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Terms in this set (26)
-interaural time difference (ITD)
--> relatively constant for all frequencies
-interaural phase difference (IPD)
-->varies with frequency
interaural level difference
-inverse square law relationship (small)
-sound shadow (especially effective for high frequency sounds)
Assessment of Localization
-left: what frequency range is the most difficult to localize? (duplex theory of localization)
-right: how did this listener perform in noise localization?
Minimal Audible Angle (MAA)
-smallest angular separation between the two sound sources that a listener can detect
-MAA is the smallest at 0 degrees (right in front)
Why does ITD work well for low, but not high, frequencies?
ambiguous temporal cue: phase
Cone of Confusion
one cone of confusion for every sound source
What to do with cone of confusion?
-move your head!
-->original cone of confusion is eliminated
--> head related transfer function (HRTF)
--> pinna, head, and body create small sound shadows, especially for high frequencies
--> amplitude response to different frequency components in complex sounds
How to know the distance (range) of a sound source?
-level ratio between direct sound and reflected sound
-distance judgement is much more difficult than angle judgement
Sound Localization in 3D Space
sound localization cues come from the interaction between source sound and objects it encounters on its way to the auditory system
-horizontal plane --> ITD, IPD, ILD
-vertical plane --> movement, HRTF
-distance --> loudness, level ratio between direct and reflection sounds
where is the sound coming from in the sound field?
which side does the sound come from in the headphones?
-the sound is in your head!
--> sounds from two sides of headphones are fused as one internal image
--> simulates ITD and ILD
sound does not contain a variable called "pitch"
-is a property of perception that provides information about sound sources.
How do we perceive pitch?
-envelope locking responses
standard: sinusoid or pulse train
-equal temperament scale
many factors other than frequency can influence the pitch of a sound (e.g., intensity, duration, presence of masking sounds)
lowest frequency of harmonic spectrum
Auditory system is
acutely sensitive to natural relationships between harmonics
the pitch listeners hear corresponds to the fundamental frequency, even if it is missing
listeners can perceive a pitch for complex sounds that do not have any spectral components at the perceived pitch
-pitch can be estimated from the frequency spacing of harmonics
-even if the fundamental (or other sets of harmonics) are missing, this can still work by finding the best f0 to match the harmonic spacing.
-we need both theories to fully explain the pitch of complex sounds!
each passes through a different filter - resolved
several pass through the same filter - unresolved
Spectral mechanisms rely on
resolved harmonics in order to determine the frequency composition of the sound
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