reformers who worked to solve problems caused by the rapid industrial urban growth of the late 1800s.
time at the turn of the 20th century in which groups sought to reform America economically, socially, and politically
the founder of Hull House, which provided English lessons for immigrants, daycares, and child care classes, also founded the settlement house movement
A famous caricaturist and editorial cartoonist in the 19th century and is considered to be the father of American political cartooning. His artwork was primarily based on political corruption. He helped people realize the corruption of some politicians
Pendleton Civil Service Act
(1883) Did away with the "spoils system" and made the hiring of federal employees merit based.
unemployed workers marched from Ohio to Washington to draw attention to the plight of workers and to ask for government relief
William Tweed, head of Tammany Hall, NYC's powerful democratic political machine in 1868. Between 1868 and 1869 he led the Tweed Reign, a group of corrupt politicians in defrauding the city. Example: Responsible for the construction of the NY court house; actual construction cost $3 million. Project cost tax payers $13 million.
a joint-stock company organized in 1863 and reorganized in 1867 to build the Union Pacific Railroad. It was involved in a scandal in 1872 in which high government officials were accused of accepting bribes.
Allows the federal government to collect income tax
Journalists who attempted to find corruption or wrongdoing in industries and expose it to the public
Sherman Antitrust Act
First federal action against monopolies, it was signed into law by Harrison and was extensively used by Theodore Roosevelt for trust-busting, specifically against railroad companies.
(1914) A federal regulation intended to prevent specific business actions that might prohibit competition, e.g., tying agreements and exclusive agreements
United States writer and humorist best known for his novels about Tom Sawyer and Huckleberry Finn, also first used the term "Gilded Age"
Frederick Law Olmsted
Designer of New York City's Central Park, who wanted cities that exposed people to the beauties of nature. One of his projects, the Chicago Columbian Exposition of 1893, gave a rise to the influential "City Beautiful" movement
a dressmaker in Chicago until a fire destroyed her business. She then devoted her life to the cause of workers. Supported striking railroad workers in Pittsburg, and traveled around the country organizing coal miners and campaigning for improved working conditions.
A Danish immigrant, he became a reporter who pointed out the terrible conditions of the tenement houses of the big cities where immigrants lived during the late 1800s. He wrote How The Other Half Lives in 1890.
United States journalist who exposes in 1906 started an era of muckraking journalism (1866-1936), Writing for McClure's Magazine, he criticized the trend of urbanization with a series of articles under the title Shame of the Cities.
In 1888, he wrote Looking Backward, 2000-1887, a description of a utopian society with socialism in the year 2000. He was against capitalism.
Triangle Shirtwaist Factory
this factory kept doors locked to avoid theft trapping workers inside when a fire erupted; alerted reformers to the terrible conditions of industrial workers
Settlement House Movement
Creation of places that offered social services to urban poor - often food, shelter, and basic higher education - Hull House was most famous
settlement house founded by Progressive reformer Jane Addams in Chicago in 1889
William Jennings Bryan
United States lawyer and politician who advocated free silver and prosecuted John Scopes (1925) for teaching evolution in a Tennessee high school (1860-1925)
"Cross of Gold" Speech
An impassioned address by William Jennings Bryan at the 1896 Democratic Convention, in which he attacked the "gold bugs" who insisted that U.S. currency be backed only with gold.
National organization of farmers who met in Ocala, Florida to discuss the problems of rural America. They supported direct elections/low tariff rates/graduated income tax/new banking system.
The people's party, a party made up of farmers and laborers that wanted direct election of senators and an 8 hour working day
United States architect known for his steel framed skyscrapers and for coining the phrase "form follows function"
Chicago School of Architecture
Was led by Louis H. Sullivan. It used cheap steel, reinforced concrete, and electric elevators to build skyscrapers and office buildings lacking of any exterior ornamentation.
Economic policy by Roosevelt that favored fair relationships between companies and workers
Upton Sinclair's The Jungle
novel published in 1906 that portrayed the filthy conditions in Chicago's meatpacking industry and led to the passage of the Meat Inspection Act
Pure Food and Drug Act
(1906) Forbade the manufacture or sale of mislabeled or adulterated food or drugs, it gave the government broad powers to ensure the safety and efficacy of drugs in order to abolish the "patent" drug trade. Still in existence as the FDA.
Meat Inspection Act
(1906) Laid down binding rules for sanitary meat packing and government inspection of meat products crossing state lines.
the exclusive possession or control of the supply or trade in a commodity or service.
Established the direct election of senators (instead of being chosen by state legislatures)
This reform governor of Wisconsin campaigned for federal control of the railroads, no child labor, cheap credit for farmers, and stronger labor unions
Gave women the right to vote
A primary where voters directly select the candidates who will run for office
A state-level method of direct legislation that gives voters a chance to approve or disapprove proposed legislation or a proposed constitutional amendment.
Anonymous voting method that helps to make elections fair and honest
Twenty-sixth president of the United States; he focused his efforts on trust busting, environment conservation, and strong foreign policy. (Bull Moose Party)
A leading muckraker and magazine editor, she exposed the corruption of the oil industry with her 1904 work "A History of Standard Oil."
the central bank of the United States
In 1898, a conflict between the United States and Spain, in which the U.S. supported the Cubans' fight for independence
a region that consists of the Caribbean Sea, its islands and the surrounding coasts (Cuba, Puerto Rico, etc.)
Spanish colony in the Pacific whom the US helped free from the Spanish, but soon after took as their own colony (Manila Bay). A nativist rebellion led by Emilio Aguinaldo tried to regain their independence, lasted for 3 years.
A policy of extending a country's power and influence through diplomacy or military force.
people who support imperialism
People who were opposed to imperialism
people who wanted to be separate from foreign affairs, especially war
A person working for the welfare of all humans
These are people who favor intervention, especially by a government, in the affairs of others, such as nations. Woodrow Wilson finally adopted such a policy in 1917 when he chose to finally participate in WWI.
28th president of the United States, known for World War I leadership, created Federal Reserve, Federal Trade Commission, Clayton Antitrust Act, progressive income tax, lower tariffs, women's suffrage (reluctantly), Treaty of Versailles, sought 14 points post-war plan, League of Nations (but failed to win U.S. ratification), won Nobel Peace Prize
American Expeditionary Force
the U.S. forces, led by Gen. John Pershing, who fought with the allies in Europe during WWI
World War I
(1914 - 1918) European war in which an alliance including Great Britain, France, Russia, Italy, and the United States defeated the alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey, and Bulgaria.
Treaty of Versailles
the treaty imposed on Germany by the Allied powers in 1920 after the end of World War I which demanded exorbitant reparations from the Germans
League of Nations
an international organization formed in 1920 to promote cooperation and peace among nations
(1916-1970) movement of over 300,000 African American from the rural south into Northern cities between 1914 and 1920
many criticized William Seward's purchase of Alaska from Russia for 7.2 million dollars, calling it his folly.
Journalism that exploits, distorts, or exaggerates the news to create sensations and attract readers
Alfred Thayer Mahan
Navy officer whose ideas on naval warfare and the importance of sea-power changed how America viewed its navy; wrote "The influence of Sea Power upon History"
Ship that explodes off the coast of Cuba in Havana harbor and helps contribute to the start of the Spanish-American War
Commodore Matthew Perry
A navy commander who, on July 8, 1853, became the first foreigner to break through the barriers that had kept Japan isolated from the rest of the world for 250 years.
the Hawaiian queen who was forced out of power by a revolution started by American business interests
Volunteer regiment of US Cavalry led by Teddy Roosevelt during the Spanish American War
1901, determined that inhabitants of U.S. territories acquired in the Mexican-American war had some, but not all, of the rights of U.S. citizens
Legislation that severely restricted Cuba's sovereignty and gave the US the right to intervene if Cuba got into trouble
Leader of the Filipino independence movement against Spain (1895-1898). He proclaimed the independence of the Philippines in 1899, but his movement was crushed and he was captured by the United States Army in 1901.
Open Door Policy
A policy proposed by the US in 1899, under which ALL nations would have equal opportunities to trade in China.
1899 rebellion in Beijing, China started by a secret society of Chinese who opposed the "foreign devils". The rebellion was ended by British troops.
Mexican revolutionary leader (1877-1923) Did many good things, but killed a lot of people. Wanted to take money from the rich and give it to the poor.
Ship canal cut across the isthmus of Panama by United States, it opened in 1915.
Roosevelt's 1904 extension of the Monroe Doctrine, stating that the United States has the right to protect its economic interests in South And Central America by using military force
1907 agreement between the United States and Japan that restricted Japanese immigration
Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire (WWI)
A political revolution in Russia beginning in 1917. The Bolsheviks, now known as Communists, overthrew Czar Nicholas II and created a socialist government based upon the writings of Karl Marx and Vladimir Lenin. Also know as the Bolshevik Revolution.
Herbert Hoover and Food Administration
He led the Food Administration and started many programs to streamline food production, distribution, and rationing in times of war.
Law passed by Congress in 1917 that required all men from ages 21 to 30 to register for the military draft
A series of proposals in which U.S. president Woodrow Wilson outlined a plan for achieving a lasting peace after World War I.
the use of a country's financial power to extend its international influence. President Taft used this to influence the territories in the Caribbean and Latin America.
Foreign policy proposed by President Wilson to condemn imperialism, spread democracy, and promote peace
Schenck v. United States
A 1919 decision upholding the conviction of a socialist who had urged young men to resist the draft during World War I. Justice Holmes declared that government can limit speech if the speech provokes a "clear and present danger" of substantive evils.
A British passenger ship that was sunk by a German U-Boat on May 7, 1915. 128 Americans died. The sinking greatly turned American opinion against the Germans, helping the move towards entering the war.
1917 - Germany sent this to Mexico instructing an ambassador to convince Mexico to go to war with the U.S. It was intercepted and caused the U.S. to mobilized against Germany, which had proven it was hostile
Fluctuations in economic activity, such as employment and production
the economic crisis beginning with the stock market crash in 1929 and continuing through the 1930's
people who generally favor government action and view change as progress
Like to stick to the traditional ways of government and tend to oppose change
Democratic President of the US during Great Depression and World War II, made the New Deal
A series of reforms enacted by the Franklin Roosevelt administration between 1933 and 1942 with the goal of ending the Great Depression.
A government that undertakes responsibility for the welfare of its citizens through programs in public health and public housing and pensions and unemployment compensation etc.
fear that communists were working to destroy the American way of life
A period in the 1920s when African-American achievements in art and music and literature flourished
A 1920 operation coordinated by Attorney General Mitchel Palmer in which federal marshals raided the homes of suspected radicals and the headquarters of radical organization in 32 cities
Sacco and Vanzetti
In 1920 these two men were convicted of murder and robbery. They were found guilty and died in the electric chair unfairly
Quota Act/National Origins Act
established quotas that for each country that had native-born persons already living in the United States, 2% of their number could immigrate each year
Teapot Dome Scandal
A government scandal involving a former United States Navy oil reserve in Wyoming that was secretly leased to a private oil company in 1921
The Lost Generation
Americans who became disillusioned with society after World War I, they were made up of many authors who sought literary freedom
Lost Generation writer, spent much of his life in France, Spain, and Cuba during WWI, notable works include A Farewell to Arms
Prohibition (Volstead Act)
This 1920 law defined the liquor forbidden under the Eighteenth Amendment and gave enforcement responsibilities to the Prohibition Bureau of the Department of the Treasury.
A mob king in Chicago who controlled a large network of speakeasies with enormous profits. His illegal activities convey the failure of prohibition in the twenties and the problems with gangs.
1925 court case in which Clarence Darrow and William Jennings Bryan debated the issue of teaching evolution in public schools
Young women of the 1920s that behaved and dressed in a radical fashion
1921 - founded American Birth Control League; which became Planned Parenthood in the 1940s. Advocated birth control awareness.
African American poet who described the rich culture of african American life using rhythms influenced by jazz music. He wrote of African American hope and defiance, as well as the culture of Harlem and also had a major impact on the Harlem Renaissance.
African American leader durin the 1920s who founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association and advocated mass migration of African Americans back to Africa (pan-Africanism). Was deported to Jamaica in 1927.
The Jazz Age
Name for the 1920s, because of the popularity of jazz-a new type of American music that combined African rhythms, blues, and ragtime
Charles Lindbergh, Spirit of St. Louis
Lindbergh flew his airplane, the Spirit of St. Louis, across the Atlantic in the first transatlantic solo flight, to Paris
1928-This Treaty renounced the aggressive use of force to achieve national ends; almost all the nations of the world signed it. It proved ineffective because it 1) permitted defensive wars 2) failed to provide for taking action against the violators of the treaty
Secret bars where alcohol could be purchased illegally
1930 - raised U.S. tariffs on over 20,000 imported goods
October 29, 1929; date of the worst stock-market crash in American history and beginning of the Great Depression.
Group of WWI vets. that marched to D.C. in 1932 to demand the immediate payment of their goverment war bonuses in cash
Depression shantytowns, named after the president whom many blamed for their financial distress
Herbert Hoover's belief that people must be self-reliant and not depend upon the federal government for assistance.
Good Neighbor Policy
FDR's foreign policy of promoting better relations w/Latin America by using economic influence rater than military force in the region
informal talks given by FDR over the radio; sat by White House fireplace; gained the confidence of the people
closed all banks until gov. examiners could investigate their financial condition; only sound/solvent banks were allowed to reopen
First Hundred Days
FDR pushes through 15 new laws and ends banking crisis
Relief, Recovery, Reform
the three goals of FDR's New Deal.
Glass-Steagall Banking Reform Act
A law creating the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, which insured individual bank deposits and ended a century-long tradition of unstable banking that had reached a crisis in the Great Depression.
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC)
the government agency that insures customer deposits if a bank fails
Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA)
Gave farmers money to reduce crop size to reduce production and bring up the value of crops
Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)
New Deal program that hired unemployed men to work on natural conservation projects
Public Works Administration (PWA)
Helped construction workers get jobs doing public projects (highways, bridges, sewers)
Works Progress Administration (WPA)
Hires jobless people to build public buildings and parks.
Federal Housing Authority (FHA)
Government agency designed to make buying a home more affordable. Insured loans made by banks and other private lenders for home building and home buying.
Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)
monitors the stock market and enforces laws regulating the sale of stocks and bonds
Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)
A relief, recovery, and reform effort that gave 2.5 million poor citizens jobs and land. It brought cheap electric power, low-cost housing, cheap nitrates, and the restoration of eroded soil.
1935, also National Labor Relations Act; granted rights to unions; allowed collective bargaining
1902-1968, American novelist who wrote "The Grapes of Wrath", a story of dust bowl victims who travel to California to look for a better life.
"The Grapes of Wrath"
1939, John Steinbeck's novel about a struggling farm family during the Great Depression. Gave a face to the violence and exploitation that migrant farm workers faced in America
Frances Perkins, Secretary of Labor
First female cabinet member
FDR's Wife and New Deal supporter. Was a great supporter of civil rights and opposed the Jim Crow laws. She also worked for birth control and better conditions for working women
Social Security Act
1935 - guaranteed retirement payments for enrolled workers beginning at age 65; set up federal-state system of unemployment insurance and care for dependent mothers and children, the handicapped, and public health
Where FDR tried to add more members to the Supreme Court to pass his programs.
Base in hawaii that was bombed by japan on December 7, 1941, which eagered America to enter the war.
the process of assembling troops and supplies and making them ready for war
bomb dropped by an American bomber on Hiroshima and Nagasaki destroying both cities
Alliance of Germany, Italy, and Japan during World War II.
Japanese and Japanese Americans were placed in camps beginning in 1942; upheld by Korematsu v. US
A methodical plan orchestrated by Hitler to ensure German supremacy. It called for the elimination of Jews, non-conformists, homosexuals, non-Aryans, and mentally and physically disabled.
June 6, 1944 - Led by Eisenhower, over a million troops (the largest invasion force in history) stormed the beaches at Normandy and began the process of re-taking France. The turning point of World War II.
A military strategy used during World War II that involved selectively attacking specific enemy-held islands and bypassing others
4 laws passed in the late 1930s that were designed to keep the US out of international incidents
Austrian born Dictator of Germany, implement Fascism and caused WWII and Holocoust.
(1883-1945) Italian leader. He founded the Italian Fascist Party, and sided with Hitler and Germany in World War II. In 1945 he was overthrown and assassinated by the Italian Resistance.
Bolshevik revolutionary, head of the Soviet Communists after 1924, and dictator of the Soviet Union from 1928 to 1953. He led the Soviet Union with an iron fist, using Five-Year Plans to increase industrial production and terror to crush opposition
Accepting demands in order to avoid conflict
Japan bombed a American gunboat that was trying to help Americans overseas. This greatly strained U.S-Japanese relations and pushed the U.S further away from isolationism even though Japan apologized.
Japanese army officer who initiated the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor and who assumed dictatorial control of Japan during World War II
policy adopted by the United States in 1939 to preserve neutrality while aiding the Allies. Britain and France could buy goods from the United States if they paid in full and transported them.
allows America to sell, lend, or lease arms or other war supplies to any nation considered "vital to the defense of the U.S."
Destroyers for Bases
To circumvent the provisions of the Neutrality Acts to help Great Britain, the U.S. gave England fifty destroyers in return for the right to build American bases on British territory in the Caribbean
1941 - Pledge signed by US president FDR and British prime minister Winston Churchill not to acquire new territory as a result of WWII amd to work for peace after the war
Rosie the Riveter
A propaganda character designed to increase production of female workers in the factories. It became a rallying symbol for women to do their part.
A law requiring people of a certain age to serve in the military
A. Philip Randolph
America's leading black labor leader who called for a march on Washington D.C. to protest factories' refusals to hire African Americans, which eventually led to President Roosevelt issuing an order to end all discrimination in the defense industries.
Navajo Code Talkers
Native Americans from the Navajo tribe used their own language to make a code for the U.S. military that the Japanese could not decipher
Deliberate extermination of a racial or cultural group
City in Russia, site of a Red Army victory over the Germany army in 1942-1943, turning point in the war between Germany and the Soviet Union
British prime minister who led Britain throughout most of World War II and along with Roosevelt planned many allied campaigns.
Battle of Midway
U.S. naval victory over the Japanese fleet in June 1942, in which the Japanese lost four of their best aircraft carriers. It marked a turning point in World War II.
A secret U.S. project for the construction of the atomic bomb.
J. Robert Oppenheimer
lead the Manhattan Project: the World War II effort to develop the first nuclear bomb. He was remembered as the "Father of the Atomic Bomb."
Hiroshima and Nagasaki
Two Japanese cities on which the U.S. dropped the atomic bombs, on Truman's order, to end World War II.
Korematsu v. US
1944 Supreme Court case where the Supreme Court upheld the order providing for the relocation of Japanese Americans. It was not until 1988 that Congress formally apologized and agreed to pay $20,000 to each survivor
An international organization formed after WWII to promote international peace, security, and cooperation.
A theory or system of social organization based on the holding of all property in common, actual ownership being ascribed to the community as a whole or to the state. Derived from Karl Marx
A system in which a group of nations acts as one to preserve the peace of all
American policy of resisting further expansion of communism around the world
The conflict between Communist North Korea and Non-Communist South Korea. The United Nations (led by the United States) helped South Korea.
1947-1991, A conflict that was between the US and the Soviet Union. The nations never directly confronted each other on the battlefield but deadly threats went on for years.
the action of changing from colonial to independent status
Eisenhower first coined this phrase when he warned American against it in his last State of the Union Address. He feared that the combined lobbying efforts of the armed services and industries that contracted with the military would lead to excessive Congressional spending.
spike in births in the United States between 1946 and 1964, which was just after World War II in a time of relative peace and prosperity. These conditions allowed for better education and job opportunities, encouraging high rates of both marriage and fertility.
Residential areas surrounding a city. Shops and businesses moved to suburbia as well as people. Many people moved here after WWII
Mother, father and children living as a unit
southern and western states that offered a warm climate year-round and low tax rates. They grew in population after WWII
Homogeneous Mass Culture
large-scale conformity of culture, with the same media, news, art, culture, entertainment, etc.
A series of court proceedings held in Nuremberg, Germany, after World War II, in which Nazi leaders were tried for aggression, violations of the rules of war, and crimes against humanity
George F. Kennan
an American advisor, diplomat, political scientist, and historian, best known as "the father of containment" and as a key figure in the emergence of the Cold War. He later wrote standard histories of the relations between Russia and the Western powers.
1947, President Truman's policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology, mainly helped Greece and Turkey
(1948-1952) A United States program of economic aid for the reconstruction of Europe. Provided $13 billion over 4 years, and was successful
In 1948, Berlin was blocked off by the Soviet Union in order to strangle the Allied forces. In order to combat this, the United States began to airlift supplies into Berlin.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization; an alliance made to defend one another if they were attacked by any other country; US, England, France, Canada, Western European countries
treaty signed in 1945 that formed an alliance of the Eastern European countries behind the Iron Curtain; USSR, Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, and Romania
A country that is dominated politically and economically by another nation. (USSR in the Cold War)
Communist leader of China; gained power through the Chinese civil war; defeated US backed Chiang Kai Shek
General Douglas MacArthur
commander of the US forces in the Philippine Islands, directed the Allied occupation of Japan, and led the invasion of North Korea past the 38th parallel
line of latitude that separated North and South Korea
Allied commander in WW2 in Europe; helped plan the D-Day invasion at Normandy; 34th President
Interstate Highway Act
1956 Eisenhower 20 yr plan to build 41,000 mi of highway, largest public works project in history
Policy of the US that it would defend the Middle East against attack by any Communist country
A Soviet leader during the Cuban Missile Crisis. Also famous for denouncing Stalin and allowed criticism of Stalin within Russia.
the downing of a U.S. spy plane and capture of its pilot by the Soviet Union in 1960
John F. Kennedy
President of the US during the Bay of Pigs Invasion and the Cuban Missile Crisis
Bay of Pigs
In April 1961, a group of Cuban exiles organized and supported by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency landed on the southern coast of Cuba in an effort to overthrow Fidel Castro. When the invasion ended in disaster, President Kennedy took full responsibility for the failure.
Cuban Missile Crisis
1962 crisis that arose between the United States and the Soviet Union over a Soviet attempt to deploy nuclear missiles in Cuba
Cuban socialist leader who overthrew a dictator in 1959 and established a Marxist socialist state in Cuba (born in 1927)
Red Phone Hotline
Installed between Washington DC and Moscow so that they could be in immediate contact.
G.I. Bill of Rights
Law Passed in 1944 to help returning veterans buy homes and pay for higher education by giving loans
Developed the polio vaccine in 1952
Act that provides balance of power between union and management by designating certain union activities as unfair labor practices; also known as Labor-Management Relations Act (LMRA)
southern Democrats who opposed Truman's position on civil rights. They caused a split in the Democratic party.
An economic extension of the New Deal proposed by Harry Truman that called for higher minimum wage, housing and full employment. It led only to the Housing Act of 1949 and the Social Security Act of 1950 due to opposition in congress.
Central Intelligence Agency
The House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC) was an investigating committee which investigated what it considered un-American propaganda
the practice of making accusations of subversion or treason without proper regard for evidence, named after Joseph McCarthy, who accused many people of being communists.
Julius and Ethel Rosenberg
Arrested in the Summer of 1950 and executed in 1953, they were convicted of conspiring to commit espionage by passing plans for the atomic bomb to the Soviet Union.
First artificial Earth satellite, it was launched by Moscow in 1957 and sparked U.S. fears of Soviet dominance in technology and outer space. It led to the creation of NASA and the space race.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration
National Defense Education Act
The act that was passed in response to Sputnik; it provided an opportunity and stimulus for college education for many Americans. It allocated funds for upgrading funds in the sciences, foreign language, guidance services, and teaching innovation.
A United States youth subculture of the 1950s that rebelled against the mundane horrors of middle class life.
A key author of the Beat movement whose best selling novel, On the Road helped define the movement with it's featured frenzied prose and plotless ramblings.
1945 - Meeting with US president FDR, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, and and Soviet Leader Stalin during WWII to plan for post-war
1945 - Allied leaders Truman, Stalin and Churchill met in Germany to set up zones of control and to inform the Japanese that if they refused to surrender at once, they would face total destruction.
Brown v. Board of Education
1954 - The Supreme Court overruled Plessy v. Ferguson, declared that racially segregated facilities are inherently unequal and ordered all public schools desegregated.
Civil Rights Movement
movement in the United States beginning in the 1960s and led primarily by Blacks in an effort to establish the civil rights of individual Black citizens
A prolonged war (1954-1975) between the communist armies of North Vietnam who were supported by the Chinese and the non-communist armies of South Vietnam who were supported by the United States.
Anti-war activists work through protest and other means to attempt to pressure a government to put an end to a particular war or conflict. Happened with the Vietnam War, and sending more troops there
Civil Rights Act of 1964
outlawed discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin, passed by Lyndon Johnson
Inability to meet basic needs for food, clothing, and shelter.
Lyndon B. Johnson
36th President of the U.S., signed the civil rights act of 1964 into law and the voting rights act of 1965, declared war on poverty, set a few goals, including the great society, the economic opportunity act, and programs that provided food stamps and welfare, created department of housing and urban development, medicare and medicaid.
President Johnson version's of the Democratic reform program. In 1965, Congress passed policies including Medicare, civil rights legislation, and federal aid to education.
discrimination, poverty, high unemployment, poor schools, poor healthcare, housing inadequacy and police brutality in urban areas
the highest point (In America, it was up until mid-1960s)
concern with the distinction between good and evil or right and wrong (Korean War, Vietnam War, etc.)
a violation of the law committed by a child or adolescent
A culture with lifestyles and values opposed to those of the established culture.
A period in U.S. history, beginning about 1960, of increased sexual permissiveness
the existing state of affairs
A policy of reducing Cold War tensions that was adopted by the United States during the presidency of Richard Nixon.
the basic rights to which all people are entitled as human beings
Ho Chi Minh
Communist leader of North Vietnam
Tonkin Gulf Resolution
a resolution adopted by Congress in 1964, giving the president broad powers to wage war in Vietnam
a massive surprise attack by the Vietcong on South Vietnamese towns and cities in early 1968.
War Powers Act
1973, President can only send troops into action abroad by authorization of Congress or if America is already under attack or serious threat.
Port Huron Statement
Manifesto of the Students for a Democratic Society (SDS), which criticized the federal government for racial inequality, poverty, and also the Cold War and international peace.
3 day rock concert in upstate N.Y. August 1969, exemplified the counterculture of the late 1960s, nearly 1/2M gather in a 600 acre field
The campaign program advocated by JFK in the 1960 election. He promised to revitalize the stagnant economy and enact reform legislation in education, health care, and civil rights.
volunteers who help third world nations and prevent the spread of communism by getting rid of poverty, Africa, Asia, and Latin America
Great Society programs to have the government provide medical aid to the elderly (Medicare) and the poor (Medicaid).
a preschool program for children from low-income families that also provides healthcare, nutrition services, and social services
American civil rights lawyer, first black justice on the Supreme Court of the United States, advocate for the rights of minorities and the poor
United States civil rights leader who refused to give up her seat on a bus to a white man in Montgomery (Alabama) and so triggered the national civil rights movement (born in 1913)
Montgomery Bus Boycott
1955, after Rosa Parks was arrested for refusing to give up her seat on a city bus, Dr. Martin L. King led a boycott of city buses. In 11 months, the Supreme Court declared segregation of buses illegal.
Reverend Martin Luther King Jr.
Atlanta-born Baptist minister, earned a Ph.D. at Boston University, the leader of the civil rights movement and president of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, advocated nonviolent resistance, was assassinated outside his hotel room in Memphis
Little Rock Nine
1957, Governor Faubus sent the Arkansas National Guard to prevent nine black students from entering Little Rock Central High School. Eisenhower sent in U.S. paratroopers to ensure the students could attend class.
Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee, a group established in 1960 to promote and use non-violent means to protest racial discrimination, sit-in movemenl
March on Washington
held in 1963 to show support for the Civil Rights Bill in Congress. Martin Luther King gave his famous "I have a dream..." speech. 250,000 people attended the rally
Group of civil rights workers who took bus trips through southern states in 1961 to protest illegal bus segregation
1964, blacks and whites together challenged segregation and led a massive drive to register blacks to vote
civil rights advocate who spurred a riot at the University of Mississippi, caused by angry whites who did not want Meredith to register at the university. The result was forced government action, showing that segregation was no longer government policy.
Director of the NAACP in Mississippi, lawyer who defended accused blacks, murdered in his driveway by a member of the KKK
chief of police of Birmingham, Alabama during the Civil Rights Movement, used excessive force against the peaceful marchers on television, brought attention and helped gain support for civil rights legislation
The Nation of Islam
A group of militant Black Americans who profess Islamic religious beliefs and advocate independence for Black Americans
Charismatic black Muslim leader who promoted separatism and violence if necessary in the early 1960s
A black political organization that was against peaceful protest and for violence if needed. The organization marked a shift in policy of the black movement, favoring militant ideals rather than peaceful protest.
Civil Rights Act of 1964
outlawed discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin
created in July, 1967 by President Lyndon B. Johnson to investigate the causes of the 1967 race riots in the United States, concluded that society was moving in two separate societies, one black and one white, unequal
Voting Rights Act of 1965
a law designed to help end formal and informal barriers to African-American suffrage
Farm worker, labor leader, and civil-rights activist who helped form the National Farm Workers Association, later the United Farm Workers
A party organized in the late 1960s as a means of getting Mexican Americans to unite politically and to identify ethnically as one people.
American Indian Movement. demanded greater rights for Native Americans, use violence to make its point
1921-2006, journalist and mother of three children; described the problems of middle-class American women and the fact that women were being denied equality with men; said that women were kept from reaching their full human capacities, wrote "The Feminine Mystique"
The Feminine Mystique
1963, name of the book by Betty Friedan that discussed the frustration of many women in the 1950's and 1960's who felt they were restricted to their roles of mother and homemaker.
American feminist icon, journalist, and social and political activist, published Ms. Magazine
National Organization for Women, Betty Friedan first President, sought to end sex discrimination
Roe v. Wade
1973, legalized abortion on the basis of a woman's right to privacy
Equal Rights Amendment (ERA)
constitutional amendment passed by Congress but never ratified that would have banned discrimination on the basis of gender
The events and scandal surrounding a break-in at the Democratic National Committee headquarters in 1972 and the subsequent cover-up of White House involvement, leading to the eventual resignation of President Nixon under the threat of impeachment
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, formed in 1961 to agree on a common policy for the production and sale of petroleum.
SALT I and SALT II
1972 and 1980, strategic arms limitations talks, agreements with the Soviet Union that limited nuclear arsenals of both the US and USSR, SALT II not passed by the Senate
a period of slow economic growth and high unemployment (stagnation) while prices rise (inflation)
Camp David Accords
Egyptian president Anwar Sadat recognized Israel as a legitimate state and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin agreed to return the Sinai Peninsula to Egypt
Shiite religious leader of Iran, led the 1979 Islamic Revolution in Iran and ordered the invasion of the US Embassy
a mountainous landlocked country in central Asia, invaded by the USSR
Three Mile Island
1979, A mechanical failure and a human error at a nuclear power plant in Pennsylvania combined to permit an escape of radiation over a 16 mile radius
emphasizes free-market capitalism, interventionist foreign policy, strong national defense, and U.S. interest in world affairs
A negative term, used mainly by conservatives to describe government programs in areas where they believe government shouldn't be involved, especially those that spend money on social problems.
1981-1989, "Great Communicator", former actor, Republican, conservative economic policies, Reaganomics (trickle-down/supply side economics), cut out many welfare and public works programs, used the Strategic Defense Initiative to avoid conflict, met with Gorbachev to end Cold War, responsible for the Iran-Contra Affair
Reagan's approach to dealing with the Soviet Union (aggression and willingness); resulted in negotiations with Gorbachev and the ultimate demise of the Soviet Union, marking the end of the cold war
Head of the Soviet Union from 1985 to 1991. His liberalization effort improved relations with the West, but he lost power after his reforms led to the collapse of Communist governments in eastern Europe. (glasnost and perestroika)
September 11, 2001
Terrorist attacks on World Trade Center and pentagon
World Trade Center
Once an icon for the global economy in New York, became a target for terrorism in 1993 and 2001; Al-Queda was solely responsible for the 9-11 attacks
military base in the US, one plane flew into it, killing 125 people on the ground, in the 9/11 attacks
War on Terror
initiated by President George W. Bush after the attacks of September 11, 2001, aimed to weed out terrorist operatives and their supporters throughout the world
constitutional freedoms guaranteed to all citizens
international trade left to its natural course without tariffs, quotas, or other restrictions
change in the statistical properties of the climate system when considered over periods of decades
a global network connecting millions of computers, making it possible to exchange information
A serious (often fatal) disease of the immune system transmitted through blood products especially by sexual contact or contaminated needles, caused by the HIV virus
Outspoken conservative movement of the 1980s that emphasized such "social issues" as opposition to abortion, the Equal Rights Amendment, pornography, homosexuality, and affirmative action
A movement begun in the early 1980's among religious conservatives that supported primarily conservative Republicans opposed to abortion, communism and liberalism.
Star Wars (SDI)
Reagan's defensive program; laser beams and satellites would shoot down USSR nuclear missiles, rejected as not feasible
A major scandal of Reagan's second term that involved shipping arms to Iran to free hostages and diverting the money from the sale of these weapons to the Contra rebels in Nicaragua.
President of Iraq from 1979 to 2003. Waged war on Iran in 1980-1988. In 1990 he ordered an invasion of Kuwait but was defeated by United States and its allies in the Gulf War (1991). Defeated by US led invasion in 2003.
42nd President, advocated economic and healthcare reform, first balanced budget, second president to be impeached
North America Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
1994, Agreement that created a free trade zone among Mexico, Canada, and the United States, in all hope of encouraging economic growth in all three nations
1965 Immigration Laws
abolished an earlier quota system based on national origin and established a new immigration policy based on reuniting immigrant families and attracting skilled labor to the United States.
George W. Bush
43rd president of the US who began a campaign toward energy self-sufficiency and against terrorism in 2001
Osama Bin Laden
Founder of Al Qaeda, the terrorist network responsible for the attacks of September 11, 2001, and other attacks.
This law passed after 9/11 expanded the tools used to fight terrorism and improved communication between law enforcement and intelligence agencies
A group of fundamentalist Muslims who took control of Afghanistan's government in 1996
a radical Islamic group organized by Osama bin Laden in the 1990s to engage in terrorist activities
(1907-1964) United States biologist remembered for her opposition to the use of pesticides that were hazardous to wildlife, wrote Silent Spring
an independent federal agency established to coordinate programs aimed at reducing pollution and protecting the environment
A fund created by Congress in 1980 to clean up hazardous waste sites. Money for the fund comes from taxing chemical products.
a productive system based on service work and computer technology, instead of manufacturing
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
✓ Revised First Quarter Review U.S. History
American Pageant Chapter 13
AP US History Period 2
Period 4 (1800-1848) Antebellum Period -…
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Period 8 - APUSH Vocab Terms
APUSH Period 6 (1895-1898)
53 Frequently Tested AP US History Terms…
(5.6) Reconstruction - AP US History