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Biology final study
Terms in this set (98)
The two molecules shown in the figure below are best described as _____.
Nitrogen (N) is more electronegative than hydrogen (H). Which of the following is a correct statement about the atoms in ammonia (NH3)?
Each hydrogen atom has a partial positive charge; the nitrogen atom has a partial negative charge.
Cohesion, surface tension, and adhesion are the properties of water molecules that ________.
are a result of hydrogen bonding
When the atoms involved in bonding have extreme differences in electronegative, what type of bond is most likely result?
An ionic bond
A solution with a pH of 3 has how many H+ in it compared to a solution with a pH of 5
100 times greater
The idea of emergent properties is a central theme found in biology. Which is not true?
It explains how life on earth emerged
Why are hydrocarbons insoluble in water?
The majority of their bonds are nonpolar covalent carbon-to-hydrogen linkages.
Can the atomic mass of an element vary?
Yes. Adding or losing neutrons will change the atomic mass without forming a different element.
The cell theory is one of the 4 major theories in biology. Which is correct?
Everything living organism is made up of at least one cell
All the organisms on your campus make up
What is the difference between hypothesis and theory?
A theory is a principle that has been formed as an attempted to explain things that have already been substantiated by decades of data, a hypothesis is an proposed answer to a well formed question that is testable.
In comparison to eukaryotes, prokaryotes
A friend of yours calls to say that his car would not start this morning. He asks for your help. You say that you think the battery must be dead. If so, then jump-starting the car from a good battery will solve the problem. In doing so, you are _____.
stating a hypothesis and using that hypothesis to make a testable prediction
Following a scientific method, which of the following is the correct order of steps?
Observation -> Hypothesis -> Experiment -> Analysis -> Conclusion ->Communicate results
Hydrophobic substances such as vegetable oil are
nonpolar substances that repel water molecules
A covalent bond is likely to be polar when
one of the atoms sharing electrons is much more electronegative than the other atom
About 25 of the 92 natural elements are known to be essential to life. Which four of these 25 elements make up approximately 96% of living matter?
carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen
We can be sure that a mole of table sugar and a mole of vitamin C are equal in their
number of molecules
A controlled experiment is one that
tests experimental and control groups in parallel
Which of the following is Not a required function that all living organisms must accomplish?
Which of the functional groups is not reactive but serves as a recognizable tag on the DNA molecule and alter the expression of genes in the cells.
How does a buffer regulate pH in ur body?
By absorbing H+ ions and donating OH-ions
Which of the following types of cells utilize deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) as their genetic material but do not have their DNA encased within nuclear envelope?
The partial negative charge at one end of a water molecule is attracted to the partial positive charge of another water molecule. What is this attraction called?
You are suffering from Streptococcus throat infection. You share the following with the bacteria that is responsible for your condition.
You both are made up of cells
Which of these represents inductive reasoning?
A specific observation is used to develop a general explanation
Which of the following is the correct in terms of the hierarchy of the organization from most specific to broadest grouping?
Organism, population, community, ecosystem, biosphere
characteristic of prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms
Which of the following statements correctly describes any chemical reaction that has reached equilibrium?
The rates of the forward and reverse reactions are equal.
Carbon-14 has the same ________.
number of protons but more neutrons than carbon-12
Why does ice float in liquid water?
Stable hydrogen bonds keep water molecules of ice farther apart than water molecules of liquid water.
Which of the following is true of carbon?
It can form both polar and nonpolar bonds.
The difference between pinocytosis and receptor mediated endocytosis is that
pinocytosis is nonselective in the molecules it brings into the cell, whereas receptor-mediated endocytosis offers more selectivity.
The immediate energy source that drives ATP synthesis by ATP synthase during oxidative phosphorylation is the
H+ concentration across the membrane holding ATP synthase.
The enzyme phosphofructokinase (PFK) catalyzes a key step in glycolysis. PFK is inhibited by high levels of which of the following molecules?
ATP and citrate
In which of the following environment would there be the greatest need for osmoregulation?
A salmon moving from a river into an ocean
Which of the following terms most precisely describes the cellular process of breaking down large molecules into smaller ones?
catabolism (catabolic pathways)
Why is it beneficial for ions to move down their concentration gradient after cells expend energy to create this gradient?
There is energy in the gradient that can be transferred and used for cellular work
Which of the following is an example of potential rather than kinetic energy?
a molecule of glucose
HIV is the virus that causes AIDS. In the mid-1990s, researchers discovered an enzyme in HIV called protease. Once the enzyme's structure was known, researchers began looking for drugs that would fit into the active site and block it. If this strategy for stopping HIV infections were successful, it would be an example of what phenomenon?
Why can't large polar molecule, like glucose, enter the cell through the cell through simple diffusion?
They're too large and Polar
The force driving simple diffusion is , while the energy source for the active transport is
the concentration gradient; ATP hydrolysis
in the U-tube experiment illustrate above, which of the following statements correctly describes Side b at equilibrium?
The concentration of NaCl Will increase, the concentration of glucose will decrease, and the water level will increase
In which reactions of cellular respiration the substrate level phosphorylation occur?
In both glycolysis and Citric acid cycle
Which of the following metabolic processes can occur without a net influx of energy from some other process?
C₆H₁₂O₆ + 6 O₂ → 6 CO₂ + 6 H₂O
Which of the following statements about diffusion is true?
It is a passive process in which molecules move from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration.
The plasma membrane predominantly consists of
Humans can digest starch but not cellulose because
humans have enzymes that can hydrolyze the α glycosidic linkages of starch but not the β glycosidic linkages of cellulose.
white blood cells engulf Bacteria using
A disruption in hydrogen bonding due to an increase in temperature has occurred in your favorite proteins which level of structure would likely be least affected?
Most CO2 from catabolism is released during
citric acid cycle
Which of the following statements describes the first law of thermodynamics?
Energy cannot be created or destroyed
How do you phospholipids interact with water molecules?
The polar heads interact with water, the nonpolar tells do not
The final electron acceptor of the electron transport chain that functions in aerobic oxidative phosphorylation is
If one strand of DNA molecule has the sequence of bases 5'-ATTGCA-3', the complementary nucleic acid molecule it would hydrogen bond to will be
In the absence of oxygen, yeast cells can obtain energy by fermentation, resulting in the production of
ATP, CO2, and ethanol (ethyl alcohol)
Starting with one molecule of glucose, glycolysis Results in the net production of which of the following sets of energy containing products?
2 NADH, 2 pyruvate, and 2 ATP
Which of the following factors would tend to increase membrane fluidity in plants?
A greater proportion of unsaturated phospholipids
Which of the following would likely diffused through the lipid bilayer of a plasma membrane most rapidly?
What will happen t b o a red blood cell,
Which has an internal ion content of about .9%, if it is placed into a beaker a pure water?
The cell would swell because the water in the beaker is hypotonic relative to the cytoplasm of the RBC
Following glycolysis and the citric acid cycle, but before the electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation, the carbon skeleton of glucose has been broken down to CO2 with some net gain of ATP. Most of the energy from the original glucose molecule at that point in the process, however, is in the form of _____.
Which of the following statements about Enzyme function is true?
Enzymes increase the rate of chemical reactions by lowering activation energy barriers.
Choose the pair of terms that correctly complete this sentence: Catabolism is to anabolism as Is to.
Which of the following statements is a logical consequence of the second law of thermodynamics?
Every chemical reaction must increase the total entropy of the universe.
A non-spontaneous reaction absorbs energy to produce its products. Which is the resulting change in free energy?
The light reactions of photosynthesis supply the Calvin cycle with
ATP and NADPH
Which of the following sequences correctly represents The flow of electrons during photosynthesis?
H2O --> NADPH --> Calvin cycle
Heart so different from liver cells mainly because they
Expressed different genes
Under what conditions do photosynthesis and cellular respiration occurs and plants?
Photosynthesis occurs only in the light and cellular respiration occurs in both dark and the light
In colorectal, several genes Must be mutated for a cell to develop into account yourself. Which of the following kinds of genes would you expect to be mutated?
Genes involved in control of the cell cycle
Which of the following processes occurs in prokaryotes but not in eukaryotes?
transcription and translation occur simultaneously
In autumn, chlorophyll is degraded in the leaves of deciduous trees. Why do the leaves change color to shades of yellow, orange, or red?
Other pigments such as carotenoids are still present in the leaves.
How might single base substitution in the sequence of a gene affect amino acid sequence of a proteins in coded by the gene?
Only a single amino acid could change, because the reading frame would be unaffected
During the elongation phase of translation, which side of the road was on represents the location where a TRNA is being released?
In a nucleosome, the DNA is wrapped around
You briefly expose bacteria undergoing DNA replication to radioactively labeled nucleotides. When you centrifuge the DNA isolated from the bacteria, the DNA separates into two classes. One class of labeled DNA includes very large molecules (thousands or even millions of nucleotides long), and the other includes short stretches of DNA (several hundred to a few thousand nucleotides in length). These two classes of DNA probably represent
leading strands and Okazaki fragments
What is the function of the release factor During translation and eukaryotes?
It binds to the stop codon in the A site in place of a tRNA.
Hershey and Chase set out to determine what molecule served as the unit of inheritance. They completed a series of experiments in which E. coli was infected by a T2 virus. Which molecular component of the T2 virus actually ended up inside the cell?
What happens to the free energy released as electrons are passed from father system to two photos is someone do a stress of electron carriers?
It is used to establish and maintain a proton gradient
Which of the following events accompanies absorption of energy by chlorophyll molecules of the reaction center complex?
an electron is excited
The elongation of the leading strand during DNA synthesis?
depends on the action of DNA polymerase.
A spaceship is designed to support animal life for a multiyear voyage to the outer planets of the solar system. Plants will be grown to provide oxygen and to recycle carbon dioxide. Since the spaceship will be too far from the sun for photosynthesis, an artificial light source will be needed. What wavelengths of light should be used to maximize plant growth with a minimum of energy expenditure?
Blue and violet white
Which of the following list represents the order of increasingly higher levels of organization of chromatin?
Nucleosome, 30-no chromatin fiber, looped domain
distant sites where regulatory proteins bind
What is it meant by the description "anti parallel"Regarding the two strands and make up the DNA double helix?
The 5' to 3' Direction of one strand runs counter to the 5' to 3' Direction of the other strand.
Which of the following statements is correct distinction Between autotrophs and heterotrophs?
Autotrophs, but not heterotrophs, can nourish themselves beginning with CO2 and other nutrients that are inorganic.
In his transformation experiments, what phenomenon the Griffin observe?
Mixing a heat kill pathogenic strain Of bacteria with a living non-pathogenic strand can convert some of those living cells into the pathogenic form.
What is the function of the pigment molecules any light harvesting complex in the thylakoids membrane?
They absorb and transfer light energy to the reaction center chlorophyll
In DNA replication, the resulting dollar molecules contain one strand of the original parental DNA and once new strand. What is the explanation for this phenomenon?
DNA replication is semi conservative
The oxygen released By photosynthesis is produced by which of the following processes?
splitting water molecules
initiation of transcription in eukaryotes requires which of the following molecules in addition to RNA polymerase?
Several transcription factors
A research found a method she could use to manipulate and quantity phosphorylation and methylation in embryonic cells and culture. One of her colleagues suggested she try increased methylation of cytosine nucleotides in the DNA of promoters of a mammalian system.
Which of the following results what she most likely see?
Inactivation of the selected genes
What are telomeres?
ends of linear chromosomes
Which of the following processes correctly describes alternative RNA splicing?
It can allow the production of proteins of different sizes and functions of from a single mRNA
Where is a plant cell does the light dependent reactions take place?
DNA -> RNA -> Protein
In E.Coli , there is a mutation in a gene called DNAb The alters the Helicase normally ask at the origin of replication. Which of the following events would you expect to occur as a result of this mutation?
No replication fork will be formed
Which of the following is an example of post-transcriptional control of genes expression?
The removal of introns and alternative splicing of Exons
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