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Short Answer Water Resources Final
Terms in this set (26)
Explain the state changes of water and the processes involved, including latent heat release or storage
Latent heat absorbed- Solid->Liquid -> Gas
(Solid to Gas is Sublimation)
Latent Heat absorbed Gas->Liquid->solid
(Gas to solid Deposition)
4 Main cause of water pollution
2. Garbage Disposal
3. Agriculture runoff
4. Industrial Discharge
1.5 mil deaths cause by water pollution a year
Economic water scarcity and physical water scarcity
Economic water scarcity- lack of investment in infrastructure to withdraw water
Physical- water demand exceeds water availability
8 Factors that affect infiltration
1. Soil Texture
2. Soil Compaction
3. Soil Frost
4. Impervious Cover
5. Vegetative cover
6. rainfall rate
Explain 3 methods of groundwater remediation
1. Pump and Treat- contaminated water is pumped to a treatment facility
2. Permeable Reactive Barriers- Giant filter put in the ground water to flow through
3. Natural Attenuation- natural biological and chemical processes that breakdown contaminants
4 main points to remember when dealing with groundwater in a karst area
1. Flow is usually along solutionally enlarged fissures and conduits
2. F&C systems characterized my large diameter opening and high velocity. Darcys law does not apply.
3. Drainage divides and water table are difficulty to define
4. Flow divergencies are common and may vary depending on stage
Explain the major steps in the Drinking Water Treatment process.
1) Prescreening of large debris before pumping to plant.
2)Flocculation/coagulation agent added: fine suspended matter is cause to clump and settle or float to top
3) Clarifier basins- mixture is stirred and clumped matter is removed.
4) Filtration- coal, sand, gravel, ceramic screens
5) Final Chemicals- Chlorine
Explain the major steps in the Waste Water Treatment process.
1) Screened for large solids
2) Grit chamber and 1st clarification
3) Aeration tank- allows bacteria to eat waste
4) 2nd clarifier
5) final disinfectant- i.e. UV- sludge mixed with lye for fertilizer.
Explain some strategies to deal with urban storm water runoff quality and quantity.
1) Reduce Runoff
2) Trap oil and sediment
3) Pollution prevention- buffer strips, fertilizer use
4) Pollution Tx.- bioretention ponds, grassed swales
Name and explain 5 physical flood control measures.
1) Levees- linear earthen embankments parallel to stream.
2) Flood Walls- concrete, usually in cities
3) Dams/reservoirs- Store Water and release slowly
4) Channelization- straightening, widening, and/or deepening on channel
5) Spillways - Channel diversions
What were the major points of the National Floodplain Insurance Program?
- program to provide flood insurance to homeowners living in participating communities
-communities must agree to adopt standards like floodplain zoning and flood proof structures
- most bank require it if home is located within 100yr floodplain
Explain leakage problems at Center Hill Dam and Wolf Creek Dam and what has been done to remediate.
- Leakage due to limestone bedrock.- Fluctuates with reservoir level
- Grouting(fills holes with hot cement like dentist)
- Wolf creek had 400 holes.
Name and describe 3 types of dams. What are some of the problems created by large dams on a river?
1) Earthen- made of compacted rock or soil
2) Arch- concrete, arched pointed upstream, attached to bedrock on both sides
3) Gravity- holds back water based on sheer mass
Problems: prevents fish migration, temp change above/below
Define and give some details about each of the following water quality parameters: temperature, turbidity, pH, hardness, DO, VOCs, PCBs, Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia
1)Temp- changed by dams, pollution, removal of riparian vegetation. Effects DO and therefore fish.
2)Turbidity- Consumption must be <5 NTUs. Sediment may contain contaminants.
3)pH- Drinking water requires 6.5-8.5. if too acidic can leach lead from pipes.
4)Hardness- amount of Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn. Soft=less, Hard=more
5)DO- Higher DO supports abundant fish pop. reducers are: high aquatic veggies, die off of aquatic veggies, stagnant water, lower atmospheric pressure.
6)VOCs- Volatile Organic Compounds. easily dispersed in air, little effect on water quality.
7)PCBs- Insulator and in electrical equip. banned in 1976. Hudson R. dredged and removed 2 million M^3
8)CP & Giardia - contaminants from fecal waste that cause GI issues. Drinking standard goal is 0mg/L
Explain the levees only policy and the problems associated with levees?
1) "levees only policy"-only need to focus on levees to control flooding up until 1927 when many failed- began implementing dams and spillways in addition to levees.
2) problems:- Can fail during large floods that remain high for long periods of time because:- the levee gets saturated- water can get pushed under and create boil on other side of levee
Explain the problems faced by engineers at the Atchafalaya cutoff along the Mississippi River.
- it is a distributary of the Miss. River.
- it offers a shorter steeper course to ocean
- 30% of Miss. River flows into the Atchafalaya.
- Spillways are placed to:
1) Delay Miss. River flowing into the Atchafalaya
2) To release water from MR and prevent flooding down to NOLA.
Explain the problems encountered along the Yellow River of China when trying to mitigate flooding with levees.
- Siltiest river in the world- 2000 tones/km^2/year- The sediment deposition has raised the river bed higher that surrounding areas- if/when levees succumbed, the river was near impossible to recapture- broke levee on purpose during war to defend against Japan
Explain the 4 categories of infectious diseases associated with water, give an example of each.
1) Waterborne- spread by water (cholera)
2) Water-washed- spread by lack of water for personal hygiene and insanitary conditions (scabies, typhus)
3) Water-based- spread by aquatic invertebrates (Schistosomiasis, snail fever)
4) Vector-based water related- spread by insects that need water to complete life cycle (malaria)
Describe the 4 areas globally where deserts are located (give the atmospheric reason why these deserts occur in these regions)
1) Polar - too cold to hold moisture
2) Landlocked - Gobi desert
3) Rain shadows- Great basin
4) consistently high atmospheric pressure from Hadley cells- Saharan
5) Coastal areas adjacent to cols currents- temp cant produce rain- Namib, Great Sandy
Why is chlorine added to drinking water? What are the possible negative human health impacts of adding chlorine to drinking water?
- Added to disinfect water for drinking after filtration
- Cheap and very effective
- Can react with DOC and forms THMs and HAAs which are classified as carcinogenic
Why is fluoride added to drinking water? What are the possible negative human health impacts of adding fluoride to drinking water?
- it has been shown to reduce cavities if consumed during enamel calcification period (children)
- it can cause teeth mottling(thick enamel)
- can cause excessive bone formation and calcification of ligaments
Explain how Los Angles and other southern California towns are supplied with water.
- MWD gets water from CO River aqueduct (30%)
- Groundwater (20%)
- CA and LA aqueduct (50%)
- to LA has 7000 miles of pipe, 4-10 in diameter
- and from 0-2400 asl, so has 85 booster stations
Describe the water supply system for New York City and associated problems.
- Manhattan is atop a very thin later of glacial outwash with a thick metamorphic bedrock, which has a low conductivity.
- the top thin layer quickly got contaminated with population growth.
- Firefighters couldn't be effective because low pressure
- Started using and outgrew the Croton River watershed
- Finally made an aqueduct system from Catskill watershed under NY, up to 500 ft below surface.
- NJ sued NYC, lost due to population size difference
Flood recurrence interval (What is it? How is it calculated?)
- Average time interval between similar floods (in yrs)
- T = (n + 1) / mn= # of years of recordm= rank order of flood dischargeT= recurrence interval (yr)
Explain the "drying climate" theory of plant domestication.
-Climate change after the last glacial period caused dry seasons
- This favored annual that die and leave seed or tuber
- The abundance of storable wild grains enables hunter and gatherers to form first settled villages.
Explain the characteristics of "hydraulic civilizations" and give some examples.
- early cities dependent on water for irrigation to grow the crops that feed the population
- Despotism- all powerful ruler or ruling class
- rulers sometimes viewed as gods
- rulers used their control of water as a basis for their power.
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