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EHS AP Psychology Dandy Duo for AP Exam (Units 3, 6)
Advanced Placement Psychology Enterprise High School, Redding, CA All terms from Myers Psychology for AP (BFW Worth, 2011)
Terms in this set (116)
the process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system receive and represent stimulus energies from our environment.
the process of organizing and interpreting sensory information, enabling us to recognize meaningful objects and events.
analysis that begins with the sensory receptors and works up to the brain's integration of sensory information.
information processing guided by higher-level mental processes, as when we construct perceptions drawing on our experience and expectations.
the focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus.
failing to see visible objects when our attention is directed elsewhere.
failing to notice changes in the environment.
the study of relationships between the physical characteristics of stimuli, such as their intensity, and our psychological experience of them.
the minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus 50 percent of the time.
signal detection theory
a theory predicting how and when we detect the presence of a faint stimulus (signal) amid background stimulation (noise). Assumes there is no single absolute threshold and that detection depends partly on a person's experience, expectations, motivation, and alertness.
psychoanalytic defense mechanism by which people re-channel their unacceptable impulses into socially approved activities.
the activation, often unconsciously, of certain associations, thus predisposing one's perception, memory, or response.
the minimum difference between two stimuli required for detection 50 percent of the time. Also called the just noticeable difference (jnd).
the principle that, to be perceived as different, two stimuli must differ by a constant percentage (rather than a constant amount).
diminished sensitivity as a consequence of constant stimulation.
conversion of one form of energy into another. In sensation, the transforming of stimulus energies, such as sights, sounds, and smells, into neural impulses our brains can interpret.
the distance from the peak of one light or sound wave to the peak of the next. Electromagnetic versions of this vary from the short blips of cosmic rays to the long pulses of radio transmission.
the dimension of color that is determined by the wavelength of light; what we know as the color names blue, green, and so forth.
the amount of energy in a light or sound wave, which we perceive as brightness or loudness, as determined by the wave's amplitude.
the adjustable opening in the center of the eye through which light enters.
a ring of muscle tissue that forms the colored portion of the eye around the pupil and controls the size of the pupil opening.
the transparent structure behind the pupil that changes shape to help focus images on the retina.
the light-sensitive inner surface of the eye, containing the receptor rods and cones plus layers of neurons that begin the processing of visual information.
Sensation - the process by which the eye's lens changes shape to focus near or far objects on the retina.
retinal receptors that detect black, white, and gray; necessary for peripheral and twilight vision, when cones don't respond.
retinal receptor cells that are concentrated near the center of the retina and that function in daylight or in well-lit conditions. These detect fine detail and give rise to color sensations.
the nerve that carries neural impulses from the eye to the brain.
the point at which the optic nerve leaves the eye and no receptor cells are located there.
the central focal point in the retina, around which the eye's cones cluster.
nerve cells in the brain that respond to specific features of the stimulus, such as shape, angle, or movement.
the processing of many aspects of a problem simultaneously; the brain's natural mode of information processing for many functions, including vision. Contrasts with the step-by-step (serial) processing of most computers and of conscious problem solving.
Young-Helmholtz trichromatic (three-color) theory
the theory that the retina contains three different color receptors—one most sensitive to red, one to green, one to blue—which, when stimulated in combination, can produce the perception of any color.
the theory that opposing retinal processes (red-green, yellow-blue, white-black) enable color vision. For example, some cells are stimulated by green and inhibited by red; others are stimulated by red and inhibited by green.
the sense or act of hearing.
the number of complete wavelengths that pass a point in a given time (for example, per second).
a tone's experienced highness or lowness; depends on frequency.
the chamber between the eardrum and cochlea containing three tiny bones (hammer, anvil, and stirrup) that concentrate the vibrations of the eardrum on the cochlea's oval window.
a coiled, bony, fluid-filled tube in the inner ear through which sound waves trigger nerve impulses
the innermost part of the ear, containing the cochlea, semicircular canals, and vestibular sacs.
in hearing, the theory that links the pitch we hear with the place where the cochlea's membrane is stimulated.
in hearing, the theory that the rate of nerve impulses traveling up the auditory nerve matches the frequency of a tone, thus enabling us to sense its pitch.
conduction hearing loss
hearing loss caused by damage to the mechanical system that conducts sound waves to the cochlea.
sensorineural hearing loss
hearing loss caused by damage to the cochlea's receptor cells or to the auditory nerves; also called nerve deafness.
a device for converting sounds into electrical signals and stimulating the auditory nerve through electrodes threaded into the cochlea.
the system for sensing the position and movement of individual body parts.
the sense of body movement and position, including the sense of balance.
the theory that the spinal cord contains a neurological "gate" that blocks pain signals or allows them to pass on to the brain. The "gate" is opened by the activity of pain signals traveling up small nerve fibers and is closed by activity in larger fibers or by information coming from the brain.
the principle that one sense may influence another, as when the smell of food influences its taste.
an organized whole. These type of psychologists emphasized our tendency to integrate pieces of information into meaningful wholes
the organization of the visual field into objects (the figures) that stand out from their surroundings (the ground).
the perceptual tendency to organize stimuli into coherent groups.
the ability to see objects in three dimensions although the images that strike the retina are two-dimensional; allows us to judge distance.
a laboratory device for testing depth perception in infants and young animals.
depth cues, such as retinal disparity, that depend on the use of two eyes.
a binocular cue for perceiving depth by comparing images from the retinas in the two eyes, the brain computes distance—the greater the disparity (difference) between the two images, the closer the object.
depth cues, such as interposition and linear perspective, available to either eye alone.
an illusion of movement created when two or more adjacent lights blink on and off in quick succession.
perceiving objects as unchanging (having consistent shapes, size, lightness, and color) even as illumination and retinal images change.
perceiving familiar objects as having consistent color, even if changing illumination alters the wavelengths reflected by the object.
in vision, the ability to adjust to an artificially displaced or even inverted visual field.
a mental predisposition to perceive one thing and not another.
extrasensory perception (ESP)
the controversial claim that perception can occur apart from sensory input; includes telepathy, clairvoyance, and precognition.
the study of paranormal phenomena, including ESP and psychokinesis.
a branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span.
the fertilized egg; it enters a 2-week period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo.
the developing human organism from about 2 weeks after fertilization through the second month.
the developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth.
agents, such as chemicals and viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm.
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)
physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by a pregnant woman's heavy drinking. In severe cases, symptoms include noticeable facial misproportions.
decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation. As infants gain familiarity with repeated exposure to a visual stimulus, their interest wanes and they look away sooner.
biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience.
all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating.
a concept or framework that organizes and interprets information.
interpreting our new experience in terms of our existing schemas.
Development - adapting our current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new information.
in Piaget's theory, the stage (from birth to about 2 years of age) during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities.
the awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived.
in Piaget's theory, the stage (from 2 to about 6 or 7 years of age) during which a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic.
the principle (which Piaget believed to be a part of concrete operational reasoning) that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects.
in Piaget's theory, the preoperational child's difficulty taking another's point of view.
Theory of Mind
people's ideas about their own and others' mental states—about their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts, and the behaviors these might predict.
Concrete Operational Stage
in Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (from about 6 or 7 to 11 years of age) during which children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events.
Formal Operational Stage
in Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (normally beginning about age 12) during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts.
a disorder that appears in childhood and is marked by deficient communication, social interaction, and understanding of others' states of mind.
the fear of strangers that infants commonly display, beginning by about 8 months of age.
an emotional tie with another person; shown in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver and showing distress on separation.
an optimal period shortly after birth when an organism's exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces proper development.
the process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life.
a person's characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity.
according to Erik Erikson, a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy; said to be formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with responsive caregivers.
all our thoughts and feelings about ourselves, in answer to the question, "Who am I?"
in psychology, the biologically and socially influenced characteristics by which people define male and female.
physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt someone.
the sex chromosome found in both men and women. Females have two of these; males have one. One chromosome from each parent produces a female child.
the sex chromosome found only in males. When paired with an X chromosome from the mother, it produces a male child.
the most important of the male sex hormones. Both males and females have it, but the additional levels in males stimulates the growth of the male sex organs in the fetus and the development of the male sex characteristics during puberty.
a set of expectations (norms) about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave.
a set of expected behaviors for males or for females.
our sense of being male or female.
the acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role.
Social Learning Theory
the theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished.
the transition period from childhood to adulthood, extending from puberty to independence.
the period of sexual maturation, during which a person becomes capable of reproducing.
Primary Sex Characteristics
the body structures (ovaries, testes, and external genitalia) that make sexual reproduction possible.
Secondary Sex Characteristics
nonreproductive sexual characteristics, such as female breasts and hips, male voice quality, and body hair.
the first menstrual period.
our sense of self; according to Erikson, the adolescent's task is to solidify a sense of self by testing and integrating various roles.
the "we" aspect of our self-concept; the part of our answer to "Who am I?" that comes from our group memberships.
in Erikson's theory, the ability to form close, loving relationships; a primary developmental task in late adolescence and early adulthood.
for some people in modern cultures, a period from the late teens to mid-twenties, bridging the gap between adolescent dependence and full independence and responsible adulthood.
the time of natural cessation of menstruation; also refers to the biological changes a woman experiences as her ability to reproduce declines.
a study in which people of different ages are compared with one another.
research in which the same people are restudied and retested over a long period.
our accumulated knowledge and verbal skills; tends to increase with age.
our ability to reason speedily and abstractly; tends to decrease during late adulthood.
the culturally preferred timing of social events such as marriage, parenthood, and retirement.
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