1) Civil War ( 1865-1895)
-Lazifare attitude towards the poor
-Belief that there was no way to alleviate poverty
-Belief that the poor were different and had different value systems ( They belonged to a different subculture, one that revolves around immorality)
- Extreme critics of poor ( Poor are inherently dangerous, lack work ethic, lazy)
-No government help or social work assistance ( Only scare assistance was from private charities.)
2) Progressive Era ( 1896-1919)
- Optimistic age ( Reformers began to believe that we can fix poverty)
- Believed that in fixing the "formal environment" of the poor, they can prevent poverty ( Blieved people were born good but environment turned them bad).
- Importance of fixing environment to fix poverty
- Teach the poor morality, teach good morals to the immoral. Fix poor housing conditions, schools, etc.
- Time of economic prosperity, belief that poverty can be banished.
3) The Great Depression (1929-1945)
-Poverty seen in a new way as the upper/middle class has become poor as well. The idea of morality taken out.
- Poor wanted to work but could not find jobs. Wanted work rather than "free handouts"
- IMPORTANCE OF WORK OVER WELFARE
- Positive stereotypes of poor raised. American government manufactured a photo project to increase public support of the poor.
- The poor were seen as people who are just down on their luck
- creations of anti-poverty programs
- Focus of poverty on poor white rural Americans
4) Postwar era ( 1940- 1960)
-Poverty is seen as invisible
- Prosperous time economically. Reoccuring belief that economic growth will rid poverty.
- Belief need for welfare will wither away as America becomes a classless, consensual society.
5) Liberalism and the great society (1960- 1970's)
-Rediscovery of the " other America"
- A new clsee of especially poor people in America.
- War of poverty : People questioned what is poverty, how does it occur, and the solutions to poverty.
- Optimism that wealthy nation like U.S. can abolish poverty
- Focus problem of poverty on people and cities
LBJ WAR ON POVERTY
SOUGHT TO PROMOTE EQUAL OPPORTUNITY, GIVE PEOPLE A CHANCE TO COMPETE UNHINDERED.
** STRUGGLED TO REDISTRIBUTE WEALTH**
- expanded programs for the needy, access to SS decreased and lower barriers for political partipcataion, employment, housing, and education.
Welfare rights movement:
Fought for inclusion for inclusion to welafre, guaranteed income for the poor, expanded nutritional food programs.
- Family assistance plan
6) Rise of the " New Right" ( 1975-)
WAR ON WELFARE
explicit push against really any kind of support for poor people/ worrying about poor people.
Large city, state, and federal cuts to general assistance to the poor.
Losing Grounf by Charles Murray
Insisted public assistance deoralzied people and made them welfare dependent.
Said two main problems of poverty were:
A) Broken families
B) Crime, Drugs, Etc.
By 1990's , all side see system as broken:
1996 - Bill Clinton signed legislation that dismantked the social welfare part of the welfare state and so offering the same benefits. Pushed the belief that the poor must work, cutting them off after a period of time.
1) Human Capital
An individual's experience, their skills and their education, measured by years of education.
HUMAN CAPITAL IS A PRETTY GOOD INDICTAOR OF SOCIO-ECONIMIC OUTCOME.
E.g. Use of education/ level of education.
2) Social Capital
the social ties, or social networks, that can boost one's value (economically and otherwise) & thus help one get out or stay out of poverty
To possess social capital, a person must be related to others, and it is these others, not himself, who are the actual source of his or her advantage"
Hard to measure social capital, thus from a policy perspective, it's not a necessary and important part of the solution to poverty and inequality.
3) Cultural Capital
noneconomic resources, such as knowledge of upper-class mores (norms) & ability to navigate the educational system
Knowledge often shaped by upper-class white norms
Not a reasonably possible policy standpoint to tackle poverty and inequality