Organic chemistry is currently defined as
1) the study of compounds made only by living cells.
2) the study of carbon compounds.
3) the study of vital forces.
4) the study of natural (as opposed to synthetic) compounds.
5) the study of hydrocarbons
Which of the following hydrocarbons has a double bond in its carbon skeleton?
Which action could produce a carbonyl group?
1) the replacement of the—OH of a carboxyl group with hydrogen
2) the addition of a thiol to a hydroxyl
3) the addition of a hydroxyl to a phosphate
4) the replacement of the nitrogen of an amine with oxygen
5) the addition of a sulfhydryl to a carboxyl
Which chemical group is most likely to be responsible for an organic molecule behaving as a base?
At the beginning of the 19th century, it was thought that the substances that made up living things were special and could not be synthesized by ordinary chemical methods. This now-discarded theory was called the theory of _____.
1) special creation
2) spontaneous generation
The first organic molecule to be synthesized from inorganic substances that could be prepared directly from inorganic substances was _____.
2) acetic acid
3) ammonium cyanate
Stanley Miller's experiments were significant because he demonstrated that _____.
1) the behavior of any molecule containing a carbon atom was fundamentally the same
2) under certain circumstances the theory of vitalism was valid
3) a variety of simple organic compounds could be spontaneously synthesized from components in Earth's primitive atmosphere
4) lightning discharges could produce the molecules previously presumed to have originated in volcanic outgassings
5) urea could be synthesized from entirely naturally occurring salts
Which element is always associated with organic chemistry?
What is the three-dimensional shape created by hybrid orbitals that are formed when a carbon atom is covalently bonded with four other atoms?
1) a flat sheet with carbon in the center
2) a triangle with carbon in the center
3) a cube with carbon in the center
4) a tetrahedron with carbon in the center
5) All of the above are possible.
A straight-chain carbon compound constructed from _____ must contain at least one carbon-carbon double bond.
1) 6 hydrogen, 2 carbon
2) 6 hydrogen, 3 carbon
3) 6 hydrogen, 2 carbon, 1 oxygen
4) 8 hydrogen, 3 carbon, 3 oxygen
5) 14 hydrogen, 6 carbon
Carbon atoms are the most versatile building blocks of the molecules used by living organisms because _____.
1) carbon is the central atom of carbon dioxide, a necessary molecule for photosynthesis
2) carbon is the central atom in urea, a molecule used by many living organisms to transport wastes from the body
3) each carbon atom acts as an intersection point from which a molecule can branch off in up to four directions
4) carbon can combine with hydrogen to form hydrocarbons
5) all of the above
The carbon atom is tetravalent; this means that _____.
1) carbon readily forms ionic bonds
2) carbon's first electron shell holds 4 electrons
3) a carbon atom can complete its valence shell by forming four covalent bonds
4) the bond angle between each bond is 90°, forming an arrangement like the points on a compass
5) carbon has a total of 4 electrons
Which of the following are properties of hydrocarbons?
1) Hydrophobic, polar, charged
2) Hydrophilic, good source of stored energy, consist primarily of carbon and hydrogen
3) Hydrophobic, nonpolar, good source of stored energy
4) Hydrophilic, contain numerous carboxyl groups, nonpolar
5) Hydrophobic, contain numerous amine groups, polar
A molecule has one carbon-carbon double bond and four monovalent atoms or groups. How many different geometric isomers exist for this molecule?
Pharmaceutical companies are selling close to $200 billion worth of single-enantiomer drugs. Why might it be important to use only one form of an enantiomer?
1) It is cheaper to manufacture only one of the enantiomers.
2) It is not important. Both enantiomers will be equally effective.
3) The left-handed version of the enantiomer is always the effective one.
4) It is not important. Both enantiomers constantly flip from right-handed to left-handed.
5) One enantiomer may provide an effective treatment while the other may be ineffective or even toxic.
Which of the following functional groups is present in all amino acids?