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Test 3 Wes pt 2
Terms in this set (14)
How do ketones influence cardiac vagal tone, synaptic plasticity, neurogenesis, and neuronal stress resistance in the cortical and hippocampal region of the brain?
Ketone to BDNF to Vagal tone
1. metabolic switching promotes cardiac vagal tone linked to increased BDNF
2. BDNF pivotal in synaptic plasticity, neurogenesis, and neural stress resistance
3. BHB induces BDNF in hippocampal and cortical regions
4. Ketones increase vagal tone by decreasing BP, Ketones influence BDNF which increases synaptic plasticity, neurogenesis, and decrease neuronal stress
How has exercise and IF been shown to increase superoxide dismutase activity in the brain?
Exercise- ROS, AMPK, NAD dependent lysine deacetylase, sirtuin-1 (sirt1), and PGC1-alpha
in positive feedback loop PGC1-alpha can enhance BDNF expression and BDNF can increase PGC1-alpha
Exercise and fasting may contribute to mitochondrial biogenesis via a CREB=PGC1-alpha pathway
Wheel running and IF have been shown to increase SIRT3 in cerebral cortical and hippocampal neurons of mice.
SIRT3 mediated deacetylation of ETC and Krebs protein may enhance efficiency of mitochondrial ATP production
SIRT3 deacetylation of superoxide dismutase reduces mitochondrial oxidative stress
Deacetylation of cyclophilin D protects neurons against apoptosis.
Be able to describe the fed vs fast state switching between growth mode and conserve energy mode
Fed state to mTOR to protein synthesis to de novo lipid synthesis
Fasting or prolonged exercise to metabolic on switch to mTOR off to autophagy
rapamycin in rates were linked to health and lifespan of several organ systems extending
The absence of the metabolic switch in the fasting state
could impair autophagy and increase the risk of neurodegenerative disorders
Fed state is the growth state and the mTOR is inducing what
anabolic state protein synthesis and lipid synthesis
Differentiate between chronic and transient activation of the energy status response enzyme
Chronic AMPK activation impairs axonal and dendritic plasticity in the brain; Transient activation enhances cognition and motor system function
Describe the evidence to support fasting following a traumatic brain or spinal cord injury.
Lessens cell death on cortical neurons by fasting.
IF demonstrates preservation on cerebral function.
IF significantly improves recovery of motor function following TBI/spinal cord injury
24 hour fast following TBI lessen cognitive deficits
what is the theorized protective mechanism of intermittent fasting or ketogenic diet on Alzheimers?
Mechanism of protection- fasted mediated up regulated HSP, BDNF, SOD, GPX, and Sirtuins
Fasting associated with reduced inflammatory cytokines
AD associated with severe impairment in glucose uptake
Mice with AD uptake of 800% just 48 hours after onset of fasting which suggests a protective effect of fasting with AD
Explain autophagy and how it is increased with exercise
Body's way of cleaning out damaged cells to regenerate new and healthy cells
AMPK is activated by exercise and AMPK induces autophagy
describe effects of intermittent fasting on EAE in rodents
EAE is induced MS in rodents
IF promoted significant weight loss in rodents
IF decreased incidence and significantly delayed onset and severity of EAE
Which immune cells are known to promote EAE damage? How did IF influence these cells?
CD4 (T helper): significantly produces less IFN gamma, IL 17, GM-CSF
IF delayed onset of EAE
Spinal cord protected- significantly less demyelination
What changes in Leptin and adiponectin are associated with lower systemic inflammation? How did IF effect this ratio in rodents and humans?
low leptin to adiponectin ratio associated with less systemic inflammation
IF lowered rodent leptin levels and increased adiponectin levels (humans similar)
leptin released by fat cells and proportionate to fat mass
adiponectin is released when you lose weight
what was significantly decreased in the IF group to attenuate the innate immune response
TH 17 - these produce pro inflammatory cytokines
play a critical role in activating B cells which are antibody producing
How were CD4, CD8, and T Reg cells altered in humans performing IF?
IF of humans lowered B cells and appeared to show reduction in CD4 and CD8 cells. Maintaining by changing the number of naive CD4 and CD8 (reboot)
T Regulator cells stayed the same in IF; they also were more effective at performing T cell regulation in vitro
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