AP Gov Chapter 5 : Civil RIghts
A flashcard set that covers the specific and abstract ideas in Chapter 5 in Government in America People, Politics, and Policy by Charles S. Matzke.
Terms in this set (52)
As a political value, the idea that all people are of equal worth.
Policies designed to protect people against arbitrary or discriminatory treatment by government officials or individuals.
The Constitution and Equality
The delegates to the Constitutional Convention came up with a plan for government rather than guarantees of individual rights, and the word equality does not even appear in the original Constitution.
A constitutional amendment giving full rights of citizenship to all people born or naturalized in the United States, except for American Indians.
Equal protection of the law
A standard of equal treatment that must be observed by the government
The standard used by the Supreme Court to determine the constitutionality of a law. For example, strict scrutiny searches for a "compelling governmental interest."
Legislation that bear a rational relationship to some legitimate
Inherently Suspect Classifications
legislation that is presumed to be invalid and are upheld only if they serve a "compelling public interest" that cannot be accomplished in some other way
legislation found to fall somewhere between reasonable and inherently suspect
1865 constitutional amendment that abolished slavery
Jim Crow laws
Any of the laws legalizing racial segregation of blacks and whites that were enacted in Southern states beginning in the 1880s and enforced through the 1950's
Racial segregation that is required by law
Racial segregation that occurs in schools, not as a result of the law, but as a result of patterns of residential settlement.
Plessy v. Ferguson
1896 Supreme Court decision which legalized state ordered segregation so long as the facilities for blacks and whites were equal.
Separate but equal
Principle upheld in Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) in which the Supreme Court ruled that segregation of public facilities was legal.
Brown v. Board of Education
1954 Supreme Court case that overruled Plessy v. Ferguson, declared that racially segregated facilities are inherently unequal and ordered all public schools desegregated.
Civil rights movement
movement in the United States beginning in the 1960s and led primarily by Blacks in an effort to establish the civil rights of individual Black citizens
Civil Rights Act of 1964
This act made racial, religious, and sex discrimination by employers illegal and gave the government the power to enforce all laws governing civil rights, including desegregation of schools and public places.
Right to vote
1870 constitutional amendment that guaranteed voting rights regardless of race or previous condition of servitude
Democratic primary in the south that was limited to white people; ruled unconstitutional in Smith v. Allwright
Required voters to pay a fee each time they voted
Voting Rights Act of 1965
Act that prohibited any government from using voting procedures
that denied a person the vote on the basis of race or color
It outlawed taxing voters, i.e. poll taxes, at presidential or congressional elections, as an effort to remove barriers to Black voters.
Harper v. Virginia State Board of Elections
Supreme Court held the use of poll taxes in state elections violates the 14th amendments equal protection clause
when minority groups will outnumber Caucasians of European descent
Hernandez v. Texas
A 1954 Supreme Court decision that extended protection against discrimination to Hispanics.
Seneca Falls Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions
a declaration written at the first women's rights convention that stated "all men and women are created equal"; it also listed many items that the signers believed were injustices perpatrated by "man" to women
granted women the right to vote in 1920
policy philosophy to protected male workers from female competition
Equal Rights Amendment
constitutional amendment passed by Congress but never ratified that would have banned discrimination on the basis of gender
Contemporary feminist movement
A series of campaigns to promote equality for women in society
Reed v. Reed
The landmark case in 1971 in which the Supreme Court for the first time upheld a claim of gender discrimination.
Also outlawed any "arbitrary" sex based classification.
Craig v. Boren
In this 1976 ruling, the Supreme Court established the "medium scrutiny" standard for determining gender discrimination.
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
Goverment commison that regulates the employment relationship, including laws affecting
Title IX of the Education Act of 1972
forbids gender discrimination in federally subsidized education programs (includes colleges and universities)
the issue raised when women who hold traditionally female jobs are paid less than men for working at jobs requiring comparable skill
Comments, gestures, or physical contacts of a sexual nature that are deliberate, repeated, and unwelcome
Faragher v. City of Boca Raton
Court ruling that distinguished between supervisor harassment that results in tangible employment action and supervisor harassment that does not.
Gray liberation movement
Term for the group of people in their eighties which comprise the fastest growing age group in this country.
Children's rights movement
right to treatment, right not to be treated, right to be free from cruel and unusual punishment
Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990
Passed by Congress in 1991, this act banned discrimination against the disabled in employment and mandated easy access to all public and commercial buildings.
An employer's obligation to do something to enable an otherwise qualified person to perform a job.
Defense of Marriage Act
(1996) Defines marriage as man-woman. No state is forced to recognize same-sex marriage (unconstitutional exception to full faith & credit clause?)
A policy designed to redress past discrimination against women and minority groups through measures to improve their economic and educational opportunities
An amendment added to the California constitution, introduced as a ballot initiative, that stated only a marriage between and man and a woman would be recognized in the stated of California.
Discrimination against the majority group
Regents of the University of California v. Bakke
Schools can't use admission quotas and admit students solely on the bias of their race.
United Steelworkers of America
Formed in 1936, it began major organizing drives involving thousands of steelworkers and frequent strikes.
Adarand Constructors v. Pena
A 1995 Supreme Court decision holding that federal programs that classify people by race, even for an ostensibly benign purpose such as expanding opportunities for minorities, should be presumed to be unconstitutional.
Gratz v. Bollinger
Case in which Supreme Court held that University of Michigan's undergraduate admission program was not sufficiently "narrowly tailored" to consider race as a factor in admission decisions in order to achieve goal of a diverse student body
1996 California initiative that banned all affirmative action programs
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