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AP Gov Chapters 12-13
Terms in this set (87)
One of the persons represented by a legislator or other elected or appointed official.
The actions and behaviors of a member of Congress aimed at the constituents and intended to win the support and trust of the voters at home.
The actions and behaviors of a member of Congress in Washington, D.C., intended to promote policies and the member's own career aspirations.
The division of a legislature into two separate assemblies.
The process of establishing the legal rules that govern society
An arrangement in which two or more members of Congress agree in advance to support each other's bills
The function of members of Congress as elected officials representing the views of their constituents.
A legislator who acts according to her or his conscience and the broad interests of the entire society.
A legislator who is an agent of the voters who elected him or her and who votes according to the views of constituents regardless of personal beliefs.
Personal work for constituents by members of Congress.
A person who hears and investigates complaints by private individuals against public officials or agencies
The process by which Congress follows up on laws it has enacted to ensure that they are being enforced and administered in the way Congress intended.
A power specifically granted to the national government by the Constitution - the first 17 clauses of article I specify most of the powers of congress
A standing committee of the House of Representatives that provides special rules under which specific bills can be debated, amended, and considered by the house.
The proposal by the Rules Committee of the House that states the conditions for debate for one piece of legislation.
unanimous consent agreement
an agreement on the rules of debate for proposed legislation in the Senate that is approved by all the members
The use of the Senate's tradition of unlimited debate as a delaying tactic to block a bill.
An intraparty election in which the voters select the candidates who will run on a party's ticket in the subsequent general election.
a person who identifies with a political party
The allocation of seats in the House of Representatives to each state after each census.
The redrawing of the boundaries of the congressional districts within each state
a question that may be raised and reviewed in court
The drawing of legislative district boundary lines to obtain partisan or factional advantage. A district is said to be gerrymandered when its shape is manipulated by the dominant party in the state legislature to maximize electoral strength at the expense of the minority party.
A temporary legislative committee established for a limited time period and for a special purpose.
A legislative committee composed of members from both chambers of Congress
A special joint committee appointed to reconcile differences when bills pass the two chambers of Congress in different forms.
A custom followed in both chambers of Congress specifying that the member of the majority party with the longest term of continuous service will be given preference when a committee chairperson (or a holder of some other significant post) is selected.
A district that returns a legislator with 55 percent of the vote or more.
Speaker of the house
The presiding officer in the House of Representatives. The Speaker is always a member of the majority party and is the most powerful and influential member of the House.
Majority Leader of the House
A legislative position held by an important party member in the House of Representatives. The majority leader is selected by the majority party in caucus or conference to foster cohesion among party members and to act as spokesperson for the majority party in the House.
Minority leader of the house
The party leader elected by the minority party in the House.
A member of Congress who aids the majority or minority leader of the House or the Senate.
President pro tempore
The temporary presiding officer of the Senate in the absence of the vice president.
Senate majority leader
The chief spokesperson of the majority party in the Senate, who directs the legislative program and party strategy.
Senate Minority Leader
The party officer in the Senate who commands the minority party's opposition to the policies of the majority party and directs the legislative program and strategy of his or her party.
An alliance of Republicans and southern Democrats that can form in the House or the Senate to oppose liberal legislation and support conservative legislation.
Blue Dog Democrats
Members of Congress from more moderate states or districts who sometimes "cross over" to vote with Republicans on legislation.
Funding appropriations that are specifically designated for a named project in a member's state or district.
Special projects or appropriations that are intended to benefit a member's district or state; slang term for earmarks.
The budget prepared and submitted by the president to Congress.
Fiscal Year (FY)
A 12-month period that is used for bookkeeping, or accounting, purposes. Usually, the fiscal year does not coincide with the calendar year. For example, the federal government's fiscal year runs from October 1 through September 30.
The annual process in which the Office of Management and Budget requires federal agencies to review their programs, activities, and goals and submit their requests for funding for the next fiscal year.
The annual process in which the Office of Management and Budget, after receiving formal federal agency requests for funding for the next fiscal year, reviews the requests, makes changes, and submits its recommendations to the president.
A formal declaration by a legislative committee that a certain amount of funding may be available to an agency. Some authorizations terminate in a year; others are renewable automatically without further congressional action.
The passage, by Congress, of a spending bill specifying the amount of authorized funds that actually will be allocated for an agency's use.
First Budget Resolution
A resolution passed by Congress in May that sets overall revenue and spending goals for the following fiscal year.
Second Budget Resolution
A resolution passed by Congress in September that sets "binding" limits on taxes and spending for the following fiscal year.
A temporary funding law that Congress passes when an appropriations bill has not been decided by the beginning of the new fiscal year on October 1.
An amendment to the Constitution, adopted in 1804, that specifies the separate election of the president and vice president by the electoral college.
Head of state
The role of the president as ceremonial head of the government.
The role of the president as head of the executive branch of the government.
A written declaration that a president may make when signing a bill into law. Usually, such statements point out sections of the law that the president deems unconstitutional.
A collective term for the body of employees working for the government. Generally, civil service is understood to apply to all those who gain government employment through a merit system.
The authority vested in the president to fill a government office or position. Positions filled by presidential appointment include those in the executive branch and the federal judiciary, commissioned officers in the armed forces, and members of the independent regulatory commissions.
A formal postponement of the execution of a sentence imposed by a court of law
A release from the punishment for or legal consequences of a crime; a pardon can be granted by the president before or after a conviction.
Commander in Chief
The role of the president as supreme commander of the military forces of the United States and of the state National Guard units when they are called into federal service
War Powers Resolution
A law passed in 1973 in reaction to American fighting in Vietnam and Cambodia that requires presidents to consult with Congress whenever possible prior to using military force and to withdraw forces after 60 days unless Congress declares war or grants an extension. Presidents view the resolution as unconstitutional.
advice and consent
Terms in the Constitution describing the U.S. Senate's power to review and approve treaties and presidential appointments.
The role of the president in recognizing foreign governments, making treaties, and effecting executive agreements.
The formal acknowledgment of a foreign government as legitimate.
An international agreement made by the president, without senatorial ratification, with the head of a foreign state.
The role of the president in influencing the making of laws.
State of the Union Message
An annual message to Congress in which the president proposes a legislative program. The message is addressed not only to Congress but also to the American people and to the world.
The president's formal explanation of a veto when legislation is returned to Congress.
A special veto exercised by the chief executive after a legislative body has adjourned. Bills not signed by the chief executive die after a specified period of time. If Congress wishes to reconsider such a bill, it must be reintroduced in the following session of Congress.
The power of an executive to veto individual lines or items within a piece of legislation without vetoing the entire bill - Money only!
A power vested in the president by Article II of the Constitution.
A power created for the president through laws enacted by Congress.
A power of the president that is expressly written into the Constitution or into statutory law.
A power of the president derived from the statements in the Constitution that "the executive Power shall be vested in a President" and that the president should "take Care that the Laws be faithfully executed"; defined through practice rather than through law.
The practice of rewarding faithful party workers and followers with government employment and contracts.
Individuals regularly involved with politics in Washington, D.C.
An inherent power exercised by the president during a period of national crisis.
a rule or regulation issued by the president that has the effect of law. They implement and give administrative effect to provisions in the constitution to treaties and to statutes.
A publication of the U.S. government that prints executive orders, rules, and regulations.
The right of executive officials to withhold information from or to refuse to appear before a legislative committee
An action by the House of Representatives to accuse the president, vice president, or other civil officers of the United States of committing "Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors."
An advisory group selected by the president to aid in making decisions. The cabinet includes the heads of fifteen executive departments and others named by the president
The informal advisers to the president.
EOP (Executive Office of the President)
An organization established by President Franklin D. Roosevelt to assist the president in carrying out major duties.
White House office
The personal office of the president, which tends to presidential political needs and manages the media
A coordinated and planned strategy carried out by the White House to increase the president's popularity and support
Chief of Staff
The person who is named to direct the White House Office and advise the president.
Office of Management and Budget
A division of the Executive Office of the President created by executive order in 1970 to replace the Bureau of the Budget. The OMB's main functions are to assist the president in preparing the annual budget, to clear and coordinate all department agency budgets, to help set fiscal policy, and to supervise the administration of the federal budget.
National Security Council
An agency in the Executive Office of the President that advises the president on national security
A 1967 amendment to the Constitution that establishes procedures for filling presidential and vice presidential vacancies and makes provisions for presidential disability.
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AP GOVERNMENT CHAPTER 13
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