Chapter 6: American Revolution

Terms for the American Revolution
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Olive Branch Petition
A document sent by the Second Continental Congress to King George III, proposing a reconciliation between the colonies and Britain
Patriot
American colonists who were determined to fight the British until American independence was won.
Blockade
Cut off an area by means of troops or warships to stop supplies or people from coming in or going out; to close off a country's ports
George Washington
1st President of the United States; commander-in-chief of the Continental Army during the American Revolution (1732-1799)
Common Sense
1776 pamphlet by Thomas Paine that persuaded many Americans to support the Revolutionary cause
Traitor
A person who betrays their country
Natural Rights
the idea that all humans are born with rights, which include the right to life, liberty, and property
John Hancock
Patriot leader and president of the Second Continental Congress; first person to sign the Declaration of Independence.
Battle of Saratoga
(1777) Turning point of the American Revolution. It was very important because it convinced the French to give the U.S. military support. It lifted American spirits, ended the British threat in New England by taking control of the Hudson River, and, most importantly, showed the French that the Americans had the potential to beat their enemy, Great Britain.
Valley Forge
Place where Washington's army spent the winter of 1777-1778, a 4th of troops died here from disease and malnutrition
General Burgoyne
A British General who surrendered to the Americans after the Battle of Saratoga. This didn't weaken the British positions but it did encourage France to Join the war.
Benedict Arnold
He was an American General during the Revolutionary War (1776). Later, in 1778, he tried to help the British take West Point and the Hudson River but he was found out and declared a traitor.
Thaddeus Kosciusko
Polish engineer who served in the Continental Army; designer for a fort near Saratoga, where Americans won a key victory.
John Paul Jones
1747-1792 American sea captain who defeated the British ship Serapis in 1779
Siege
The surrounding of a place in order to force it to surrender.
Ratify
To approve, Sign or give formal consent to (a treaty, contract, or agreement), making it officially valid.
Nathaniel Greene
American general who used guerrilla warfare to pull the British away from cities and into woods; had a major victory at Cowpens and the British lose the south
Admiral De Grassse
French Naval Officer who helped to cut off Cornwallis's retreat from Yorktown by defeating the British navy.
Lexington and Concord
1st Battle of Revolutionary War
Green Mountain Boys
Group of Vermont Soldiers who captured Fort Ticonderoga in 1775.
Loyalist
American colonists who remained loyal to Britain and opposed the war for independence.
Mercenary
A professional soldier hired by a foreign army
General Howe
Commander of the British forces in the American Colonies from 1775-1778.
Thomas Paine
Revolutionary leader who wrote the pamphlet Common Sense (1776) arguing for American independence from Britain.
Declaration of Independence
1776 statement, issued by the Second Continental Congress, explaining why the colonies wanted independence from Britain. A document written by Thomas Jefferson in 1776, in which the thirteen colonies stated their reasons for freeing themselves from British rule.
Richard Henry Lee
An American statesman from Virginia best known for the motion in the Second Continental Congress calling for the colonies' independence from Great Britain
Battle of Long Island
1776, Major defeat for the Continental Army in it's first real battle of the war, A battle in New York; Gen. Howe vs. Gen. Washington; Washington loses.
Ally
A nation that joins another nation in some common effort, such as winning a war.
Nathan Hale
1755-1776 Patriot hanged by the British as a spy in the American Revolution
General St. Leger
British Army officer who was supposed to make his way to Albany, New York but never made it leading to the British troops stranded at Saratoga
Marquis de Lafayette
French soldier who joined General Washington's staff and became a general in the Continental Army.
Casimir Pulaski
Polish American soldier. Known as father of American Calvary. Became General in Washington's army.
Battle of Cowpens
An overwhelming victory by American Revolutionary forces under Brigadier General Daniel Morgan, in the Southern campaign of the American Revolutionary War.
Battle of Yorktown
Last major battle of the Revolutionary War. Cornwallis and his troops were trapped in the Chesapeake Bay by the French fleet. He was sandwiched between the French navy and the American army. He surrendered October 19, 1781.
Battle of Kings Mountain
Patriot (mountain men) led by Thomas Young vs. British and American Loyalists. Patriots won through guerilla warfare. Switched the momentum from the British to the Americans in the South.
Daniel Morgan
American general who won an important victory at Cowpens, South Carolina. He helped turn the tide against the main British Army, led by General Charles Cornwallis
2nd Continental Congress
1)Sent the "Olive Branch Petition" 2)Created a continental army with George Washington as the leader. 3)Agreed to write a formal letter declaring their independence from England.
Fort Ticonderoga
American revolutionary troops captured Fort Ticonderoga from the British in May 1775
Continental Army
Army authorized by the Continental Congress, 1775-84, to fight the British; commanded by General George Washington.
Battle of Bunker Hill
First major battle of the Revolutions. It showed that the Americans could hold their own, but the British were also not easy to defeat. Ultimately, the Americans were forced to withdraw after running out of ammunition, and Bunker Hill was in British hands. However, the British suffered more deaths.
Ethan Allen
Ethan Allen fought during the American Revolution as the leader of the Green Mountain Boys, a ragtag militia made up of settlers of what it now the state of Vermont.
Dorchester Heights
March 1776; Washington used Ticonderoga cannons to surround British and forced Gen. Howe and the Redcoats to leave Boston and retreat to Canada; Americans win
Radicals
Those who favor extreme change
Preamble
(n.) an introduction to a speech or piece of writing
Thomas Jefferson
"all men are created equal" Declaration of Independence (main writer)
Battle of Trenton
On December 25th, Washington crossed Deleware River, and took advantage of the Hessains becuase they were celebrating Christmas. He took the Hessains by surprise, and it was a victory for the Continental army. on December 26th.
Cavalry
A unit of soldiers who ride horses.
General Cornwallis
British general who fought the Patriots in the south; surrounded at Yorktown and surrendered to George Washington
Fort Stanwix
American fort that successfully held off British attacks in New York by St. Leger's British army
Fredrich von Steuben
Prussian army officer that trained American troops in basic military drills and significantly increased the fighting skills of the Continental Army
Mary Ludwig
She was also known as Mary Pitcher because she carried water to her husband and other soldiers during the war. She also took her husbands place loading and firing cannons when he got injured
Guerrilla
A hit-and-run technique used in fighting a war; fighting by small bands of warriors using tactics such as sudden ambushes
Treaty of Paris 1783
This treaty ended the Revolutionary War, recognized the independence of the American colonies, and granted the colonies the territory from the southern border of Canada to the northern border of Florida, and from the Atlantic coast to the Mississippi River
General Clinton
He replaced General William Howe as Commander-in-Chief of British forces in the American Revolution. He shifted the focus of the war to the southern colonies, hoping to capitalize on strong Loyalist support.
Francis Marion
South Carolina militia leader nicknamed the "Swamp Fox" for his hit-and-run attacks on the British during the American Revolution.
Battle of Princeton
A week after the Battle at Trenton, Washington quietly marched his army to Princeton, where they surprised and beat a British force. This battle helped the American morale.