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Bio 240 Final
Terms in this set (78)
During photosynthesis, the movement of electrons along the electron transport chain releases free energy, which is directly used to _____________________.
Power the chemiosmosis of H+ across the thylakoid membrane.
Which of the following is TRUE concerning the Pressure Flow Hypothesis?
Phloem sap is transported from source to sink due to positive pressure.
Which of the following will occur after a plant closes all of its stomata?
Gas exchange will be significantly reduced.
Transpiration will slow down and eventually cease.
Photosynthesis will eventually cease.
During a relaxing hike into Wintergreen Gorge, you stumble across a 50-foot tall representative of Kingdom Plantae, with needle-shaped leaves. Using your knowledge of plant anatomy and taxonomy, you conclude that this organism must ___________________.
be a vascular plant
Water transported in the symplast can readily pass through the ___________ on its way to the xylem in the roots.
You would expect a plant to up-regulate stomata production (and thus stomatal density) under low CO2 conditions.
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of all organisms within the Kingdom Plantae?
Mycorrhizae share a symbiotic relationship with many plant species because ____________.
They aid in the uptake and transformation of water and nutrients from the soil.
Which of the following is characteristic of gymnosperms?
They exhibit strictly single fertilization.
Short-distance transport in plants is driven primarily by __________ concentration, while long-distance transport is driven largely by _____________ gradients.
What role does NADPH play in the Calvin Cycle?
NADPH reduces three-carbon sugars to create G3P by donating electrons from the Light Reactions.
The idea stating that undifferentiated cells develop their "identity" due to progenitor cell from which they divided is referring to _____________________.
Which of the following is TRUE regarding primary growth?
Mature xylem cells arise from the procambium.
While shopping at your local Giant Eagle, you come across a shopper picking out potatoes. Emboldened by your knowledge of plant organs, you annoyingly interrupt this person by informing them that potatoes are actually _________________.
Cell expansion in plants occurs due to ________________________________.
The uptake of water into a central vacuole.
Although chlorophyll a is the primary pigment type, plants utilize several other accessory pigments. What is the benefit of these secondary pigments?
They enable plants to perform photosynthesis using a broader range of wavelengths.
Short-distance transport of H+ across the cell membrane typically requires _____________________.
Stomata open when their guard cells become _______ due to the opening of _____ channels.
Plant cells retain the ability to dedifferentiate throughout their lifetime.
While exploring Penn State Behrend's campus (it's a certified arboretum!), you come across a non-native plant featuring enormous leaves. Based on the size of these leaves, this plant is most likely native to a(n) ___________________.
Based on your understanding of electromagnetic energy, which of the following statements is TRUE?
Purple photons travel at the highest-energy wavelengths.
Which of the following is TRUE regarding primary growth in the root system?
Lateral roots originate from meristemic cells in the pericycle.
After a thrilling BIOL 240 lecture about plant development, you run to Lowe's in search of a pet plant for your dorm room. A friendly employee recommends a small hibiscus shrub (an angiosperm), claiming that the plant would not grow any larger. You politely correct this individual by explaining that _____________________________.
Plants exhibit indeterminate growth.
Why might drought conditions affect the yield of a crop composed of C3 plants?
The dry air and intense sunlight would force the plants to keep their stomata closed.
Atrazine, one of the most commonly used herbicides in North America, acts by inhibiting Photosystem II in weeds and other pest species. Why might exposure to this compound result in a plant's death?
The Calvin Cycle would eventually stop producing sugars due to a lack of production from the Light Reactions.
Another herbicidal compound, chloramphenicol, inhibits the Calvin Cycle of plants. Why might exposure to this compound ultimately lead to the shut down the Light Reactions?
The Calvin Cycle recycles several vital components of the Light Reactions.
Primary and secondary growth can occur in a plant simultaneously, but not in the same area at the same time.
After your first failed attempt to purchase a pet plant, you return to Lowe's and peruse the bizarrely expansive desert succulent plant collection. You can safely assume that these plants ____________________.
are CAM plants
A plant is watered with a sucrose solution exhibiting a solute pressure (ψs) of -0.30 MPa. The cells of this plant have a solute pressure of -0.20 MPa. Assuming the pressure potential (ψp) is equal to zero, what will happen to the plant cells in this solution?
The cells will lose water and the plant will wilt.
After graduating from Penn State Behrend, you accept a position as a research scientist at Dow Chemical. Your first task is to develop a new pesticide that selectively targets plants. Consequently, you synthesize a compound that ______________________.
Inactivates the enzyme rubisco.
In Photosystem II, after the P680 chlorophyll molecules donate their electrons to an electron acceptor, they receive replacement electrons from _________________.
C4 and CAM plants have evolved metabolic mechanisms that enable them to carry out the Calvin Cycle even when their stomata are closed. How are they able to do this?
They convert CO2 into stable intermediate forms that can be utilized at a later time.
Gametophytes (n) give rise to gametes (n) via meiosis.
The year is 2040: extraterrestrial life has just been discovered! You are tasked with identifying the chemical composition of this alien life form. During this process you discover an unknown element. How do you determine whether this element is a macronutrient or a micronutrient?
It is a macronutrient if it is required in high quantities.
Which of the following is a consequence of irresponsible agricultural practices?
Cytokinins act to stimulate lateral growth from axillary buds, while auxin acts to inhibit such growth (maintaining apical dominance).
After skipping BIOL 240 lecture to binge-watch a marathon of The Great British Baking Show on Netflix, you develop a craving for mulberry pie. You seek to satisfy this craving by acquiring a stem-cutting from your neighbor's mulberry tree, and planting it in your yard. You have just performed the reproductive act of __________________.
When you planted your mulberry shoot-cutting, the relatively high accumulation of ____________ at the site of the wound (callus) stimulated the growth of new roots.
Commonly posted in anticipation for a spicy internet discussion, this dank meme features the King of Pop feasting on ______________ at the movie theater.
The creation of spores (mega or micro) occurs via meiosis.
During an experiment, a petri dish full of plant cells is treated with cytokinins alone. You would correctly predict that this hormone treatment would ________________________.
None of the above
For plants experiencing drought conditions, which of the following responses would be adaptive?
Opening of stomata
As a new employee for the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection, you are assigned to a wetland contaminated by toxic levels of soil/sediment cations (Zn2+, Mg2+, Al3+). In order to remediate the site, truckloads of sediment are transported to a facility for chemical clean-up. Based on your understanding of cation exchange, you suggest the following sediment treatment: ________________________.
Washing and draining the sediment with an acidic solution.
A germinating root exhibits ______________ due in part to the orientation of starchy structures called ______________.
positive gravitropism; statoliths
Which of the following is TRUE regarding a mutant plant that overproduces ethylene?
The plant would develop a thick, curved shoot system.
On your next assignment with the Pennsylvania DEP, you are sent to an abandoned mine that has become severely contaminated by heavy metals, such as lead and cadmium. In order to clean up the site, you develop a transgenic plant that can accumulate high concentrations of these contaminants within its tissues. Your approach of cultivating these plants in the contaminated site is an example of _________________.
When a plant is receiving sufficient sunlight, its phytochrome receptors are rapidly converted from PFR to PR.
Which of the following is TRUE concerning seed germination?
The radicle is the first embryonic structure to emerge.
Which of the following is NOT a benefit of asexual reproduction?
Increased genetic variation
Cold/freezing stress is dangerous to plants because ______________________.
Osmosis out of the cytoplasm increases the solute concentration to toxic levels.
Which of the following is TRUE concerning the relationship between plants and bacteria?
Rhizobacteria perform nitrogen fixation for plants.
Plants house rhizobacteria in anaerobic root nodules.
Plants provide a source of energy (sugars) to the rhizobacteria.
Self-fertilization ("selfing") is more likely to occur in a monoecious plant compared to a dioecious plant.
Which of the following statements is FALSE?
phytochromes respond most strongly to blue light.
While inspecting his crops, a farmer is surprised to find that some of his corn appeared to be sprouting from their kernels. Based on your knowledge of plant hormones, it is likely that the affected kernels ______________________.
are underproducing abscisic acid
Which of the following is TRUE regarding plant immunity?
Effectors are molecules produced by pathogens that can block PAMP-triggered immunity.
The reproductive organ of a plant that produces female gametophytes is the _____________.
Many angiosperms produce flowers that store their sugary nectar in narrow, tube-like structures called nectaries. Common pollinators of these angiosperms exhibit traits that allow them to access these elusive sources of energy. The existence of these traits is likely the result of __________________.
Which of the following is TRUE concerning male gametophytes in angiosperms?
Male gametophytes are produced in the stamen.
A farming corporation called Salty Seed® uses "flood" irrigation to water their fields. If this irrigation technique is continued over several consecutive growing seasons, how might this practice affect their crop yield?
Crop yield would decrease due to the increasing solute concentrations in the soil.
Which of the following is FALSE concerning the Hypersensitive Response?
It is an evolved defense against herbivorous species (grasshoppers).
After returning to the previously uncharted island, you discover a new species of angiosperm. You collect a single plant from the wild and bring it back to your field research facility (Transpiration Station) for observation. Several weeks later, you are surprised to discover that this plant produced several seeds, despite being grown in complete isolation from other plants. You conclude that this species ______________________.
Reproduces via apomixis
While working in a botany research lab, you attempt to fertilize a plant with the following S-gene genotype: S1S3. Assuming this species exhibits gametophytic self-incompatibility, which of the following pollen grains would result in successful fertilization?
Which of the following is TRUE concerning thigmotropism?
Auxin accumulates in cells on the non-contacted side of the shoot.
After watching Guy Fieri noisily and single-handedly ingest a full 16" pizza on Diners, Drive-ins, and Dives, you decide to create your own home-made pizza. Luckily, you purchased a whole bag of fresh tomatoes last week, so you don't even need to run to the store! To your dismay, as you pull out your bag of tomatoes, you find that they are all spoiled. Using your BIOL 240 knowledge, you sadly realize that _______________.
Your tomatoes spoiled due to the accumulation of ethylene in the bag.
After analyzing the elemental composition of a plant tissue sample, you obtain the percent composition for each of the following essential nutrients:
C (90%), O (5%), N (2%), P (2%), ... Mo (0.0001%)
Based on this information, you can safely conclude that _____________________.
Molybdenum is a micronutrient.
Strigolactone hormones were named after _________________.
A mythical parasitic creature that feeds on the life-force of children.
Which of the following is TRUE concerning gastrulation in human embryos?
The cells of the epiblast invaginate to form the primitive streak.
If an animal exhibits a variable body temperature that fluctuates significantly in response to changes in the environment, this animal would be most accurately classified as a(n) ________________.
Cell determination is initiated by internal signals such as _________________, and external signals such as __________________.
Cytoplasmic determinants; induction signaling
Spermatogenesis in animals involves ______ round(s) of meiosis, ultimately resulting in four _______________.
Two; haploid spermatids
In animals with complex body plans, the ratio of surface area to volume has important implications for thermoregulation. For example, smaller animals have a lower surface area to volume ratio (SA:V) and can generally retain body heat better than larger animals.
During fertilization in frogs, the ___________ hemisphere rotates toward the site of sperm-egg fusion, revealing the ________________.
animal; gray crescent
Like most college students on a Friday night, you decide to head into the lab and hang out with your fruit fly cultures. While reviewing the recently sequenced genomes of your flies, you discover a mutation of the bicoid gene that results in the development of larvae with two tails (and no head). You conclude that the mechanism behind this mutation most likely involves _________________________.
Disruption to the production/distribution of cytoplasmic determinants.
The structure that secretes hormones and facilitates the exchange of nutrients and gases between mother and fetus is known as the ________________.
During neurulation, the ectoderm develops into the _______________, which ultimately matures into the _________________________.
neural tube; brain and spinal cord
Moles (mammals) and mole crickets (insects) possess strikingly similar shovel-like appendages, which evolved as adaptations for life underground; however, these animals are very distantly related. Thus, you can conclude that these structures arose are a result of ________________.
On a cold night in Erie, you might feel the desire to cuddle up next to a warm, furry friend (e.g., cat, dog, significant other). This mechanism of thermoregulation is known as ______________.
The development of the four extraembryonic membranes is an adaptation for reproduction in aquatic environments.
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